66 Works

Fixed or mixed? variation in tree functional types and vegetation structure in a forest-savanna ecotone in West Africa

George K.D. Ametsitsi, Thomas Adjei-Gyapong, Vincent Logah, Jon Lloyd & Elmar M. Veenendaal
We analysed thirty-five 400-m2 plots encompassing forest, savanna and intermediate vegetation types in an ecotonal area in Ghana, West Africa. Across all plots, fire frequency was over a period of 15 years relatively uniform (once in 2–4 years). Although woodlands were dominated by species typically associated with savanna-type formations, and with forest formations dominated by species usually associated with closed canopies, these associations were non-obligatory and with a discrete non-specialized species grouping also identified. Across...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Lianas explore the forest canopy more effectively than trees under drier conditions

José A. Medina-Vega, Frans Bongers & Frank J. Sterck
Lianas rely on trees for support and access to high light positions in the forest canopy, but the implications for how lianas explore the canopy compared to trees remain understudied. We present an in situ forest canopy study to test the hypotheses that: (1) lianas favour leaf display over stem investment compared to trees and (2) lianas have greater potential to colonize non-shaded, high-light areas effectively than trees. We compared branches of 16 liana species...

Data package from 'Pantropical variability in tree crown allometry' Global Ecology and Biogeography 2021. DOI: 10.1111/geb.13231

Grace Jopaul Loubota Panzou, Adeline Fayolle, Tommaso Jucker, Oliver Phillips, Stephanie Bohlman, Lindsay F. Banin, Simon L. Lewis, Kofi Affum-Baffoe, Luciana F. Alves, Cécile Antin, Eric Arets, Luzmila Arroyo, Timothy R. Baker, Nicolas Barbier, Hans Beeckman, Uta Berger, Yannick Enock Bocko, Frans Bongers, Sam Bowers, Thom Brade, Eduardo S. Brondizio, Arthur Chantrain, Jerome Chave, Halidou Compaore & David Coomes

Size-dependent male mating tactics and their morphological correlates in Poecilia gillii

Andrew Furness, Andres Hagmayer & Bart Pollux
Male alternative reproductive strategies are found in some species of most major animal taxa, but are especially widespread in fishes. Mature males of the shortfin molly, Poecilia gillii, display extensive variation in size and morphology. We devised a field test of a priori hypotheses regarding the interrelationships between male size, colouration, morphology, and mating tactics. Males did not occur in discrete size classes, but instead occurred in a size and morphological continuum. Large males exhibited...

Mass-migrating bumblebees: an overlooked phenomenon with potential far-reaching implications for bumblebee conservation

Thijs Fijen & Gerard Troost
1. Bumblebees are one of the most commonly studied pollinators, but they are declining in large parts of their distribution. Whether bumblebees can cope with anthropogenic disturbances such as climate change and habitat loss depends largely on their dispersal capacity. While bumblebee queen dispersal is estimated to be only a few kilometres, bird migration sites have documented mass-migration events with peak migration of 70 bumblebee queens per minute, indicating that bumblebees can migrate over larger...

Data from: The origin of the legumes is a complex paleopolyploid phylogenomic tangle closely associated with the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event

Erik Koenen, Dario Ojeda, Freek Bakker, Jan Wieringa, Catherine Kidner, Olivier Hardy, Toby Pennington, Patrick Herendeen, Anne Bruneau & Colin Hughes
The consequences of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary (KPB) mass extinction for the evolution of plant diversity remain poorly understood, even though evolutionary turnover of plant lineages at the KPB is central to understanding assembly of the Cenozoic biota. The apparent concentration of whole genome duplication (WGD) events around the KPB may have played a role in survival and subsequent diversification of plant lineages. To gain new insights into the origins of Cenozoic biodiversity, we examine...

Hyaluronic acid reduction-sensitive polymeric micelles achieving co-delivery of tumor-targeting paclitaxel/apatinib effectively reverse cancer multidrug resistance

Xiaoqing Zhang, Xiaomei Ren, Jiayin Tang, Jiangtao Wang, Xiang Zhang, Peng He, Chang Yao, Weihe Bian & Lizhu Sun
Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells is a significant challenge in chemotherapy, highlighting the urgent medical need for simple and reproducible strategies to reverse this process. Here, we report the development of an active tumor-targeting and redox-responsive nanoplatform (PA-ss-NP) using hyaluronic acid-g-cystamine dihydrochloride-poly-ε-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-L-lysine (HA-ss-PLLZ) to co-deliver paclitaxel (PTX) and apatinib (APA) for effective reversal of MDR. This smart nanoplatform specifically bound to CD44 receptors, leading to selective accumulation at the tumor site and uptake by...

Hyaluronic acid reduction-sensitive polymeric micelles achieving co-delivery of tumor-targeting paclitaxel/apatinib effectively reverse cancer multidrug resistance

Xiaoqing Zhang, Xiaomei Ren, Jiayin Tang, Jiangtao Wang, Xiang Zhang, Peng He, Chang Yao, Weihe Bian & Lizhu Sun
Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells is a significant challenge in chemotherapy, highlighting the urgent medical need for simple and reproducible strategies to reverse this process. Here, we report the development of an active tumor-targeting and redox-responsive nanoplatform (PA-ss-NP) using hyaluronic acid-g-cystamine dihydrochloride-poly-ε-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-L-lysine (HA-ss-PLLZ) to co-deliver paclitaxel (PTX) and apatinib (APA) for effective reversal of MDR. This smart nanoplatform specifically bound to CD44 receptors, leading to selective accumulation at the tumor site and uptake by...

Feed and water intake

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Björn Kuhla, David Humphries, Martin Weisbjerg, Peter Lund, Emer Kennedy, Michael O'Donovan, Michelle Liddane, Norann Galvin, Jan Dijkstra & René Baumont
Knowledge about dry matter intake (DMI) is a very important element in cattle management. Modern, high producing dairy cows require great amount of feed in order to meet the nutrient and energy requirements for maintenance and milk production, particularly during early lactation. In beef animals, current breeding strategies aim to select animals with low residual feed intake. Therefore, individual feed intake evaluation helps to identify the productivity and efficiency of each animal, in relation to...

Population studies of the wild tomato species Solanum chilense reveal geographically structured major gene-mediated pathogen resistance

Parvinderdeep S. Kahlon, Shallet Mindih Seta, Gesche Zander, Daniela Scheikl, Ralph Hückelhoven, Matthieu H. A. J. Joosten & Remco Stam
Natural plant populations encounter strong pathogen pressure and defense-associated genes are known to be under selection dependent on the pressure by the pathogens. Here we use populations of the wild tomato Solanum chilense to investigate natural resistance against Cladosporium fulvum, a well-known ascomycete pathogen of domesticated tomatoes. Host populations used are from distinct geographical origins and share a defined evolutionary history. We show that distinct populations of S. chilense differ in resistance against the pathogen....

Competition between Usutu virus and West Nile virus during simultaneous and sequential infection of Culex pipiens mosquitoes

Haidong Wang, Sandra R. Abbo, Tessa M. Visser, Marcel Westenberg, Corinne Geertsema, Jelke J. Fros, Constantianus J. M. Koenraadt & Gorben P. Pijlman
Usutu virus (USUV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that are mainly transmitted between bird hosts by vector mosquitoes. Infections in humans are incidental but can cause severe disease. USUV is endemic in large parts of Europe, while WNV mainly circulates in Southern Europe. In recent years, WNV is also frequently detected in Northern Europe, thereby expanding the area where both viruses co-circulate. However, it remains unclear how USUV may affect...

Competition between Usutu virus and West Nile virus during simultaneous and sequential infection of Culex pipiens mosquitoes

Haidong Wang, Sandra R. Abbo, Tessa M. Visser, Marcel Westenberg, Corinne Geertsema, Jelke J. Fros, Constantianus J. M. Koenraadt & Gorben P. Pijlman
Usutu virus (USUV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that are mainly transmitted between bird hosts by vector mosquitoes. Infections in humans are incidental but can cause severe disease. USUV is endemic in large parts of Europe, while WNV mainly circulates in Southern Europe. In recent years, WNV is also frequently detected in Northern Europe, thereby expanding the area where both viruses co-circulate. However, it remains unclear how USUV may affect...

SIFTER sun-induced vegetation fluorescence data from GOME-2A (Version 2.0)

M.L. Kooreman, K.F. Boersma, E. van Schaik, R. van Versendaal, A. Cacciari & O.N.E. Tuinder
The SIFTER Sun-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) version 2 database is available. We developed an improved retrieval algorithm to retrieve mid-morning (09:30 hrs local time) SIF estimates on the global scale from GOME-2 sensor on the Metop-A satellite (GOME-2A) for the period 2007-2019. SIFTER v2 data compares well with the independent NASA v2.8 data product. Especially in the evergreen tropics, SIFTER v2 no longer shows the underestimates against other satellite products that were seen in SIFTER v1....

Selection of indicators for assessing and managing the impacts of bottom trawling on seabed habitats

Jan Geert Hiddink, Michel Kaiser, Marija Sciberras, Robert McConnaughey, Tessa Mazor, Ray Hilborn, Jeremy Collie, C. Roland Pitcher, Ana Parma, Petri Suuronen, Adriaan Rijnsdorp & Simon Jennings
1. Bottom-trawl fisheries are the most-widespread source of anthropogenic physical disturbance to seabed habitats. Development of fisheries-, conservation- and ecosystem-based management strategies requires the selection of indicators of the impact of bottom trawling on the state of benthic biota. Many indicators have been proposed, but no rigorous test of a range of candidate indicators against 9 commonly-agreed criteria (concreteness, theoretical basis, public awareness, cost, measurement, historical data, sensitivity, responsiveness, specificity) has been performed. 2. Here,...

Plant ontogeny determines strength and associated plant fitness consequences of plant-mediated interactions between herbivores and flower visitors

Quint Rusman, Dani Lucas-Barbosa, Kamrul Hassan & Erik Poelman
Plants show ontogenetic variation in growth-defence strategies to maximize reproductive output within a community context. Most work on plant ontogenetic variation in growth-defence trade-offs has focussed on interactions with antagonistic insect herbivores. Plants respond to herbivore attack with phenotypic changes. Despite the knowledge that plant responses to herbivory affect plant mutualistic interactions with pollinators required for reproduction, indirect interactions between herbivores and pollinators have not been included in the evaluation of how ontogenetic growth-defence trajectories...

Plant volatiles induced by herbivore eggs prime defenses and mediate shifts in the reproductive strategy of receiving plants

Foteini Paschalidou, Lisa Eyman, James Sims, James Buckley, Nina Fatouros, Consuelo De Moraes & Mark Mescher
Plants can detect cues associated with the risk of future herbivory and modify defense phenotypes accordingly; however, our current understanding is limited both with respect to the range of early warning cues to which plants respond and the nature of the responses. Here we report that exposure to volatile emissions from plant tissues infested with herbivore eggs promotes stronger defense responses to subsequent herbivory in two Brassica species. Furthermore, exposure to these volatile cues elicited...

Data from: Microbial and volatile profiling of soils suppressive to Fusarium culmorum of wheat

Adam Ossowicki, Vittorio Tracanna, Marloes L. C. Petrus, Gilles Van Wezel, Jos M. Raaijmakers, Marnix H. Medema & Paolina Garbeva
In disease-suppressive soils, microbiota protect plants from root infections. Bacterial members of this microbiota have been shown to produce specific molecules that mediate this phenotype. To date, however, studies have focused on individual suppressive soils and the degree of natural variability of soil suppressiveness remains unclear. Here, we screened a large collection of field soils for suppressiveness to Fusarium culmorum using wheat (Triticum aestivum) as a model host plant. A high variation of disease suppressiveness...

Increasing agricultural habitat reduces solitary bee offspring number and weight in apple orchards through reduced floral diet diversity and increased fungicide risk

Mary Centrella, Laura Russo, Natalia Moreno-Ramirez, Brian Eitzer, Maria Van Dyke, Bryan Danforth & Katja Poveda
1. Threats to bee pollinators such as land use change, high pesticide risk, and reduced floral diet diversity are usually assessed independently, even though they often co-occur to impact bees in agroecosystems. 2. We established populations of the non-native mason bee O. cornifrons at 17 NY apple orchards varying in proportion of surrounding agriculture and measured floral diet diversity and pesticide risk levels in the pollen provisions they produced. We used path analysis to test...

Herbivory meets fungivory: insect herbivores feed on plant pathogenic fungi for their own benefit

Franziska Eberl, Maite Fernandez De Bobadilla, Almuth Hammerbacher, Michael Reichelt, Jonathan Gershenzon & Sybille Unsicker
Plants are regularly colonized by fungi and bacteria, but plant-inhabiting microbes are rarely considered in studies on plant-herbivore interactions. Here we show that young gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars prefer to feed on black poplar (Populus nigra) foliage infected by the rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina instead of uninfected control foliage, and selectively consume fungal spores. This consumption, also observed in a related lepidopteran species, is stimulated by the sugar alcohol mannitol, found in much higher...

Data from: A treasure from the past: former sperm whale distribution in Indonesian waters unveiled using distribution models and historical whaling data

Achmad Sahri, Mochamad Iqbal Herwata Putra, Putu Liza Kusuma Mustika & Albertinka J. Murk
Aim: This study is the first in Indonesia to assess historical sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) seasonal distributions by combining historical whaling data with environmental factors associated with sperm whale habitat preferences. Since current records of whale occurrence covering the whole of Indonesian waters are incomplete, we used historical whaling data summarized by Charles Haskins Townsend in 1935 to model its potential distribution for each season. Location: Indonesian waters (92-143E, 9N-14S) Taxa: Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus)...

Agricultural intensification reduces plant taxonomic and functional diversity across European arable systems.

Carlos P Carmona, Irene Guerrero, Begoña Peco, Manuel B. Morales, Juan J Onate, Tomas Pärt, Teja Tscharntke, Jaan Liira, Tsipe Aavik, Mark Emmerson, Frank Berendse, Piotr Ceryngier, Vincent Bretagnolle, Wolfgang Weisser & Jan Bengtsson
1. Agricultural intensification is one of the main drivers of species loss worldwide, but there is still a lack of information about its effect on functional diversity of arable weeds communities. 2. Using a large scale pan European study including 786 fields within 261 farms from eight countries, we analysed differences in the taxonomic and functional diversity of arable weeds assemblages across different levels of agricultural intensification in. We estimated weed species frequency in each...

Reprotoxic effects of the systemic insecticide fipronil on the butterfly Pieris brassicae

Rieta Gols, Michiel F. Wallis De Vries & Joop J. A. Van Loon
In addition to controlling pest organisms, the systemic neurotoxic pesticide fipronil can also have adverse effects on beneficial insects and other non-target organisms. Here, we report on the sublethal effects of fipronil on the farmland butterfly Pieris brassicae . Caterpillars were reared on plants that had been grown from seeds coated with fipronil or on leaf discs topically treated with a range of fipronil dosages (1–32 µg kg −1 on dry mass basis). Females that...

Data from: Fungal volatiles influence plant defence against aboveground and belowground herbivory

Kay Moisan, Marcela Aragón, Gerrit Gort, Marcel Dicke, Viviane Cordovez, Jos Raaijmakers & Dani Lucas-Barbosa
Plants have evolved resistance traits that negatively affect attackers, and tolerance traits that sustain plant growth despite herbivore damage. These mechanisms often co-occur in a mixed-defence strategy, balancing resistance and tolerance. These plant defences can be enhanced upon interaction with soil microorganisms. Here, we investigated the effects of volatiles emitted by soil-borne fungi on plant defence to insect herbivory, and on plant phenology. We exposed roots of Brassica rapa plants to volatiles emitted by four...

Are leaf, stem and hydraulic traits good predictors of individual tree growth? (FUN2FUN project)

Jordi Martinez-Vilalta, Teresa Rosas, Maurizio Mencuccini, Carles Batlles, Íngrid Regalado, Sandra Saura-Mas & Frank Sterck
A major foundation of trait-based ecology is that traits have an impact on individual performance. However, trait-growth relationships have not been extensively tested in trees, especially outside tropical ecosystems. In addition, measuring traits directly related to physiological processes (‘hard traits’) remains difficult and the differences between inter- and intraspecific relationships are seldom explored. Here, we use individual-level data on a set of hydraulic, leaf and stem traits to explore which traits are the best predictors...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    66

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    58
  • Text
    8

Affiliations

  • Wageningen University & Research
    66
  • Zhejiang University
    5
  • Sun Yat-sen University
    4
  • Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie
    4
  • Netherlands Institute of Ecology
    4
  • University of Washington
    3
  • North West Agriculture and Forestry University
    2
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
    2
  • West China Hospital of Sichuan University
    2
  • University of Liège
    2