39 Works

Data from: Moa diet fits the bill: virtual reconstruction incorporating mummified remains and prediction of biomechanical performance in avian giants

Marie R. G. Attard, Laura A. B. Wilson, Trevor H. Worthy, Paul Scofield, Peter Johnston, William C. H. Parr & Stephen Wroe
The moa (Dinornithiformes) are large to gigantic extinct terrestrial birds of New Zealand. Knowledge about niche partitioning, feeding mode and preference among moa species is limited, hampering palaeoecological reconstruction and evaluation of the impacts of their extinction on remnant native biota, or the viability of exotic species as proposed ecological ‘surrogates'. Here we apply three-dimensional finite-element analysis to compare the biomechanical performance of skulls from five of the six moa genera, and two extant ratites,...

Data from: Do grazing intensity and herbivore type affect soil health? Insights from a semi-arid productivity gradient

David J. Eldridge, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Samantha K. Travers, James Val, Ian Oliver & David Eldridge
Grazing is one of the most widespread forms of intensive management on Earth and is linked to reductions in soil health. However, little is known about the relative influence of herbivore type, herbivore intensity and site productivity on soil health. This lack of knowledge reduces our capacity to manage landscapes where grazing is a major land use. We used structural equation modelling to assess the effects of recent (cattle, sheep, goats, kangaroos and rabbit dung)...

Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions about rabies among the people in the community, healthcare professionals and veterinary practitioners in Bangladesh

Md Sohel Rana, Afsana Akter Jahan, SM Golam Kaisar, Umme Ruman Siddiqi, Subir Sarker, Mst Ismat Ara Begum, Sumon Ghosh, Subir Sarker, Be-Nazir Ahmed & Abul Khair Mohammad Shamsuzzaman
It is crucial to explore knowledge, attitudes and perceptions (KAP) about rabies among the people in the community, the personnel dealing with animal bite management and suspected rabies patients, including humans and animals, to facilitate intervention in improving rabies elimination strategies. In 2016, we conducted an interactive face-to-face survey in three different districts of Bangladesh to understand the extent of KAP towards rabies in the community peoples (CPs), human healthcare professionals (HCPs) and veterinary practitioners...

Data from: Effective population size of natural populations of Drosophila buzzatii, with a comparative evaluation of nine methods of estimation

J Stuart F Barker
Allozyme and microsatellite data from numerous populations of Drosophila buzzatii have been used (i) to determine to what degree Ne varies among generations within populations, and among populations, and (ii) to evaluate the congruence of four temporal and five single sample estimators of Ne. Effective size of different populations varied over two orders of magnitude, most populations are not temporally stable in genetic composition, and Ne showed large variation over generations in some populations. Short...

Data from: Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study

Luz Boyero, Richard Pearson, Cang Hui, Mark Gessner, Javier Perez, Markos Alexandrou, Manuel Graça, Bradley Cardinale, Ricardo Albariño, M. Arunachalam, Leon Barmuta, Andrew Boulton, Andreas Bruder, Marcos Callisto, Eric Chauvet, Russell Death, David Dudgeon, Andrea Encalada, Veronica Ferreira, Ricardo Figueroa, Alex Flecker, , Julie Helson, Tomoya Iwata, Tajang Jinggut … & Catherine Yule
Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, have high rates of carbon dioxide evasion and they contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and...

Data from: Towards breed formation by island model divergence in Korean cattle

Eva M. Strucken, Seung H. Lee, Gul W. Jang, Laercio R. Porto-Neto & Cedric Gondro
Background: The main cattle breed in Korea is the brown Hanwoo, which has been under artificial selection within a national breeding program for several decades. Varieties of the Hanwoo known as Jeju Black and Chikso were not included in the breeding program and remained isolated from the effects of recent artificial selection advancements. We analysed the Jeju Black and Chikso populations in regards to their genetic variability, state of inbreeding, as well as level of...

Data from: The K=2 conundrum

Jasmine K. Janes, Joshua M. Miller, Julian R. Dupuis, Rene M. Malenfant, Jamieson C. Gorrell, Catherine I. Cullingham & Rose L. Andrew
Assessments of population genetic structure have become an increasing focus as they can provide valuable insight into patterns of migration and gene flow. STRUCTURE, the most highly cited of several clustering-based methods, was developed to provide robust estimates without the need for populations to be determined a priori. STRUCTURE introduces the problem of selecting the optimal number of clusters and as a result the ΔK method was proposed to assist in the identification of the...

Data from: Post-fire recovery of torpor and activity patterns of a small mammal

Clare Stawski, Taylor Hume, Gerhard Koertner, Shannon Currie, Julia Nowack, Fritz Geiser & Shannon E. Currie
To cope with the post-fire challenges of decreased availability of food and shelter, brown antechinus (Antechinus stuartii), a small marsupial mammal, increase the use of energy-conserving torpor and reduce activity. However, it is not known how long it takes for animals to resume pre-fire torpor and activity patterns during the recovery of burnt habitat. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that antechinus will adjust torpor use and activity after a fire depending on vegetation recovery. We...

Data from: Gender differences in peer review outcomes and manuscript impact at six journals of ecology and evolution

Charles W. Fox & C. E. Timothy Paine
The productivity and performance of men is generally rated more highly than that of women in controlled experiments, suggesting conscious or unconscious gender biases in assessment. The degree to which editors and reviewers of scholarly journals exhibit gender biases that influence outcomes of the peer review process remains uncertain due to substantial variation among studies. We test whether gender predicts the outcomes of editorial and peer review for >23,000 research manuscripts submitted to six journals...

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL from Distinctive diets of eutherian predators in Australia

Patricia A. Fleming, Alyson M. Stobo-Wilson, Heather M. Crawford, Stuart J. Dawson, Chris R. Dickman, Tim S. Doherty, Peter J. S. Fleming, Thomas M. Newsome, Russell Palmer, Jim A. Thompson & John C. Z. Woinarski
Introduction of the domestic cat and red fox has devastated Australian native fauna. We synthesized Australian diet analyses to identify traits of prey species in cat, fox and dingo diets, which prey were more frequent or distinctive to the diet of each predator, and quantified dietary overlap. Nearly half (45%) of all Australian terrestrial mammal, bird and reptile species occurred in the diets of one or more predators. Cat and dingo diets overlapped least (0.64...

Data from: Strong and stable geographic differentiation of swamp buffalo maternal and paternal lineages indicates domestication in the China/Indochina border region

Yi Zhang, Yongfang Lu, Marnoch Yindee, Kuan-Yi Li, Hsiao-Yun Kuo, Yu-Ten Ju, Shaohui Ye, , Qiang Li, Yachun Wang, Vu Chi Cuong, Lan Doan Pham, Bounthong Bouahom, Bingzhuang Yang, Xianwei Liang, Zhihua Cai, Dianne Vankan, Wallaya Manatchaiworakul, Nonglid Kowlim, Somphot Duangchantrasiri, Worawidh Wajjwalku, Ben Colenbrander, Yuan Zhang, Peter Beerli, Johannes A. Lenstra … & J. Stuart F. Barker
The swamp type of the Asian water buffalo is assumed to have been domesticated by about 4000 years BP, following the introduction of rice cultivation. Previous localizations of the domestication site were based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation within China, accounting only for the maternal lineage. We carried out a comprehensive sampling of China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Nepal and Bangladesh and sequenced the mtDNA Cytochrome b gene and control region and the Y-chromosomal ZFY,...

Data from: Alarm calls of a cooperative bird are referential and elicit context-specific antipredator behavior

Lucy F. Farrow, Samantha J. Doohan & Paul G. McDonald
Although functionally referential signals have been extensively studied, largely in mammals (e.g., nonhuman primates, see Cheney and Seyfarth (1988); mongooses, see Manser et al. (2002); and other ground-dwelling species, see Blumstein and Armitage (1997), other social taxa such as birds would similarly benefit from the use of referential signals. We therefore investigated alarm calling in the cooperative noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala), a species that has been anecdotally recorded producing aerial alarms to flying predators and...

Data from: Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations

Tomas Roslin, Bess Hardwick, Vojtech Novotny, William K. Petry, Nigel R. Andrew, Ashley Asmus, Isabel C. Barrio, Yves Basset, Andrea Larissa Boesing, Timothy C. Bonebrake, Erin K. Cameron, Wesley Dáttilo, David A. Donoso, Pavel Drozd, Claudia L. Gray, David S. Hik, Sarah J. Hill, Tapani Hopkins, Shuyin Huang, Bonny Koane, Benita Laird-Hopkins, Liisa Laukkanen, Owen T. Lewis, Sol Milne, Isaiah Mwesige … & Eleanor M. Slade
Biotic interactions underlie ecosystem structure and function, but predicting interaction outcomes is difficult. We tested the hypothesis that biotic interaction strength increases toward the equator, using a global experiment with model caterpillars to measure predation risk. Across an 11,660-kilometer latitudinal gradient spanning six continents, we found increasing predation toward the equator, with a parallel pattern of increasing predation toward lower elevations. Patterns across both latitude and elevation were driven by arthropod predators, with no systematic...

Data from: Computational biomechanical analyses demonstrate similar shell-crushing abilities in modern and ancient arthropods

Russell D. C. Bicknell, Justin A. Ledogar, Stephen Wroe, Benjamin C. Gutzler, Winsor H. Watson, John R. Paterson & Winsor H. Watson
The biology of the extant American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, is well documented—including its dietary habits, particularly the ability to crush shell with its gnathobasic walking appendages—but virtually nothing is known about the feeding biomechanics of this iconic arthropod. This species is also considered the archetypal functional analogue for a range of extinct groups that have gnathobasic appendages, including eurypterids, trilobites, and some of the earliest arthropods, especially Sidneyia inexpectans from the middle Cambrian (508...

Morphological characteristics of pollen from triploid watermelon and its fate on stigmas in a hybrid crop production system

Erandi C. W. Subasinghe Arachchige, Lisa J. Evans, Ulrika Samnegard & Romina Rader
Hybrid crop production is more reliant on pollinators compared to open-pollinated crops because they require cross-pollination between a male-fertile and a male-sterile line. Little is known about how stigma receipt of pollen from male-sterile genotypes affects reproduction in hybrids. Non-viable and non-compatible pollen cannot fertilise plant ovules, but may still interfere with pollination success. Here we used seedless watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) as a model hybrid plant, to evaluate the morphology, physiology,...

Counting the bodies: estimating the numbers and spatial variation of Australian reptiles, birds and mammals killed by two invasive mesopredators

Alyson Stobo-Wilson, Brett Murphy, Sarah Legge, Hernan Caceres-Escobar, David Chapple, Heather Crawford, Stuart Dawson, Chris Dickman, Tim Doherty, Patricia Fleming, Stephen Garnett, Matthew Gentle, Thomas Newsome, Russell Palmer, Matthew Rees, Euan Ritchie, James Speed, John-Michael Stuart, Andres Suarez-Castro, Eilysh Thompson, Ayesha Tulloch, Jeff Turpin & John Woinarski
Aim: Introduced predators negatively impact biodiversity globally, with insular fauna often most severely affected. Here, we assess spatial variation in the number of terrestrial vertebrates (excluding amphibians) killed by two mammalian mesopredators introduced to Australia, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cat (Felis catus). We aim to identify prey groups that suffer especially high rates of predation, and regions where losses to foxes and/or cats are most substantial. Location: Australia Methods: We draw information...

Supplementary material from \"Distinctive diets of eutherian predators in Australia\"

Patricia A. Fleming, Alyson M. Stobo-Wilson, Heather M. Crawford, Stuart J. Dawson, Chris R. Dickman, Tim S. Doherty, Peter J. S. Fleming, Thomas M. Newsome, Russell Palmer, Jim A. Thompson & John C. Z. Woinarski
Introduction of the domestic cat and red fox has devastated Australian native fauna. We synthesized Australian diet analyses to identify traits of prey species in cat, fox and dingo diets, which prey were more frequent or distinctive to the diet of each predator, and quantified dietary overlap. Nearly half (45%) of all Australian terrestrial mammal, bird and reptile species occurred in the diets of one or more predators. Cat and dingo diets overlapped least (0.64...

Supplementary material from \"Distinctive diets of eutherian predators in Australia\"

Patricia A. Fleming, Alyson M. Stobo-Wilson, Heather M. Crawford, Stuart J. Dawson, Chris R. Dickman, Tim S. Doherty, Peter J. S. Fleming, Thomas M. Newsome, Russell Palmer, Jim A. Thompson & John C. Z. Woinarski
Introduction of the domestic cat and red fox has devastated Australian native fauna. We synthesized Australian diet analyses to identify traits of prey species in cat, fox and dingo diets, which prey were more frequent or distinctive to the diet of each predator, and quantified dietary overlap. Nearly half (45%) of all Australian terrestrial mammal, bird and reptile species occurred in the diets of one or more predators. Cat and dingo diets overlapped least (0.64...

The interplay of fungal and bacterial microbiomes on rainforest frogs following a disease outbreak

Donald McKnight, Roger Huerlimann, Deborah Bower, Lin Schwarzkopf, Ross Alford & Kyall Zenger
Emerging infectious diseases are a serious threat to wildlife populations, and there is growing evidence that host microbiomes play important roles in infection dynamics, possibly even mitigating diseases. Nevertheless, most research on this topic has focused only on bacterial microbiomes, while fungal microbiomes have been largely neglected. To help fill this gap in our knowledge, we examined both the bacterial and fungal microbiomes of four sympatric Australian frog species which had different population-level responses to...

Data from: Cool echidnas survive the fire

Julia Nowack, Christine Cooper, Fritz Geiser & Christine Elizabeth Cooper
Fires have occurred throughout history, including those associated with the meteoroid impact at the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) boundary that eliminated many vertebrate species. To evaluate the recent hypothesis that the survival of the K-Pg fires by ancestral mammals was dependent on their ability to use energy-conserving torpor, we studied body temperature fluctuations and activity of an egg-laying mammal, the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), often considered to be a ‘living fossil’, before, during and after a prescribed burn....

Data from: Cold-hearted bats: uncoupling of heart rate and metabolism during torpor at subzero temperatures

Shannon E. Currie, Clare Stawski & Fritz Geiser
Many hibernating animals thermoregulate during torpor and defend their body temperature (Tb) below 10°C by an increase in metabolic rate. Above a critical temperature (Tcrit) animals usually thermoconform. We investigated the physiological responses above and below Tcrit for a small tree dwelling bat (Chalinolobus gouldii, ~14 g) that is often exposed to subzero temperatures during winter. Through simultaneous measurement of heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (V̇O2) we show that the relationship between oxygen transport...

Data from: Patterns of authorship in ecology and evolution: first, last and corresponding authorship vary with gender and geography

Charles W. Fox, Josiah P. Ritchey, C.E. Timothy Paine & C. E. Timothy Paine
The position of an author on the byline of a paper affects the inferences readers make about their contributions to the research. We examine gender differences in authorship in the ecology literature using two datasets: submissions to six journals between 2010 and 2015 (regardless of whether they were accepted), and manuscripts published by 151 journals between 2009 and 2015. Women were less likely to be last (i.e., ‘senior’) authors (averaging ~23% across journals, years and...

Data from: New suspension-feeding radiodont suggests evolution of microplanktivory in Cambrian macronekton

Rudy Lerosey-Aubril & Stephen Pates
The rapid diversification of metazoans and their organisation in modern-style marine ecosystems during the Cambrian profoundly transformed the biosphere. What initially sparked this Cambrian explosion remains passionately debated, but the establishment of a coupling between pelagic and benthic realms, a key characteristic of modern-day oceans, might represent a primary ecological cause. By allowing the transfer of biomass and energy from the euphotic zone—the locus of primary production—to the sea floor, this biological pump would have...

Data from: Annual and perennial Medicago show signatures of parallel adaptation to climate and soil in highly conserved genes

José Luis Blanco-Pastor, Isabel María Liberal, Muhammet Sakiroglu, Yanling Wei, E. Charles Brummer, Rose L. Andrew & Bernard E. Pfeil
Human induced environmental change may require rapid adaptation of plant populations and crops, but the genomic basis of environmental adaptation remain poorly understood. We analyzed polymorphic loci from the perennial crop Medicago sativa (alfalfa or lucerne) and the annual legume model species M. truncatula to search for a common set of candidate genes that might contribute to adaptation to abiotic stress in both annual and perennial Medicago species. We identified a set of candidate genes...

The osteology of Ferrodraco lentoni, an anhanguerid pterosaur from the mid-Cretaceous of Australia

Adele H. Pentland, Stephen F. Poropat, Matt A. White, Samantha L. Rigby, Joseph J. Bevitt, Ruairidh J. Duncan, Trish Sloan, Robert A. Elliott, Harry A. Elliott, Judy A. Elliott & David A. Elliott
Ferrodraco lentoni, an anhanguerid from the Upper Cretaceous Winton Formation of northeast Australia, is the most complete Australian pterosaur described to date, represented by a partial cranium, incomplete cervical series and wing elements. Herein we present a comprehensive osteological description of Ferrodraco, as well as an emended diagnosis for this taxon. In addition, we compare Ferrodraco with other isolated pterosaur remains from Australian Cretaceous deposits. Subtle, yet salient, differences indicate that at least three of...

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