184 Works

Data from: Macroevolution of desiccation-related morphology in plethodontid salamanders as inferred from a novel surface area to volume ratio estimation approach

Erica Baken, Lauren E Mellenthin & Dean C. Adams
Evolutionary biologists have long been interested in the macroevolutionary consequences of various selection pressures, yet physiological responses to selection across deep time are not well understood. In this paper, we investigate how a physiologically-relevant morphological trait, surface area to volume ratio (SA:V) of lungless salamanders, has evolved across broad regional and climatic variation. SA:V directly impacts an organisms’ ability to retain water, leading to the expectation that smaller SA:Vs would be advantageous in arid, water-limited...

Subspecies variation of Daucus carota coastal (“gummifer”) morphotypes (Apiaceae) using genotyping-by-sequencing

Fernando Martínez-Flores, Manuel B. Crespo, Philipp W. Simon, Holly Ruess, Kathleen Reitsma, Emmanuel Geoffriau, Charlotte Allender, Najla Mezghani & David M. Spooner
The genus Daucus is widely distributed worldwide, but with a concentration of diversity in the Mediterranean Region. The D. carota complex presents the greatest taxonomic problems in the genus. We focus on a distinctive phenotypic group of coastal morphotypes of D. carota, strictly confined to the margins to within about 0.5 km of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, which we here refer to as coastal morphotypes or D. carota subsp. “gummifer” complex, the...

No evidence for early fitness penalty in glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza canadensis: common garden experiments in the absence of glyphosate

Zachery Beres, Micheal Owen & Allison Snow
Strong selection from herbicides has led to the rapid evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds, greatly complicating weed management efforts worldwide. In particular, overreliance on glyphosate, the active ingredient in RoundUp®, has spurred the evolution of resistance to this herbicide in ≥40 species. Previously, we reported that Conyza canadensis (horseweed) has evolved extreme resistance to glyphosate, surviving at 40x the original 1x effective dosage. Here, we tested for underlying fitness effects of glyphosate resistance to better understand...

Locating large insects using automated VHF radio telemetry with a multi-antennae array

Kelsey Fisher & Philip Dixon
1. We describe an automated radio telemetry system (ARTS) designed for estimating the location of 0.50g butterflies that was constructed with commercially available materials. Previously described systems were not designed to estimate fine-scale locations of large insects within approximately 200m$^2$ study areas. 2. The ARTS consists of four receiving stations. Each receiving station has four 3-element, directional Yagi antennae (separated by 60\si{\degree}) connected to an automated receiver that records detected power sequentially from each antenna....

Guidelines for including bamboos in tropical ecosystem monitoring

Belen Fadrique, Joseph Veldman, James Dalling, Lynn Clark, Lia Montti, Eduardo Ruiz-Sanchez, Debora Rother, Francisca Ely, William Farfan-Rios, Paul Gagnon, Juan Carlos Camargo Garcia, Sonali Saha, Thomas Veblen, Ximena Londoño, Kenneth Feeley & Cara Rockwell
Bamboos are a diverse and ecologically important group of plants that have the potential to modulate the structure, composition and function of forests. With the aim of increasing the visibility and representation of bamboo in forest surveys, and to standardize techniques across ecosystems, we present a protocol for bamboo monitoring in permanent research plots. A bamboo protocol is necessary because measurements and sampling schemes that are well-suited to trees are inadequate for monitoring most bamboo...

Mechanochemical exfoliation of graphite

Nicole Hashemi
A facile method to produce few-layer graphene (FLG) nanosheets is developed using protein-assisted mechanical exfoliation. The predominant shear forces that are generated in a planetary ball mill facilitates exfoliation of graphene layers from graphite flakes. The process employs a commonly known protein, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), which not only acts as an effective exfoliation agent but also provide stability by preventing restacking of the graphene layers. The latter is demonstrated by the excellent long-term dispersibility...

Data from: Exotic species drive patterns of plant species diversity in 93 restored tallgrass prairies

Andrew Kaul & Brian Wilsey
A primary goal of restoration ecology is to understand the factors that generate variability in species diversity and composition among restorations. Plant communities may assemble deterministically towards a common community type, or they may assemble stochastically, ending differently because of weather conditions during establishment, soil legacy effects, or exotic species propagule pressure. To test these alternative hypotheses, we sampled plant communities and soil at 93 randomly selected restored prairies distributed throughout Iowa, USA. Five remnant...

Resource limitation, intragroup aggression, and brain neuropeptide expression in a social wasp

Alexander Walton & Amy Toth
1. Nourishment can have profound effects on social behavior, including aggressive interactions between individuals. However, how nutritional resource availability and limitation affects intraspecific aggression remains somewhat contested. The prevailing theoretical and empirical understanding is that when nutritional resources are limited, inter-individual competition and aggression will increase. However, findings from several social animals suggest that limited nutrition can lead to increased cooperation, including by a reduction in inter-individual aggression. 2. We suggest that in social insect...

Online Appendix and Cetacean Datasets for: The Occurrence Birth-Death Process for combined-evidence analysis in macroevolution and epidemiology

Jérémy Andréoletti, Antoine Zwaans, Rachel Warnock, Gabriel Aguirre-Fernández, Joëlle Barido-Sottani, Ankit Gupta, Tanja Stadler & Marc Manceau
Phylodynamic models generally aim at jointly inferring phylogenetic relationships, model parameters, and more recently, the number of lineages through time, based on molecular sequence data. In the fields of epidemiology and macroevolution these models can be used to estimate, respectively, the past number of infected individuals (prevalence) or the past number of species (paleodiversity) through time. Recent years have seen the development of “total-evidence” analyses, which combine molecular and morphological data from extant and past...

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