16 Works

Data from: Prophylactic digoxin treatment reduces IL-17 production in vivo in the neonatal calf and moderates RSV-associated disease

Jodi L. McGill, Mariana Guerra-Maupome & Sarah Schneider
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in human infants. Bovine RSV infection of neonatal calves is pathologically and immunologically similar to RSV infection in infants, and is therefore a useful preclinical model for testing novel therapeutics. Treatment of severe RSV bronchiolitis relies on supportive care and may include use of bronchodilators and inhaled or systemic corticosteroids. Interleukin-17A (IL-17) is an inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in neutrophil...

Comparing the strength of modular signal, and evaluating alternative modular hypotheses, using covariance ratio effect sizes with morphometric data

Adams Dean & Michael Collyer
The study of modularity is paramount for understanding trends of phenotypic evolution, and for determining the extent to which covariation patterns are conserved across taxa and levels of biological organization. However, biologists currently lack quantitative methods for statistically comparing the strength of modular signal across datasets, and a robust approach for evaluating alternative modular hypotheses for the same dataset. As a solution to these challenges, we propose an effect size measure (Z_CR) derived from the...

Data from: Meta-analytic and economic approaches for evaluation of pesticide impact on Sclerotinia stem rot control and soybean yield in the North Central U.S.

Jaime F. Willbur, Paul Mitchell, Mamadou L. Fall, Adam M. Byrne, Scott Chapman, Crystal M. Floyd, Carl A. Bradley, Keith Ames, Martin I. Chilvers, Nathan Kleczewski, Dean Malvick, Brian Mueller, Daren Mueller, Mehdi Kabbage, Shawn P. Conley & Damon Smith
As complete host resistance in soybean has not been achieved, Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum continues to be of major economic concern for farmers. Thus, chemical control remains a prevalent disease management strategy. Pesticide evaluations were conducted in Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Wisconsin from 2009 to 2016, for a total of 25 site-years (n = 2057 plot-level data points). These studies were used in network meta-analyses to evaluate the...

The utility of reptile blood transcriptomes in molecular ecology

Tonia S Schwartz, Damien S Waits, Dasia Y Simpson, Amanda M Sparkman & Anne M Bronikowski
Reptiles and other non-mammalian vertebrates have transcriptionally active nucleated red blood cells. If blood transcriptomes can provide quantitative data to address questions relevant to molecular ecology, this could circumvent the need to euthanize animals to assay tissues. This would allow longitudinal sampling of animals’ responses to treatments, as well as sampling of protected taxa. We developed and annotated blood transcriptomes from six reptile species. We found on average 25,000 proteins are being transcribed in the...

Data from: Geographic variation in thermal sensitivity of early life traits in a widespread reptile

Brooke L. Bodensteiner, Daniel A. Warner, John B. Iverson, Carrie L. Milne-Zelman, Timothy S. Mitchell, Jeanine M. Refsnider & Fredric J. Janzen
Taxa with large geographic distributions generally encompass diverse macroclimatic conditions, potentially requiring local adaptation and/or phenotypic plasticity to match their phenotypes to differing environments. These eco-evolutionary processes are of particular interest in organisms with traits that are directly affected by temperature, such as embryonic development in oviparous ectotherms. Here we examine the spatial distribution of fitness-related early-life phenotypes across the range of a widespread vertebrate, the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). We quantified embryonic and hatchling...

Data from: Threshold elemental ratios and the temperature dependence of herbivory in fishes

Eric K. Moody, Nathan K. Lujan, Katherine A. Roach & Kirk O. Winemiller
1. Herbivorous ectothermic vertebrates are more diverse and abundant at lower latitudes. While thermal constraints may drive this pattern, its underlying cause remains unclear. We hypothesized that this constraint stems from an inability to meet the elevated phosphorus demands of bony vertebrates feeding on P-poor plant material at cooler temperatures because low gross growth efficiency at warmer temperatures facilitates higher P ingestion rates. We predicted that dietary carbon:phosphorus (C:P) should exceed the threshold elemental ratio...

Data from: Meta-analysis of yield response of foliar fungicide-treated hybrid corn in the United States and Ontario, Canada

Kiersten A. Wise, Damon L. Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price, Alison Robertson & Albert Tenuta
Background: Foliar fungicide applications to corn (Zea mays) occur at one or more application timings ranging from early vegetative growth stages to mid-reproductive stages. Previous studies indicated that fungicide applications are profitable under high disease pressure when applied during the tasseling to silking growth stages. Few comprehensive studies in corn have examined the impact of fungicide applications at an early vegetative growth stage (V6) compared to late application timings (VT) for yield response and return...

Data from: More salt, please: global patterns, responses, and impacts of foliar sodium in grasslands

Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric M. Lind, Jennifer Firn, Eric W. Seabloom, T. Michael Anderson, Elizabeth S. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew S. MacDougall, Joslin L. Moore, Anita C. Risch, Martin Schutz & Carly J. Stevens
Sodium is unique among abundant elemental nutrients, because most plant species do not require it for growth or development, whereas animals physiologically require sodium. Foliar sodium influences consumption rates by animals and can structure herbivores across landscapes. We quantified foliar sodium in 201 locally abundant, herbaceous species representing 32 families and, at 26 sites on four continents, experimentally manipulated vertebrate herbivores and elemental nutrients to determine their effect on foliar sodium. Foliar sodium varied taxonomically...

Data from: Interacting stressors matter: diet quality and virus infection in honey bee health

Adam G. Dolezal, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Timothy M. Judd, W. Allen Miller, Bryony C. Bonning & Amy L. Toth
Honey bee population declines have been linked to multiple stressors, including reduced diet diversity and increased exposure to understudied viral pathogens. Despite interest in these factors, few experimental studies explored the interaction between diet diversity and viral infection in honey bees. Here, we used a mixture of laboratory cage and small semi-field nucleus hive experiments to determine how these factors interact. We found that high quality diets (polyfloral pollen and high quality single-source pollen) have...

Data from: Effects of early nutritional stress on physiology, life-histories and their trade-offs in a model ectothermic vertebrate

Kaitlyn G. Holden, Dawn M. Reding, Neil B. Ford & Anne M. Bronikowski
Early-life experiences can have far-reaching consequences for phenotypes into adulthood. The effect of early-life experiences on fitness, particularly under adverse conditions, is mediated by resource allocation to particular life-history traits. We examined the effects of early-life food restriction on growth, adult body size, physiology and reproduction in the checkered garter snake, Thamnophis marcianus. Animals were placed on one of two early-life diet treatments: normal-diet (approximating ad libitum feeding) or low-diet (restricted to 20% of body...

Reducing Construction Costs Through Effective Field Communication and Administration

Gabriel B. Dadi, Roy E., Jr. Sturgill, Steven Waddle & Steven Douglas Kreis
Falling Road Fund receipts have placed added strain on the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet’s (KYTC) already-underfunded highway program. Revenue declines have increased the urgency of improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the Cabinet’s operations. One method KYTC can use to realize greater cost savings is improving the administration of construction projects. Effective field communication and administration helps control construction costs, enhances quality, and minimizes delays and claims. One challenge the Cabinet will need to confront to...

Data from: Leaf shape tracks transitions across forest-grassland boundaries in the grass family (Poaceae)

Timothy Jay Gallaher, Dean C. Adams, Lakshmi Attigala, Sean V. Burke, Joseph M. Craine, Melvin R. Duvall, Phillip C. Klahs, Emma Sherratt, William P. Wysocki & Lynn G. Clark
Grass leaf shape is a strong indicator of their habitat. Linear leaves predominate in open areas and more ovate leaves distinguish forest-associated grasses. This pattern among extant species suggests that ancestral shifts between forest and open habitats may have coincided with changes in leaf shape or size. We tested relationships between habitat, climate, photosynthetic pathway and leaf shape and size in a phylogenetic framework to evaluate drivers of leaf shape and size variation over the...

Data from: Macroevolution of Arboreality in Salamanders

Erica K. Baken & Dean C. Adams
Evolutionary theory predicts that selection in distinct microhabitats generates correlations between morphological and ecological traits, and may increase both phenotypic and taxonomic diversity. However, some microhabitats exert unique selective pressures that act as a restraining force on macroevolutionary patterns of diversification. In this study, we use phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate the evolutionary outcomes of inhabiting the arboreal microhabitat in salamanders. We find that arboreality has independently evolved at least five times in Caudata, and...

Data from: Clothing color mediates lizard responses to humans in a tropical forest

Andrea Fondren, Lindsey Swierk & Breanna Putman
Identifying how ecotourism affects wildlife can lower its environmental impact. Human presence is an inherent component of ecotourism, which can impact animal behavior because animals often perceive humans as predators and, consequently, spend more time on human-directed antipredator behaviors and less on other fitness-relevant activities. We tested whether human clothing color affects water anole (Anolis aquaticus) behavior at a popular ecotourism destination in Costa Rica, testing the hypothesis that animals are more tolerant of humans...

Data from: Macroevolution of desiccation-related morphology in plethodontid salamanders as inferred from a novel surface area to volume ratio estimation approach

Erica Baken, Lauren E Mellenthin & Dean C. Adams
Evolutionary biologists have long been interested in the macroevolutionary consequences of various selection pressures, yet physiological responses to selection across deep time are not well understood. In this paper, we investigate how a physiologically-relevant morphological trait, surface area to volume ratio (SA:V) of lungless salamanders, has evolved across broad regional and climatic variation. SA:V directly impacts an organisms’ ability to retain water, leading to the expectation that smaller SA:Vs would be advantageous in arid, water-limited...

No evidence for early fitness penalty in glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza canadensis: common garden experiments in the absence of glyphosate

Zachery Beres, Micheal Owen & Allison Snow
Strong selection from herbicides has led to the rapid evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds, greatly complicating weed management efforts worldwide. In particular, overreliance on glyphosate, the active ingredient in RoundUp®, has spurred the evolution of resistance to this herbicide in ≥40 species. Previously, we reported that Conyza canadensis (horseweed) has evolved extreme resistance to glyphosate, surviving at 40x the original 1x effective dosage. Here, we tested for underlying fitness effects of glyphosate resistance to better understand...

Registration Year

  • 2019
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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  • Text
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Affiliations

  • Iowa State University
    16
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • University of Kentucky
    3
  • University of Guelph
    2
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
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  • Auburn University
    2
  • University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
    2
  • Michigan State University
    2
  • University of Adelaide
    1
  • Binghamton University
    1