52 Works

Art Education as a Significant Supporting Element of Object-Based Teaching

Silvie Novotná & Monika Dokoupilová

Data from: Are prenatal maternal resources more important in competitive than in benign postnatal environments?

Miloš Krist, Martin Janča, Anaïs Edme & Rudolf Dzuro
According to theoretical models, the optimal solution of the life-history trade-off between the number and size of offspring depends on the quality of the environment. Offspring size should be more important for their fitness in more competitive environments. This idea was rarely experimentally tested in taxa with prolonged periods of parental postnatal care, such as in birds. Here we manipulated the offspring rearing environment by enlarging or reducing brood size. Enlarged broods suffered greater mortality...

Data from: Rearing a virulent common cuckoo is not extra costly for its only cavity-nesting host

Peter Samaš, Jarkko Rutila, Marcel Honza, Michal Kysučan & Tomáš Grim
Virulent brood parasites refrain from arduous parental care, often kill host progeny and inflict rearing costs upon their hosts. Quantifying the magnitude of such costs across the whole period of care (from incubation through to parasite fledgling independence) is essential for understanding the selection pressures on hosts to evolve antiparasitic defences. Despite the central importance of such costs for our understanding of co-evolutionary dynamics, they have not yet been comprehensively quantified in any host of...

Data from: Evolution of carotenoid pigmentation in caciques and meadowlarks (Icteridae): repeated gains of red plumage coloration by carotenoid C4-oxygenation

Nicholas R. Friedman, Kevin J. McGraw & Kevin E. Omland
Many animals use carotenoid pigments to produce yellow, orange, and red coloration. In birds, at least 10 carotenoid compounds have been documented in red feathers; most of these are produced through metabolic modification of dietary precursor compounds. However, it is poorly understood how lineages have evolved the biochemical mechanisms for producing red coloration. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to identify the carotenoid compounds present in feathers from 15 species across two clades of blackbirds (the...

Data from: Does the house sparrow Passer domesticus represent a global model species for egg rejection behavior?

Thomas Manna, Caren Cooper, Shane Baylis, Matthew D. Shawkey, Geoffrey I. N. Waterhouse, Tomas Grim & Mark E. Hauber
Conspecific brood parasitism (CP) is a facultative breeding tactic whereby females lay their eggs in the nests of conspecifics. In some species, potential host individuals have evolved the ability to identify and reject foreign eggs from their nest. Previous studies suggest that the ubiquitous House Sparrow Passer domesticus in Spain and South Africa employs both CP and parasitic egg rejection, while a population in China does not. Given the species’ invasive range expansions, the House...

Data from: No immediate or future extra costs of raising a virulent brood parasite chick

Peter Samaš, Tomas Grim, Václav Jelínek, Marek M. Abraham, Michal Šulc & Marcel Honza
Parental care is an adaptive behaviour increasing the survival of young. Virulent brood parasites, like the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, avoid the parental care and leave the care for their nestlings to hosts. Although raising a cuckoo is always costly because it kills host’s progeny, to date it is not known whether raising of a brood parasite itself represents an extra cost affecting host’s fitness. We quantified costs of rearing a cuckoo nestling in the...

Data from: Evidence of extreme habitat stability in a Southeast Asian biodiversity hotspot based on the evolutionary analysis of neotenic net-winged beetles

Ladislav Bocak & Vladimir Malohlava
The diversification of neotenic beetle lineages has not been studied, despite the potential for defining biodiversity hotspots and elucidating the history of regional faunas. Additionally, neotenics may provide insight into the process of speciation in small populations with extremely low dispersal ability and a limited range. Here, we used two rDNA and three mtDNA markers to investigate the phylogeny of Scarelus, a neotenic lineage endemic to Southeast Asian rainforests. Most genetic differentiation was associated with...

Data from: Effects of interspecific coexistence on laying date and clutch size in two closely related species of hole‐nesting birds

Anders Pape Møller, Javier Balbontin, André A. Dhondt, Vladimir Remeš, Frank Adriaensen, Clotilde Biard, Jordi Camprodon, Mariusz Cichoń, Blandine Doligez, Anna Dubiec, Marcel Eens, Tapio Eeva, Anne E. Goodenough, Andrew G. Gosler, Lars Gustafsson, Philipp Heeb, Shelley A. Hinsley, Staffan Jacob, Rimvydas Juškaitis, Toni Laaksonen, Bernard Leclercq, Bruno Massa, Tomasz D. Mazgajski, Rudi G. Nager, Jan-Åke Nilsson … & Ruedi G. Nager
Coexistence between great tits Parus major and blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, but also other hole‐nesting taxa, constitutes a classic example of species co‐occurrence resulting in potential interference and exploitation competition for food and for breeding and roosting sites. However, the spatial and temporal variations in coexistence and its consequences for competition remain poorly understood. We used an extensive database on reproduction in nest boxes by great and blue tits based on 87 study plots across...

Data from: High-nature-value grasslands have the capacity to cope with nutrient impoverishment induced by mowing and livestock grazing

Pavla Mládková, Jan Mládek, Stanislav Hejduk, Michal Hejcman, Pablo Cruz, Claire Jouany & Robin J. Pakeman
1. Management of high-nature-value (HNV) grasslands follows agri-environmental schemes across large areas of Europe. Long-term agreements and restrictions of fertilizers cause soil nutrient impoverishment, but remarkably this quite often does not reduce biomass production. Therefore, we tested how species-rich vegetation copes with nutrient impoverishment under the most frequently used treatments, that is summer mowing and livestock grazing. 2. During 2011–2012 we studied, simultaneously, plant species composition, soil and biomass chemical properties in two equally designed...

Data from: Predator-prey interactions between shell-boring beetle larvae and rock-dwelling land snails

Els Baalbergen, Renate Helwerda, Rense Schelfhorst, Ruth F. Castillo Cajas, Coline H. M. Van Moorsel, Robin Kundrata, Francisco W. Welter-Schultes, Sinos Giokas & Menno Schilthuizen
Drilus beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are specialized predators of land snails. Here, we describe various aspects of the predator-prey interactions between multiple Drilus species attacking multiple Albinaria (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae) species in Greece. We observe that Drilus species may be facultative or obligate Albinaria-specialists. We map geographically varying predation rates in Crete, where on average 24% of empty shells carry fatal Drilus bore holes. We also provide first-hand observations and video-footage of prey entry and exit...

The roles of temperature, nest predators and information parasites for geographical variation in egg covering behaviour of tits (Paridae)

Olli Loukola, Peter Adamik, Frank Adriaensen, Emilio Barba, Blandine Doligez, Einar Flensted-Jensen, Tapio Eeva, Sami Kivelä, Toni Laaksonen, Chiara Morosinotto, Raivo Mänd, Petri Niemelä, Vladimir Remeš, Jelmer Samplonius, Manrico Sebastiano, Juan Carlos Senar, Tore Slagsvold, Alberto Sorace, Barbara Tschirren, János Török & Jukka Forsman
Aim: Nest building is widespread among animals. Nests may provide receptacles for eggs, developing offspring and the parents, and protect them from adverse environmental conditions. Nests may also indicate the quality of the territory and its owner and can be considered as an extended phenotype of its builder(s). Nests may, thus, function as a sexual and social signal. Here, we examined ecological and abiotic factors—temperature, nest predation and interspecific information utilization—shaping geographical variation in a...

Data from: The genetic regulation of avian migration timing: combining candidate genes and quantitative genetic approaches in a long-distance migrant

Miloš Krist, Pavel Munclinger, Martins Briedis & Peter Adamík
Plant and animal populations can adapt to prolonged environmental changes if they have sufficient genetic variation in important phenological traits. The genetic regulation of annual cycles can be studied either via candidate genes or through the decomposition of phenotypic variance by quantitative genetics. Here we combined both approaches to study the timing of migration in a long-distance migrant, the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis). We found that none of the four studied candidate genes (CLOCK, NPAS2,...

Data from: Long-term and large-scale analyses of nest predation patterns in Australian songbirds and a global comparison of nest predation rates

Vladimír Remeš, Beata Matysioková & Andrew Cockburn
Juvenile mortality is one of crucial drivers of life-history evolution, and predation is the main cause of nest loss in birds. Thus, understanding how nest predation and failure vary in nature is important for understanding life history evolution and, moreover, for effective conservation. We used published data and unpublished records to study factors influencing nest predation and total failure in 138 populations of 90 species of Australian songbirds. Daily predation (average 2.0% d^−1) and failure...

Data from: Heterospecific female mimicry in Ficedula flycatchers

Sara Calhim, Peter Adamík, Pauliina Järvistö, Paula Leskinen, János Török, Kazumasa Wakamatsu & Toni Laaksonen
Mimicry is a widespread phenomenon. Vertebrate visual mimicry often operates in an intraspecific sexual context, with some males resembling conspecific females. Pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) dorsal plumage varies from the ancestral black to female-like brown. Experimental studies have shown that conspecific and heterospecific (collared flycatcher, F. albicollis) individuals of both sexes respond, at least initially, to brown individuals as if they were female. We quantified the perceptual and biochemical differences between brown feathers and found...

Data from: Sex differences in parental care: gametic investment, sexual selection and social environment

András Liker, Robert P. Freckleton, Vladimir Remes & Tamás Székely
Male and female parents often provide different type and amount of care to their offspring. Three major drivers have been proposed to explain parental sex roles: (i) differential gametic investment by males and females that precipitates into sex difference in care, (ii) different intensity of sexual selection acting on males and females, and (iii) biased social environment that facilitates the more common sex to provide more care. Here we provide the most comprehensive assessment of...

Data from: Smaller beaks for colder winters: Thermoregulation drives beak size evolution in Australasian songbirds

Nicholas R. Friedman, Lenka Harmáčková, Evan P. Economo & Vladimir Remes
Birds’ beaks play a key role in foraging, and most research on their size and shape has focused on this function. Recent findings suggest that beaks may also be important for thermoregulation, and this may drive morphological evolution as predicted by Allen's rule. However, the role of thermoregulation in the evolution of beak size across species remains largely unexplored. In particular, it remains unclear whether the need for retaining heat in the winter or dissipating...

Data from: Broad-scale variation in sexual dichromatism in songbirds is not explained by sex differences in exposure to predators during incubation

Beata Matysiokova, Vladimir Remes & Andrew Cockburn
The evolution of sexual dichromatism provoked one of the greatest disagreements between Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. According to Darwin the main driving force is sexual selection, whereby choosy females prefer showy males, leading to the evolution of conspicuous male plumage. On the other hand, Wallace suggested that dichromatism may arise because nest predation favors more cryptic females. To test the role of natural selection in the evolution of dichromatism we combined quantitative data...

Data from: Interspecific transfer of parasites following a range-shift in Ficedula flycatchers

William Jones, Katarzyna Kulma, Staffan Bensch, Mariusz Cichoń, Anvar Kerimov, Miloš Krist, Toni Laaksonen, Juan Moreno, Pavel Munclinger, Fred Slater, Eszter Szöllősi, Marcel E. Visser, Anna Qvarnström & Fred M. Slater
Human-induced climate change is expected to cause major biotic changes in species distributions and thereby including escalation of novel host-parasite associations. Closely related host species that come into secondary contact are especially likely to exchange parasites and pathogens. Two competing theories, the Enemy Release Hypothesis, where invading hosts escape their original parasites; and the Novel Weapon Hypothesis, where invading hosts bring new parasites that have detrimental effects on native hosts, have been described to predict...

Data from: Egg size and offspring performance in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis): a within-clutch approach

Miloš Krist, Vladimír Remeš, Lenka Uvírová, Petr Nádvorník & Stanislav Bureš
Adaptive within-clutch allocation of resources by laying females is an important focus of evolutionary studies. However, the critical assumption of these studies, namely that within-clutch egg-size deviations affect offspring performance, has been properly tested only rarely. In this study, we investigated effects of within-clutch deviations in egg size on nestling survival, weight, fledgling condition, structural size and offspring recruitment to the breeding population in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis). Besides egg-size effects, we also followed...

Data from: Phylogeography of poorly dispersing net-winged beetles: a role of drifting India in the origin of Afrotropical and Oriental fauna

Katerina Sklenarova, Douglas Chesters & Ladislav Bocak
Ancient dispersal history may be obscured by subsequent dispersal events. Therefore, we intend to investigate the biogeography of metriorrhynchine net-winged beetles, a group characterized by limited dispersal propensity. We used DNA data to construct phylogenies and the BayesTraits and RASP programs to identify putative ancestral areas. Further, we inferred ultrametric trees to estimate the ages of selected nodes. The time frame is inferred from tectonic calibrations and the general mutation rate of the mitochondrial genes....

Data from: Finish with a sprint: evidence for time‐selected last leg of migration in a long‐distance migratory songbird

Martins Briedis, Steffen Hahn, Miloš Krist & Peter Adamík
Under time‐selected migration, birds should choose a strategy for outcompeting rivals over securing access to prime resources at the final destination. Thus, migration can be viewed as a race among individuals where winners are arriving first when conditions are suitable. The sprint migration hypothesis predicts that individuals shift from maximum sustained speed to a final burst of sprint to shorten the transition from migration to breeding (Alerstam, 2006). In this study, we test the hypothesis...

Data from: Synechococcus: 3 billion years of global dominance

Petr Dvořák, Dale A. Casamatta, Aloisie Poulíčková, Petr Hašler, Vladan Ondřej & Remo Sanges
Cyanobacteria are amongst the most important primary producers on the Earth. However, the evolutionary forces driving cyanobacterial species diversity remain largely enigmatic due to both their distinction from macroorganisms, and an undersampling of sequenced genomes. Thus, we present a new genome of a Synechococcus-like cyanobacterium from a novel evolutionary lineage. Further, we analyse all existing 16S rRNA sequences and genomes of Synechococcus-like cyanobacteria. Chronograms showed extremely polyphyletic relationships in Synechococcus, which has not been observed...

Data from: A nanostructural basis for gloss of avian eggshells

Branislav Igic, Daphne Fecheyr-Lippens, Ming Xiao, Andrew Chan, Daniel Hanley, Patricia R. L. Brennan, Tomas Grim, Geoffrey I. N. Waterhouse, Mark E. Hauber & Matthew D. Shawkey
The role of pigments in generating the colour and maculation of birds' eggs is well characterized, whereas the effects of the eggshell's nanostructure on the visual appearance of eggs are little studied. Here, we examined the nanostructural basis of glossiness of tinamou eggs. Tinamou eggs are well known for their glossy appearance, but the underlying mechanism responsible for this optical effect is unclear. Using experimental manipulations in conjunction with angle-resolved spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic...

Data from: Broad-scale patterns of the Afro-Palearctic landbird migration

Martins Briedis, Silke Bauer, Peter Adamík, José Alves, Joana Costa, Tamara Emmenegger, Lars Gustafsson, Jaroslav Koleček, Miloš Krist, Felix Liechti, Simeon Lisovski, Christoph Meier, Petr Procházka & Steffen Hahn
Aim: Animal migration strategies balance trade-offs between mortality and reproduction in seasonal environments. Knowledge of broad-scale biogeographical patterns of animal migration is important for understanding ecological drivers of migratory behaviours. Here we present a flyway-scale assessment of the spatial structure and seasonal dynamics of the Afro-Palearctic bird migration system and explore how phenology of the environment guides long-distance migration. Location: Europe and Africa. Time period: 2009–2017. Major taxa studied: Birds. Methods: We compiled an individual-based...

Data from: The evolution of feather coloration and song in Old World orioles (genus Oriolus)

Beata Matysiokova, Nicholas Friedman, Lucia Turčoková & Vladimir Remes
What is the tempo and mode of evolution – how fast and in what pattern do traits evolve – is a major question of evolutionary biology. Here we studied patterns of evolutionary change in visual and acoustic signals in Old World orioles. Since producing multiple signals may be costly, we also tested whether there was an evolutionary trade-off between the elaboration of those two types of signals. We studied 30 Oriolus taxa using comparative methods...

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