131 Works

Noninnocent Role of Na+ Ions in the Binding of the N-Phenyl-2-naphthylammonium Cation as a Ditopic Guest with Cucurbit[7]uril

Suma S Thomas, Hao Tang & Cornelia Bohne
Na+ ions influence the mechanism for the binding of the ditopic guest N-phenyl-2-naphthylammonium cation (Ph-AH+-Np) to cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) by facilitating, at increased Na+ concentrations, the formation of a higher-order complex. Binding of the larger naphthyl moiety of Ph-AH+-Np forms the Ph-AH+-Np@CB[7] 1:1 complex (where “@” represents an inclusion complex) at low Na+ ion concentrations (≤5 mM), whereas the inclusion of the smaller phenyl moiety in CB[7] (CB[7]@Ph-AH+-Np) is transient. Ph-AH+-Np@CB[7] is formed by reactions with...

Data from: Arthropod diversity in a tropical forest

Yves Basset, Lukas Cizek, Philippe Cuénoud, Raphael K. Didham, François Guilhaumon, Olivier Missa, Vojtech Novotny, Frode Ødegaard, Tomas Roslin, Jürgen Schmidl, Alexey K. Tishechkin, Neville N. Winchester, David W. Roubik, Henri-Pierre Aberlenc, Johannes Bail, Héctor Barrios, Jon R. Bridle, Gabriela Castaño-Meneses, Bruno Corbara, Gianfranco Curletti, Wesley Duarte Da Rocha, Domir De Bakker, Jacques H. C. Delabie, Alain Dejean, Laura L. Fagan … & Maurice Leponce
Most eukaryotic organisms are arthropods. Yet, their diversity in rich terrestrial ecosystems is still unknown. Here we produce tangible estimates of the total species richness of arthropods in a tropical rainforest. Using a comprehensive range of structured protocols, we sampled the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa from the soil to the forest canopy in the San Lorenzo forest, Panama. We collected 6,144 arthropod species from 0.48 ha and extrapolated total species richness to larger areas...

Data from: Heavily hunted wolves have higher stress and reproductive steroids than wolves with lower hunting pressure

Heather Bryan, Judit Smits, Lee Koren, Paul Paquet, Marco Musiani, Katherine Wynne-Edwards, Paul C. Paquet, Heather M. Bryan, Judit E. G. Smits & Katherine E. Wynne-Edwards
1. Human-caused harassment and mortality (e.g. hunting) affects many aspects of wildlife population dynamics and social structure. Little is known, however, about the social and physiological effects of hunting, which might provide valuable insights into the mechanisms by which wildlife respond to human-caused mortality. To investigate physiological consequences of hunting, we measured stress and reproductive hormones in hair, which reflect endocrine activity during hair growth. Applying this novel approach, we compared steroid hormone levels in...

Data from: Katian (Upper Ordovician) conodonts from Wales

Annalisa Ferretti, Stig M. Bergstrom & Christopher R. Barnes
Middle and Upper Katian conodonts are previously known in the British Isles from relatively small collections obtained from a few localities. The present study is mainly based on 17 samples containing more than 17,000 conodont elements from an approximately 14 m thick succession of the Sholeshook Limestone in a road cut near Whitland, South Wales that yielded a diverse fauna of more than 40 taxa. It is dominated by representatives of Amorphognathus, Aphelognathus/Plectodina, and Eocarniodus...

Data from: A test of the effects of timing of a pulsed resource subsidy on stream ecosystems

Takuya Sato, Rana El-Sabaawi, Kirsten Campbell, Tamihisa Ohta, John S. Richardson & Rana W. El-Sabaawi
Spatial resource subsidies can alter bottom-up and top-down forces of community regulation across ecosystem boundaries. Most subsidies are temporally variable, and recent theory has suggested that consumer-resource dynamics can be stabilized if the peak timing of a subsidy is desynchronized with that of prey productivity in the recipient ecosystem. However, magnitude of consumer responses per se could depend on the subsidy timing, which may be a critical component for community dynamics and ecosystem processes. The...

Data from: Adaptive genetic variation mediates bottom-up and top-down control in an aquatic ecosystem

Seth M. Rudman, Mariano A. Rodriguez-Cabal, Adrian Stier, Takuya Sato, Julian Heavyside, Rana W. El-Sabaawi & Gregory M. Crutsinger
Research in eco-evolutionary dynamics and community genetics has demonstrated that variation within a species can have strong impacts on associated communities and ecosystem processes. Yet, these studies have centred around individual focal species and at single trophic levels, ignoring the role of phenotypic variation in multiple taxa within an ecosystem. Given the ubiquitous nature of local adaptation, and thus intraspecific variation, we sought to understand how combinations of intraspecific variation in multiple species within an...

Data from: Genomic and functional approaches reveal a case of adaptive introgression from Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) in P. trichocarpa (black cottonwood)

Adriana Suarez-Gonzalez, Charles Hefer, Camille Christie, Oliver Corea, Christian Lexer, Quentin C. B. Cronk, Carl J. Douglas, Charles A. Hefer & Camille Christe
Natural hybrid zones in forest trees provide systems to study the transfer of adaptive genetic variation by introgression. Previous landscape genomic studies in Populus trichocarpa, a keystone tree species, indicated genomic footprints of admixture with its sister species P. balsamifera and identified candidate genes for local adaptation. Here, we explored patterns of introgression and signals of local adaptation in P. trichocarpa and P. balsamifera, employing genome resequencing data from three chromosomes in pure species and...

Data from: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr) gene knock out: normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice

Ellen R. Busby & Nancy M. Sherwood
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is important in the control of reproduction, but its actions in non-reproductive processes are less well known. In this study we examined the effect of disrupting the GnRH receptor in mice to determine if growth, metabolism or behaviors that are not associated with reproduction were affected. To minimize the effects of other hormones such as FSH, LH and sex steroids, the neonatal-prepubertal period of 2 to 28 days of age was selected....

Data from: A global perspective on the trophic geography of sharks

Christopher Stephen Bird, Ana Veríssimo, Sarah Magozzi, Kátya G. Abrantes, Alex Aguilar, Hassan Al-Reasi, Adam Barnett, Dana M. Bethea, Gérard Biais, Asuncion Borrell, Marc Bouchoucha, Mariah Boyle, Edward J. Brooks, Juerg Brunnschweiler, Paco Bustamante, Aaron Carlisle, Diana Catarino, Stéphane Caut, Yves Cherel, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Diana Churchill, Javier Ciancio, Julien Claes, Ana Colaço, Dean L. Courtney … & Clive N. Trueman
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits...

Data from: Estimating density for species conservation: comparing camera trap spatial count models to genetic spatial capture-recapture models

Joanna M. Burgar, Frances E. C. Stewart, John P. Volpe, Jason T. Fisher, A. Cole Burton & Frances E.C. Stewart
Density estimation is integral to the effective conservation and management of wildlife. Camera traps in conjunction with spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models have been used to accurately and precisely estimate densities of “marked” wildlife populations comprising identifiable individuals. The emergence of spatial count (SC) models holds promise for cost-effective density estimation of “unmarked” wildlife populations when individuals are not identifiable. We evaluated model agreement, precision, and survey costs, between i) a fully marked approach using SCR...

Data from: Drivers of temporal beta diversity of a benthic community in a seasonally hypoxic ocean fjord

Jackson W.F. Chu, Curtis Curkan, Verena Tunnicliffe & Jackson W. F. Chu
Global expansion of oxygen deficient (hypoxia) waters will have detrimental effects on marine life in the Northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP) where some of the largest proportional losses in aerobic habitat are predicted to occur. However, few studies have accounted for the high environmental variability in this region while including natural community-assembly dynamics. Here, we present results from a 14-month deployment of a benthic camera platform tethered to the VENUS cabled observatory in the seasonally hypoxic...

Data from: Individual variation, population-specific behaviours, and stochastic processes shape marine migration phenologies

Cameron Freshwater, Marc Trudel, Terry D. Beacham, Stéphane Gauthier, Stewart C. Johnson, Chrys-Ellen Neville & Francis Juanes
1. The phenology of long distance migrations can influence individual fitness, moderate population dynamics, and regulate the availability of ecosystem services to other trophic levels. Phenology varies within and among populations, and can be influenced by conditions individuals experience both prior to departure and encounter en route. 2. Assessing how intrinsic and extrinsic factors (e.g. individual physical condition vs. environmental conditions) interact to influence variation in migratory phenologies across ecological scales is often limited due...

Data from: Understory succession after burial by tephra from Mount St. Helens

Dylan G. Fischer, Joseph A. Antos, Abir Biswas & Donald B. Zobel
1. Successional change following disturbance is a fundamental ecological process that remains central to understanding patterns in plant ecology. Although succession has been studied for well over a century, understanding of the patterns and processes of change is still inadequate, partly because of the dearth of long-term studies. 2. Here, we use, as a model system, a volcanic disturbance that is widespread and of global relevance. We examine succession in old-growth conifer forest understories following...

Data from: Raising the bar: recovery ambition for species at risk in canada and the US

Kylee A. Pawluk, Caroline H. Fox, Christina N. Service, Eva H. Stredulinsky & Heather Bryan
Routinely crossing international borders and/or persisting in populations across multiple countries, species are commonly subject to a patchwork of endangered species legislation. Canada and the United States share numerous endangered species; their respective acts, the Species at Risk Act (SARA) and the Endangered Species Act (ESA), require documents that outline requirements for species recovery. Although there are many priorities for improving endangered species legislation effectiveness, species recovery goals are a crucial component. We compared recovery...

Boreal predator co-occurrences reveal shared use of seismic lines in a working landscape

Erin R. Tattersall, Joanna M. Burgar, Jason T. Fisher & A. Cole Burton
Interspecific interactions are an integral aspect of ecosystem functioning that may be disrupted in an increasingly anthropocentric world. Industrial landscape change creates a novel playing field on which these interactions take place, and a key question for wildlife managers is whether and how species are able to coexist in such working landscapes. Using camera traps deployed in northern Alberta, we surveyed boreal predators to determine whether interspecific interactions affected occurrences of black bears (Ursus americanus),...

Data from: Contrasting conifer species productivity in relation to soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry of British Columbia perhumid rainforests

John Marty Kranabetter, Ariana Sholinder & Louise De Montigny
Temperate rainforest soils of the Pacific Northwest are often carbon (C) rich and encompass a wide range in fertility reflecting varying nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability. Soil resource stoichiometry (C:N:P) may provide an effective measure of site nutrient status and help refine species-dependent patterns in forest productivity across edaphic gradients. We determined mineral soil and forest floor nutrient concentrations across very wet (perhumid) rainforest sites of southwestern Vancouver Island (Canada), and employed soil element...

Spatial structure of reproductive success infers mechanisms of ungulate invasion in Nearctic boreal landscapes

Jason Fisher
1. Landscape change is a key driver of biodiversity declines due to habitat loss and fragmentation, but spatially shifting resources can also facilitate range expansion and invasion. Invasive populations are reproductively successful, and landscape change may buoy this success. 2. We show how modelling the spatial structure of reproductive success can elucidate the mechanisms of range shifts and sustained invasions for mammalian species with attendant young. We use an example of white-tailed deer (deer; Odocoileus...

Is Neoliberalism Killing Us? A Cross Sectional Study of the Impact of Neoliberal Beliefs on Health and Social Wellbeing in the Midst of the COVID-19 Pandemic

Kiffer G. Card & Kirk J. Hepburn
Neoliberal ideology is linked to poorer collective health and well-being. At the individual level, however, neoliberal beliefs may actually promote self-efficacy, self-esteem, and self-reliance. We examined the effects of three beliefs underlying neoliberalism—(a) Personal Wherewithal, (b) Natural Competition, and (c) Anti-Government Interference—to understand the unique pathways by which neoliberalism affects health and well-being at the individual level. Participants were recruited using paid advertisements on social media in May/June 2020. Multivariable regression identified associations between each...

Divergence in life history and behaviour between hybridizing Phymata

David Punzalan
Life history variation plays a central role in evolutionary and ecological processes, and may be especially pertinent to divergence in closely related species. We investigated life history differences in a pair of parapatric species of ambush bugs (Phymata) and a putative hybrid population. Despite the evidence of gene flow among these species, we found clear divergence between these parapatric populations for a suite of juvenile and adult life history traits including components of fitness. The...

Tropicalization of temperate reef fish communities facilitated by urchin grazing and diversity of thermal affinities

Jasmin Schuster, Rick Stuart-Smith, Graham Edgar & Amanda Bates
Aim: Global declines in structurally complex habitats are reshaping both land and seascapes in directions that affect biological communities’ responses to warming. Here, we test whether widespread loss of kelp habitats through sea urchin overgrazing systematically changes sensitivity of fish communities to warming. Location: Global temperate latitudes Time period: Modern Major taxa studied: Fishes Methods: Community thermal affinity shifts related to habitat were assessed by simulating and comparing fish communities from 2,271 surveys across 15...

The genomic consistency of the loss of anadromy in an Arctic fish (Salvelinus alpinus)

Sarah Salisbury, Gregory McCracken, Robert Perry, Donald Keefe, Kara Layton, Tony Kess, Cameron Nugent, Jong Leong, Ian Bradbury, Ben Koop, Moira Ferguson & Daniel Ruzzante
The potentially significant genetic consequences associated with the loss of migratory capacity of diadromous fishes which have become landlocked in freshwater are poorly understood. Consistent selective pressures associated with freshwater residency may drive repeated differentiation both between allopatric landlocked and anadromous populations and within landlocked populations (resulting in sympatric morphs). Alternatively, the strong genetic drift anticipated in isolated landlocked populations could hinder consistent adaptation, limiting genetic parallelism. Understanding the degree of genetic parallelism underlying differentiation...

Hybrid evolution repeats itself across environmental contexts in Texas sunflowers (Helianthus)

Nora Mitchell, Hoang Luu, Gregory Owens, Loren Rieseberg & Kenneth Whitney
To what extent is evolution repeatable? Little is known about whether the evolution of hybrids is more (or less) repeatable than non-hybrids. We used field experimental evolution in annual sunflowers (Helianthus) in Texas to ask the extent to which hybrid evolution is repeatable across environments compared to non-hybrid controls. We created hybrids between Helianthus annuus (L.) and H. debilis (Nutt.) and grew plots of both hybrids and non-hybrid controls through eight generations at three sites...

Additional file 1 of PrEP-related stigma and PrEP use among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada

Oscar Javier Pico-Espinosa, Mark Hull, Paul MacPherson, Daniel Grace, Mark Gaspar, Nathan Lachowsky, Saira Mohammed, James Demers, Marshall Kilduff, Robinson Truong & Darrell H. S. Tan
Supplementary Figures and Tables.

Life stage and taxonomy the most important factors determining vertebrate stoichiometry: A meta-analysis

Emily May & Rana El Sabaawi
1. Whole-body elemental composition is a key trait for determining how organisms influence their ecosystems. Using mass-balance, ecological stoichiometry predicts that animals with higher concentrations of element X will selectively retain more X and will recycle less X in their waste than animals with lower X concentrations. These animals will also store high quantities of X during their lives and after their deaths (prior to full decomposition). 2. Vertebrates may uniquely impact nutrient cycling because...

The Revised Identification of Seniors At Risk screening tool predicts readmission in older hospitalized patients: a cohort study

Jane McCusker, Rebecca N. Warburton, Sylvie D. Lambert, Eric Belzile & Manon de Raad
Abstract Background The Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) screening tool is a widely-used risk stratification tool for older adults in the emergency department (ED). Few studies have investigated the use of ISAR to predict outcomes of hospitalized patients. To improve usability a revised version of ISAR (ISAR-R), was developed in a quality improvement project. The ISAR-R is also widely used, although never formally validated. To address these two gaps in knowledge, we aimed to...

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