21 Works

Assessing the impact of incomplete species sampling on estimates of speciation and extinction rates

Rachel C. M. Warnock, Tracy A. Heath & Tanja Stadler
Estimating speciation and extinction rates is essential for understanding past and present biodiversity, but is challenging given the incompleteness of the rock and fossil records. Interest in this topic has led to a divergent suite of independent methods—paleontological estimates based on sampled stratigraphic ranges and phylogenetic estimates based on the observed branching times in a given phylogeny of living species. The fossilized birth–death (FBD) process is a model that explicitly recognizes that the branching events...

Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands

Judith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … &
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...

Data from: Outcrossing mating system of the early-divergent moonwort fern (Botrychium lunaria, Ophioglossaceae) revealed in the European Alps

Benjamin Dauphin, Jason Grant & Donald Farrar
Premise of the Research. Vascular plants depend on sexual recombination for generating new genetic variability to meet environmental needs. Nevertheless, members of the early-divergent fern genus Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae) typically maintain gametophytic selfing and show strong inbreeding within populations. To explain this evolutionary anomaly, the existence of previous or current but undiscovered outcrossing, genetically rich, precursors of the existing genetically depauperate taxa has been hypothesized. Methodology. Using allele expression at thirteen independently assorting enzyme loci, we...

Honey bee virus causes context-dependent changes in host social behavior

Adam Dolezal, Tim Gernat, Geffre Amy, Gyan Harwood, Beryl Jones, Adam Hamilton, Bryony Bonning, Amy Toth, Gene Robinson & Deisy Morselli Gysi
Anthropogenic changes create evolutionarily novel environments that present opportunities for emerging diseases, potentially changing the balance between host and pathogen. Honey bees provide essential pollination services, but intensification and globalization of honey bee management has coincided with increased pathogen pressure, primarily due to a parasitic mite/virus complex. Here, we investigated how honey bee individual and social phenotypes are altered by a virus of concern, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV). Using automated and manual behavioral monitoring...

Efficient targeted integration directed by short homology in zebrafish and mammalian cells

Jeffrey Essner & Maura McGrail
Efficient precision genome engineering requires high frequency and specificity of integration at the genomic target site. Here, we describe a set of resources to streamline precision gene targeting in zebrafish and demonstrate the broader utility of the method in mammalian cells. Our approach uses short homology of 24-48 bp to drive targeted integration of DNA reporter cassettes by homology-mediated end joining (HMEJ) at high frequency. Our vector series, pGTag (plasmids for Gene Tagging), contains reporters...

Strategies for the utilization of USDA mungbean germplasm collection for breeding outcomes

Kulbir Sandhu & Arti Singh
Global and mid-west U.S. agriculture requires diversification and new sources of protein for sustainable crop production. Mungbean as a legume crop has a long cultivation history in Asia; however, its potential lays hitherto underexplored in the U.S. As a first step towards exploring mungbean for crop diversification in northern latitudes, crop germplasm centers that harbor worldwide crop resources need to be utilized. This study explores the potential of mungbean in the U.S. northern latitudes through...

Climate effects on nesting phenology in Nebraska turtles

John Iverson, Ashley Hedrick, Daniel Greene, Erin Lewis, Andrew Hood & John Iverson
A frequent response of organisms to climate change is altering the timing of reproduction. In particular, advancement of reproductive timing has been a common response to warming temperatures in temperate regions. Over the past three decades in Nebraska, USA, the timing of nesting of the Common Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina) was negatively correlated with mean December maximum temperatures of the preceding year and mean May minimum and maximum temperatures in the nesting year, and positively...

Ancient crested penguin constrains timing of recruitment into seabird hotspot

Daniel Thomas, Alan Tennyson, R. Paul Scofield, Tracy Heath, Walker Pett & Daniel Ksepka
New Zealand is a globally significant hotspot for seabird diversity, but the sparse fossil record for most seabird lineages has impeded our understanding of how and when this hotspot developed. Here, we describe multiple exceptionally well-preserved specimens of a new species of penguin from tightly dated (3.36–3.06 Ma) Pliocene deposits in New Zealand. Bayesian and parsimony analyses place Eudyptes atatu sp. nov. as the sister species to all extant and recently extinct members of the...

Interspecific allometry for sexual shape dimorphism: macroevolution of multivariate sexual phenotypes with application to Rensch's rule

Adams Dean, Antigoni Kaliontzopoulou, Elizabeth Glynne & Dean C. Adams
Allometric trends in the degree of sexual dimorphism with body size have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. Many male-biased clades display more prominent sexual dimorphism in larger taxa (Rensch’s rule), with most examples documenting this pattern for body size dimorphism. While sexual dimorphism in traits other than body size is equally functionally relevant, characterizing allometric patterns of sexual dimorphism in such traits is hampered by lack of an analytical framework that can accommodate multivariate phenotypes. In...

Data from: Retention forestry influences understory diversity and functional identity

Miranda Curzon, Christel Kern, Susan Baker, Brian Palik & Anthony D'Amato
In recent decades, a paradigm shift in forest management and associated policies has led to greater emphasis on harvest practices that retain mature, overstory trees in forest stands that would otherwise be clearcut. While it is often assumed that the maintenance of compositional and structural complexity, such as that achieved through retention forestry approaches, will also mitigate negative impacts to functional diversity, empirical evidence of this relationship is sparse. We examined the effects of an...

Hard to get, easy to lose: Evolution of mantle photoreceptor organs in bivalves (Bivalvia, Pteriomorphia)

Jorge Audino, Jeanne Marie Serb & José Eduardo Amoroso Rodriguez Marian
Morphologically diverse eyes have evolved numerous times, yet little is known about how eye gain and loss is related to photic environment. The pteriomorphian bivalves (e.g., oysters, scallops, and ark clams), with a remarkable range of photoreceptor organs and ecologies, are a suitable system to investigate the association between eye evolution and ecological shifts. The present phylogenetic framework was based on amino acid sequences from transcriptome datasets and nucleotide sequences of five additional genes. In...

Lower soil carbon stocks in exotic vs. native grasslands are driven by carbonate losses

Brian J. Wilsey, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Kirsten Hofmockel & Steven J. Hall
Global change includes invasion by exotic (non-native) plant species and altered precipitation patterns, and these factors may affect terrestrial carbon (C) storage. We measured soil C changes in experimental mixtures of all exotic or all native grassland plant species under two levels of summer drought stress (0 and +128 mm). After eight years, soils were sampled in 10 cm increments to 100 cm depth to determine if soil C differed among treatments in deeper soils....

Data from: Reticulate evolution helps explain apparent homoplasy in floral biology and pollination in baobabs (Adansonia; Bombacoideae; Malvaceae)

Nisa Karimi, Corrinne Grover, Jonathan Wendel, Joseph Gallagher, Cecile Ane & David Baum
Baobabs (Adansonia) are a cohesive group of tropical trees with a disjunct distribution in Australia, Madagascar, and continental Africa, and diverse flowers associated with two pollination modes. We used custom targeted sequence capture in conjunction with new and existing phylogenetic comparative methods to explore the evolution of floral traits and pollination systems while allowing for reticulate evolution. Our analyses suggest that relationships in Adansonia are confounded by reticulation, with network inference methods supporting at least...

A Document Analysis of Anti-Hazing Policy

Christobal Salinas, Michelle Boettcher & Jennifer Plagman-Galvin

Dominant native and non-native graminoids differ in key leaf traits irrespective of nutrient availability

Arthur Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James McGree, Elizabeth Borer, Yvonne Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly Komatsu, Andrew MacDougall, Kate Orwin, Nicholas Ostle, Eric Seabloom, Jonathan Bakker, Lori Biedermann, Maria Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo Peri, Anita Risch, Christiane Roscher, Martin Schuetz & Carly Stevens
Aim Nutrient enrichment is associated with plant invasions and biodiversity loss. Functional trait advantages may predict the ascendancy of invasive plants following nutrient enrichment but this is rarely tested. Here, we investigate 1) whether dominant native and non-native plants differ in important morphological and physiological leaf traits, 2) how their traits respond to nutrient addition, and 3) whether responses are consistent across functional groups. Location Australia, Europe, North America and South Africa Time period 2007...

Construction of a chromosome-scale long-read reference genome assembly for potato

John Hamilton, Gina Pham, Joshua Wood, Joe Burke, Hainan Zhao, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Shujun Ou, Jiming Jiang & C. Robin Buell
Background: Worldwide, the cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is the number one vegetable crop and a critical food security crop. The genome sequence of DM1-3 516 R44, a doubled monoploid clone of S. tuberosum Group Phureja, was published in 2011 using a whole-genome shotgun sequencing approach with short read sequence data. Current advanced sequencing technologies now permit generation of near-complete, high-quality chromosome-scale genome assemblies at a minimal cost. Findings: Here, we present an updated version...

Data from: Anthelmintic drugs modulate the acute phase immune response but not the microbiota in wild Song Sparrows

Grace Vaziri, Michelle Jusino, Jon Palmer, Matthew Brewer & James Adelman
Co-infection with microparasites (e.g., bacteria) and macroparasites (e.g., helminths) is often the natural state for wild animals. Despite evidence that gut helminths can bias immune responses away from inflammatory processes, few field studies have examined the role that helminths, or their potential interactions with internal microbial communities, play in modulating immunity in free-living, wild birds. Here, we used anthelmintic drugs to treat wild Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) for helminth infections and measured markers of systemic...

Subspecies variation of Daucus carota coastal (“gummifer”) morphotypes (Apiaceae) using genotyping-by-sequencing

Fernando Martínez-Flores, Manuel B. Crespo, Philipp W. Simon, Holly Ruess, Kathleen Reitsma, Emmanuel Geoffriau, Charlotte Allender, Najla Mezghani & David M. Spooner
The genus Daucus is widely distributed worldwide, but with a concentration of diversity in the Mediterranean Region. The D. carota complex presents the greatest taxonomic problems in the genus. We focus on a distinctive phenotypic group of coastal morphotypes of D. carota, strictly confined to the margins to within about 0.5 km of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, which we here refer to as coastal morphotypes or D. carota subsp. “gummifer” complex, the...

Locating large insects using automated VHF radio telemetry with a multi-antennae array

Kelsey Fisher & Philip Dixon
1. We describe an automated radio telemetry system (ARTS) designed for estimating the location of 0.50g butterflies that was constructed with commercially available materials. Previously described systems were not designed to estimate fine-scale locations of large insects within approximately 200m$^2$ study areas. 2. The ARTS consists of four receiving stations. Each receiving station has four 3-element, directional Yagi antennae (separated by 60\si{\degree}) connected to an automated receiver that records detected power sequentially from each antenna....

Guidelines for including bamboos in tropical ecosystem monitoring

Belen Fadrique, Joseph Veldman, James Dalling, Lynn Clark, Lia Montti, Eduardo Ruiz-Sanchez, Debora Rother, Francisca Ely, William Farfan-Rios, Paul Gagnon, Juan Carlos Camargo Garcia, Sonali Saha, Thomas Veblen, Ximena Londoño, Kenneth Feeley & Cara Rockwell
Bamboos are a diverse and ecologically important group of plants that have the potential to modulate the structure, composition and function of forests. With the aim of increasing the visibility and representation of bamboo in forest surveys, and to standardize techniques across ecosystems, we present a protocol for bamboo monitoring in permanent research plots. A bamboo protocol is necessary because measurements and sampling schemes that are well-suited to trees are inadequate for monitoring most bamboo...

Data from: Exotic species drive patterns of plant species diversity in 93 restored tallgrass prairies

Andrew Kaul & Brian Wilsey
A primary goal of restoration ecology is to understand the factors that generate variability in species diversity and composition among restorations. Plant communities may assemble deterministically towards a common community type, or they may assemble stochastically, ending differently because of weather conditions during establishment, soil legacy effects, or exotic species propagule pressure. To test these alternative hypotheses, we sampled plant communities and soil at 93 randomly selected restored prairies distributed throughout Iowa, USA. Five remnant...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Resource Types

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Affiliations

  • Iowa State University
    21
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
    3
  • University of Washington
    2
  • University of Pretoria
    2
  • Utah State University
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • University of Guelph
    2
  • University of Wisconsin–Madison
    2
  • Monash University
    2
  • University of Florida
    2