132 Works

sj-docx-1-joh-10.1177_00207314221134040 - Supplemental material for Is Neoliberalism Killing Us? A Cross Sectional Study of the Impact of Neoliberal Beliefs on Health and Social Wellbeing in the Midst of the COVID-19 Pandemic

Kiffer G. Card & Kirk J. Hepburn
Supplemental material, sj-docx-1-joh-10.1177_00207314221134040 for Is Neoliberalism Killing Us? A Cross Sectional Study of the Impact of Neoliberal Beliefs on Health and Social Wellbeing in the Midst of the COVID-19 Pandemic by Kiffer G. Card and Kirk J. Hepburn in International Journal of Health Services

The Revised Identification of Seniors At Risk screening tool predicts readmission in older hospitalized patients: a cohort study

Jane McCusker, Rebecca N. Warburton, Sylvie D. Lambert, Eric Belzile & Manon de Raad
Abstract Background The Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) screening tool is a widely-used risk stratification tool for older adults in the emergency department (ED). Few studies have investigated the use of ISAR to predict outcomes of hospitalized patients. To improve usability a revised version of ISAR (ISAR-R), was developed in a quality improvement project. The ISAR-R is also widely used, although never formally validated. To address these two gaps in knowledge, we aimed to...

Characterizing phenotypic diversity in marine populations of the threespine stickleback

Ainsley L. Fraser & Rana El-Sabaawi
The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is an important model for studying the evolution of vertebrate morphology. Sticklebacks inhabit freshwater, brackish, and marine northern hemisphere waters. Anadromous and marine populations (hereafter marine) are assumed to have remained unchanged morphologically from ancestral marine sticklebacks, despite marine environments varying on regional and local scales. Recent studies suggest that genetic and phenotypic structure exists in marine populations, yet the scale of this variation, and its ecological causes remain unclear....

Data from: Phylogeography and adaptation genetics of stickleback from the Haida Gwaii archipelago revealed using genome-wide SNP genotyping

Bruce E. Deagle, Felicity C. Jones, Devin M. Absher, David M. Kingsley & Thomas E. Reimchen
Threespine stickleback populations are model systems for studying adaptive evolution and the underlying genetics. In lakes on the Haida Gwaii archipelago (off western Canada), stickleback have undergone a remarkable local radiation and show phenotypic diversity matching that seen throughout the species distribution. To provide a historical context for this radiation, we surveyed genetic variation at >1000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in stickleback from over 100 populations. SNPs included markers evenly distributed throughout genome and...

Data from: Sex without sex chromosomes: genetic architecture of multiple loci independently segregating to determine sex ratios in the copepod Tigriopus californicus

Heather J. Alexander, Jean M. L. Richardson, Suzanne Edmands & Bradley R. Anholt
Sex determining systems are remarkably diverse and may evolve rapidly. Polygenic sex determination systems are predicted to be transient and evolutionarily unstable yet examples have been reported across a range of taxa. Here we provide the first direct evidence of polygenic sex determination in Tigriopus californicus, a harpacticoid copepod with no heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Using genetically distinct inbred lines selected for male- and female-biased clutches, we generated a genetic map with 39 SNPs across 12...

Data from: Rethinking refugia: tree topology, divergence dates, and demographic history trace the distribution of the endangered Plymouth gentian (Sabatia kennedyana) from the Pleistocene glaciation to present day

Adriana Suarez-Gonzalez, Jolene T. Sutton, Andrew J. Trant, Elena Zamlynny & Sara V. Good
Premise of study: Molecular population genetics is a powerful tool to infer how species responded to past environmental change. In the northern hemisphere, interest is increasing in how species responded to changes in ice coverage and temperature during the last glaciation maximum (LGM, between 18000–21000 yr ago) with a common assumption that glacial refugia were located at the southern edge of a species range. Methods: We reconstructed the glacial and postglacial phylogeography of Sabatia kennedyana,...

Data from: The dorid nudibranchs Peltodoris lentiginosa and Archidoris odhneri as predators of glass sponges

Jackson W.F. Chu & Sally P. Leys
The dorid nudibranchs Peltodoris lentiginosa and Archidoris odhneri were found on glass sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) during remotely operated vehicle surveys of three reefs in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. Eight nudibranchs were sampled from 2009 to 2011. Identification of sponge spicules found in their gut and fecal contents confirmed the nudibranchs to be predators of the reef-forming hexactinellids Aphrocallistes vastus and Heterochone calyx, as well as of the demosponge Desmacella austini, which encrusts...

Data from: Multi-parametric study of behavioural modulation in demersal decapods at the VENUS cabled observatory in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, Canada

M. Matabos, J. Aguzzi, K. Robert, C. Costa, P. Menesatti, J. B. Company, S. K. Juniper & S.K. Juniper
Understanding biological rhythms in benthic ecosystems and their modulation by habitat cycles has important implications for resource and ecosystem management. The recent development of permanent, multi-sensor seafloor observatories in deep-water environments provides opportunities for the in situ investigation of the behaviour of benthic organisms in relation to habitat variability. This paper describes a multi-disciplinary investigation at the VENUS observatory platform in Saanich Inlet, an intermittently anoxic fjord (Vancouver Island, Canada). A remotely operated digital camera...

Data from: Divergent immunity and energetic programs in the gills of migratory and resident Oncorhynchus mykiss

Ben J. Sutherland, Kyle C. Hanson, Johanna R. Jantzen, Ben F. Koop, Christian T. Smith & Ben J. G. Sutherland
Divergent life history strategies occur in steelhead or rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and many populations produce both migrant (anadromous fish that move to the ocean after rearing) and resident (do not migrate and remain in fresh water) individuals. Mechanisms leading to each type are only partially understood; while the general tendency of a population is heritable, individual tendency may be plastic, influenced by local environment. Steelhead hatchery programmes aim to mitigate losses in wild stocks...

Data from: Prey size diversity hinders biomass trophic transfer and predator size diversity promotes it in planktonic communities

Carmen García-Comas, Akash R. Sastri, Lin Ye, Chun-Yi Chang, Fan-Sian Lin, Min-Sian Su, Gwo-Ching Gong & Chih-Hao Hsieh
Body size exerts multiple effects on plankton food-web interactions. However, the influence of size structure on trophic transfer remains poorly quantified in the field. Here, we examine how the size diversity of prey (nano-microplankton) and predators (mesozooplankton) influence trophic transfer efficiency (using biomass ratio as a proxy) in natural marine ecosystems. Our results support previous studies on single trophic levels: transfer efficiency decreases with increasing prey size diversity and is enhanced with greater predator size...

Data from: Shortspine thornyhead and rockfish (Scorpaenidae) distribution in response to substratum, biogenic structures and trawling

Cherisse Du Preez & Verena Tunnicliffe
Learmonth Bank in northern British Columbia sustains an active trawl fishery that returns large bycatches of deep-sea sponges and corals. To examine effects of biogenic structures on the distribution of fish, we examined nearly 30 km of high-definition imagery from a remotely operated vehicle and documented locations of 2770 scorpaenid fish. The 2 local genera have similar abundances, averaging about 1.2 individuals 100 m–2, but have different spatial abundance patterns: shortspine thornyhead Sebastolobus alascanus are...

Data from: Bony traits and genetics drive intraspecific variation in vertebrate elemental composition

Daniel J. Durston & Rana W. El-Sabaawi
Interspecific variation in elemental composition is well known and often leads to predictable differences in ecosystem interactions, but little is known about the extent, causes and importance of intraspecific variation in elemental composition. If intraspecific variation is substantial and has a genetic basis, it may underlie an important mechanism of evolutionary interplay with ecology as individuals compensate for evolutionary changes in elemental demand. To investigate the extent and causes of intraspecific elemental variation in vertebrates,...

Data from: Adaptation in temporally variable environments: stickleback armor in periodically breaching bar-built estuaries

Antoine Paccard, Ben A. Wasserman, Dieta Hanson, Louis Astorg, Dan Durston, Sara Kurland, Travis M. Apgar, Rana W. El-Sabaawi, Eric P. Palkovacs, Andrew P. Hendry, Rowan D.H. Barrett & Rowan D. H. Barrett
The evolutionary consequences of temporal variation in selection remain hotly debated. We explored these consequences by studying threespine stickleback in a set of bar-built estuaries along the central California coast. In most years, heavy rains induce water flow strong enough to break through isolating sand bars, connecting streams to the ocean. New sand bars typically re-form within a few weeks or months, thereby re-isolating populations within the estuaries. These breaching events cause severe and often...

Complete tag loss in capture-recapture studies affects abundance estimates: an elephant seal case study

Emily Malcolm-White, Laura Cowen & Clive McMahon
1. In capture-recapture studies, recycled individuals occur when individuals lose all of their tags and are recaptured as though they were new individuals. Typically, the effect of these recycled individuals is assumed negligible. 2. Through a simulation-based study of double tagging experiments, we examined the effect of recycled individuals on parameter estimates in the Jolly-Seber model with tag loss (Cowen & Schwarz, 2006). We validated the simulation framework using long-term census data of elephant seals....

Autosomal suppression and fitness costs of an old driving X chromosome in Drosophila testacea

Graeme Keais, SiJia Lu & Steve Perlman
Driving X chromosomes (XDs) are meiotic drivers that bias their own transmission through males by killing Y-bearing gametes. These chromosomes can in theory spread rapidly in populations and cause extinction, but many are found as balanced polymorphisms or as “cryptic” XDs shut down by drive suppressors. The relative likelihood of these outcomes, as well as the evolutionary pathways through which they come about, are not well-understood. An XD was recently discovered in the mycophagous fly,...

Resolving fine-scale population structure and fishery exploitation using sequenced microsatellites in a northern fish

Kara K.S. Layton, J. Brian Dempson, Paul V.R. Snelgrove, Steven J. Duffy, Amber M. Messmer, Ian Paterson, Nicholas W. Jeffery, Tony Kess, John B. Horne, Sarah J. Salisbury, Daniel E. Ruzzante, Paul Bentzen, David Côté, Cameron M. Nugent, Moira M. Ferguson, Jong S. Leong, Ben F. Koop & Ian R. Bradbury
The resiliency of populations and species to environmental change is dependent on the maintenance of genetic diversity, and as such quantifying diversity is central to combatting ongoing wide spread reductions in biodiversity. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, several methods now exist for resolving fine-scale population structure, but the comparative performance of these methods for genetic assignment has rarely been tested. Here we evaluate the performance of sequenced microsatellites and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)...

The functional organization of excitation and inhibition in the dendritic arbors of retinal direction-selective ganglion cells

Gautam Awatramani
Recent studies indicate that the precise timing and location of excitation and inhibition (E/I) within active dendritic trees can significantly impact neuronal function. How excitatory and inhibitory inputs are functionally organized at the subcellular level in intact circuits remains unclear. To address this issue, we took advantage of the retinal direction-selective ganglion cell circuit, in which directionally tuned inhibitory GABAergic input arising from starburst amacrine cells shape direction-selective dendritic responses. We combined two-photon calcium imaging...

Data from: An approach to incorporating inferred connectivity of adult movement into marine protected area design with limited data

Sarah K. Friesen, Rebecca Martone, Emily Rubidge, Jacopo A. Baggio & Natalie Ban
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are important conservation tools that can support the resilience of marine ecosystems. Many countries, including Canada, have committed to protecting at least 10% of their marine areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity’s Aichi Target 11, which includes connectivity as a key aspect. Connectivity, the movement of individuals among habitats, can enhance population stability and resilience within and among MPAs. However, little is known about regional spatial patterns of marine ecological...

Data from: Publication reform to safeguard wildlife from researcher harm

Kate A. Field, Paul C. Paquet, Kyle Artelle, Gilbert Proulx, Ryan K. Brook & Chris T. Darimont
Despite abundant focus on responsible care of laboratory animals, we argue that inattention to the maltreatment of wildlife constitutes an ethical blind spot in contemporary animal research. We begin by reviewing significant shortcomings in legal and institutional oversight, arguing for the relatively rapid and transformational potential of editorial oversight at journals in preventing harm to vertebrates studied in the field and outside the direct supervision of institutions. Straightforward changes to animal care policies in journals,...

Post-disturbance conifer tree-ring δ15N reflects openness of the nitrogen cycle across temperate coastal rainforests

Marty Kranabetter & Barbara Hawkins
1. Post-disturbance losses in nitrogen (N) may diminish forest productivity, and soils with inherently ‘open’ N cycles (high nitrification rates) are considered the most vulnerable to leaching losses of NO3-. Monitoring ongoing N depletion from soil profiles is challenging, but tree-ring δ15N of regenerating stands may offer an effective method for assessing site-specific, long-term soil N dynamics. Evidence to date is mixed, however, and includes increasing, unchanging, or decreasing tree-ring δ15N in young stands following...

Data from: Phosphorus limitation does not drive loss of bony lateral plates in freshwater stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

Sophie L. Archambeault, Daniel J. Durston, Alex Wan, Rana El-Sabaawi, Blake Matthews & Catherine L. Peichel
Connecting the selective forces that drive the evolution of phenotypes to their underlying genotypes is key to understanding adaptation, but such connections are rarely tested experimentally. Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are a powerful model for such tests because genotypes that underlie putatively adaptive traits have been identified. For example, a regulatory mutation in the Ectodysplasin (Eda) gene causes a reduction in the number of bony armor plates, which occurs rapidly and repeatedly when marine sticklebacks...

Data from: A synthesis of the prevalence and drivers of non-compliance in marine protected areas

Josephine Iacarella, Georgia Clyde, Brock Bergseth & Natalie Ban
Non-compliance regularly negates the effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs) worldwide. Understanding and addressing non-compliance is critical given continued efforts to establish MPAs to meet international milestones (e.g., Aichi targets). We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis to address five key questions and research gaps for MPAs: 1) how is non-compliance best measured? 2) what are common drivers of non-compliance? 3) what is the overall prevalence of non-compliance? 4) how frequently is ecological failure of...

Genotypes for herring samples collected from Chinook salmon gut contents

Eleni Petrou, Joshua Chamberlin, Will Duguid, Russel Barsh, Francis Juanes, Jessica Qualley & Lorenz Hauser
Dynamic prey resources influence foraging opportunities for consumers. In coastal food webs, forage fish abundance and seasonal reproduction mediate foraging opportunities for mobile consumers. Recent declines in Chinook salmon productivity have prompted efforts to determine whether poormarine survival is caused by limited feeding opportunities. To establish the importance of phenological diversity in Pacific herring for Chinook salmon, we used genetic stock identification to assign individual herring collected from the guts of juvenile and adult Chinook...

HECYRA, ADELPHOE, AND THE FUNERAL GAMES OF L. AEMILIUS PAULLUS

Justin Dwyer
A Journal of Ancient Theatre

A highly divergent Wolbachia with a tiny genome in an insect-parasitic tylenchid nematode

Jan Dudzic, Caitlin Curtis, Brent Gowen & Steve Perlman
Wolbachia symbionts are the most successful host-associated microbes on the planet, infecting arthropods and nematodes. Their role in nematodes is particularly enigmatic, with filarial nematode species either 100% infected and dependent on symbionts for reproduction and development, or not at all infected. We have discovered a highly divergent strain of Wolbachia in an insect-parasitic tylenchid nematode, Howardula sp., in a nematode clade that has not previously been known to harbour Wolbachia. While this nematode is...

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