263 Works

Handicap, famille et soutien : Regard croisé Québec-Suisse

Geneviève Piérart, Sylvie Tétreault, Pascale Marier Deschênes & Sophie Blais-Michaud
Ce texte propose une analyse croisée du soutien aux familles d’enfants handicapés au Québec et en Suisse romande. Il présente, pour chaque région, les principales législations en lien avec la politique familiale et le handicap, les dispositifs de sécurité sociale ainsi que l’organisation des services sociaux, scolaires et de santé. Les deux territoires possèdent un héritage historique commun ancré dans une approche caritative du handicap. Dans les années 1970, les revendications des mouvements associatifs ont...

Trend Inflation, Wage and Price Rigidities, and Welfare

Robert Amano, Kevin Moran, Stephen Murchison & Andrew Rennison
This paper studies the steady-state costs of inflation in a general-equilibrium model with real per capita output growth and staggered nominal price and wage contracts. Our analysis shows that trend inflation has important effects on the economy when combined with nominal contracts and real output growth. Steady-state output and welfare losses are quantitatively important even for low values of trend inflation. Further, we show that nominal wage contracting is quantitatively more important than nominal price...

What Peer-review Experiences Can Offer To Early Career Scientists And To The Scientific Community

Gwenaëlle Gremion, Mathieu Casado, Kelsey Aho, Jilda Alicia Caccavo, Nicolas Champollion, Emily Choy, Sarah L. Connors, Rahul Dey, Alfonso Fernandez, Gerlis Fugmann, Juan Höfer, Shridhar Jawak, Martine Lizotte, Sarah Maes, Kyle Mayers, Katja Mintenbeck, Jhon Fredy Mojica Moncada, Prashant H. Pandit, Elvira Poloczanska, Paul Rosenbaum, Elisa Seyboth, Sarah Shakil & Maud van Soest

Hydroxyacetophenone defenses in white spruce against spruce budworm

Genevieve Parent, Claudia Méndez-Espinoza, Isabelle Giguère, Melissa H. Mageroy, Martin Charest, Éric Bauce, Joerg Bohlmann & John MacKay
We review a recently discovered white spruce (Picea glauca) chemical defense against spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) involving hydroxyacetophenones. These defense metabolites detected in the foliage accumulate variably as the aglycons, piceol and pungenol, or the corresponding glucosides, picein and pungenin. We summarize current knowledge of the genomic, molecular and biochemical as well as genetic underpinnings of this defense and its effects on C. fumiferana. We present an update with new results on the ontogenic variation...

Context-dependent dispersal determines relatedness and genetic structure in a patchy amphibian population

Bianca Unglaub, Hugo Cayuela, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Kathleen Preißler, Julian Glos & Sebastian Steinfartz
Dispersal is a central process in ecology and evolution with far reaching consequences for the dynamics and genetics of spatially structured populations (SSPs). Individuals can adjust their decisions to disperse according to local fitness prospects, resulting in context-dependent dispersal. By determining dispersal rate, distance, and direction, these individual-level decisions further modulate the demography, relatedness, and genetic structure of SSPs. Here, we examined how context-dependent dispersal influences the dynamics and genetics of a Great Crested Newt...

Data from: Large herbivores trigger spatiotemporal changes in forest plant diversity

Julien Beguin, Steeve D. Côté & Mark Vellend
Large herbivores can exert top-down control on terrestrial plant communities, but the magnitude, direction, and scale-dependency of their impacts remain equivocal, especially in temperate and boreal forests, where multiple disturbances often interact. Using a unique, long-term and replicated landscape experiment, we assessed the influence of a high density of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the spatiotemporal dynamics of diversity, composition, and successional trajectories of understorey plant assemblages in recently logged boreal forests. This experiment provided...

Data from: Predicting the genetic impact of stocking in Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) by combining RAD sequencing and modeling of explanatory variables

Justine Létourneau, Anne-Laure Ferchaud, Jérémy Le Luyer, Martin Laporte, Dany Garant & Louis Bernatchez
In fisheries management, intensive stocking programs are commonly used to enhance population abundance and maintain stock productivity. However, such practices are increasingly raising concerns since multiple studies documented adverse genetic and evolutionary impacts of stocking on wild populations. Improvement of stocking management relies on a better understanding of the dynamic of introgressive hybridization between wild and domestic population and on assessment of the genetic state of wild populations after stocking cessation. In Québec, Canada, over...

Data from: Genomic parallelism and lack thereof in contrasting systems of three‐spined sticklebacks

Shenglin Liu, Anne-Laure Ferchaud, Peter Grønkjær, Rasmus Nygaard & Michael M. Hansen
Parallel evolution and the extent to which it involves gene reuse has attracted much interest. Whereas it has theoretically been predicted under which circumstances gene reuse is expected, empirical studies that directly compare systems showing high and low parallelism are rare. Three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), where freshwater populations have been independently founded by ancestral marine populations, represent prime examples of phenotypic and genomic parallelism, but cases exist where parallelism is low. Based on RAD (Restriction...

Data from: All roads lead to home: panmixia of European eel in the Sargasso Sea

Thomas D Als, Michael M Hansen, Gregory E Maes, Martin Castonguay, Lasse Riemann, Kim Aarestrup, Peter Munk, Henrik Sparholt, Reinhold Hanel & Louis Bernatchez
European eels (Anguilla anguilla) spawn in the remote Sargasso Sea in partial sympatry with American eels (Anguilla rostrata), and juveniles are transported more than 5,000 kilometres back to the European and North African coasts. The two species have been regarded as classic textbook examples of panmixia, each comprising a single, randomly mating population. However, several recent studies based on continental samples have found subtle, but significant, genetic differentiation, interpreted as geographical or temporal heterogeneity between...

Data from: Hot spots of genetic diversity descended from multiple Pleistocene refugia in an alpine ungulate

Aaron BA Shafer, Steeve D Côté & David W Coltman
Species that inhabit naturally fragmented environments are expected to be spatially structured and exhibit reduced genetic diversity at the periphery of their range. Patterns of differentiation may also reflect historical processes such as recolonization from glacial refugia. We examined the relative importance of these factors in shaping the spatial patterns of genetic differentiation across the range of an alpine specialist, the North American mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Contrary to fossil evidence which suggests a single...

Data from: Strategies for a successful plant invasion: the reproduction of Phragmites australis in northeastern North America

Arnaud Albert, Jacques Brisson, François Belzile, Julie Turgeon & Claude Lavoie
1. Knowing the relative contribution of vegetative propagation and sexual reproduction to the dispersal and establishment of exotic plants is crucial for devising efficient control strategies. This is particularly true for the common reed (Phragmites australis), one of the most invasive species in North America. 2. For the first time we combined in situ field observations and genetic evidence, based on two genotyping techniques, i.e., microsatellite markers (SSR) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), to determine the propagation...

Data from: RAD genotyping reveals fine-scale genetic structuring and provides powerful population assignment in a widely distributed marine species, the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

Laura Benestan
Deciphering genetic structure and inferring connectivity in marine species have been challenging due to weak genetic differentiation and limited resolution offered by traditional genotypic methods. The main goal of this study was to assess how a population genomics framework could help delineate the genetic structure of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) throughout much of the species’ range and increase the assignment success of individuals to their location of origin. We genotyped 10 156 filtered SNPs...

Data from: Temporal variation in spatial genetic structure during population outbreaks: distinguishing among different potential drivers of spatial synchrony

Jeremy Larroque, Simon Legault, Rob Johns, Lisa Lumley, Michel Cusson, Sébastien Renaut, Roger Levesque & Patrick M. A. James
Spatial synchrony is a common characteristic of spatio-temporal population dynamics across many taxa. While it is known that both dispersal and spatially autocorrelated environmental variation (i.e., the Moran effect) can synchronize populations, the relative contributions of each, and how they interact, is generally unknown. Distinguishing these mechanisms and their effects on synchrony can help us to better understand spatial population dynamics, design conservation and management strategies, and predict climate change impacts. Population genetic data can...

Data from: Parallel and nonparallel genome-wide divergence among replicate population pairs of freshwater and anadromous Atlantic salmon

Charles Perrier, Vincent Bourret, Matthew P. Kent & Louis Bernatchez
Little is known about the genetic basis differentiating resident and anadromous forms found in many salmonid species. Using a medium-density SNP array, we documented genomic diversity and divergence at 2336 genetically mapped loci among three pairs of North American anadromous and freshwater Atlantic salmon populations. Our results show that across the genome, freshwater populations have lower diversity and a smaller proportion of private polymorphism relative to anadromous populations. Moreover, differentiation was more pronounced among freshwater...

Data from: Logging-induced changes in habitat network connectivity shape behavioral interactions in the wolf-caribou-moose system

Nicolas Courbin, Daniel Fortin, Christian Dussault & R. Courtois
Habitat connectivity influences the distribution dynamics of animals. Connectivity can therefore shape trophic interactions, but little empirical evidence is available, especially for large mammals. In forest ecosystems, logging alters functional connectivity among habitat patches, and such activities can affect the spatial game between large herbivores and their predators. We used graph theory to evaluate how harvesting-induced changes in habitat connectivity influence patch choice and residency time of GPS-collared caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) and moose (Alces...

Dataset for: Effects of chloride and nutrients on freshwater plankton communities

Danielle Greco, Shelley Arnott, Isabelle Fournier & Brandon Schamp
Increasing chloride concentrations threaten freshwater zooplankton. We questioned the protectiveness of the Canadian Water Quality Guideline for chloride because it is based on individual species studied under laboratory conditions and does not account for potential interactive factors, such as nutrient concentration. We exposed plankton communities to thirty chloride concentration increments for six weeks, crossed with either ambient or high nutrient treatments. Total zooplankton abundance, biomass, and richness declined with increasing chloride, with losses observed below...

Sensitivity analysis of the maximum entropy production method to model evaporation in boreal and temperate forests

Audrey Maheu, Pierre-Erik Isabelle, Laure Viens, Daniel F. Nadeau, François Anctil & Jingfeng Wang
The maximum entropy production (MEP) approach has been little used to simulate evaporation in forests and its sensitivity to input variables has yet to be systematically evaluated. This study addresses these shortcomings. First, we show that the MEP model performed well in simulating evaporation during the snow-free period at six sites in temperate and boreal forests (0.68 ≤ NSE ≤ 0.82). Second, we computed a sensitivity coefficient S representing the proportion of change in the...

Adult survival in migratory caribou is negatively associated with MHC functional diversity

Marianne Gagnon, Glenn Yannic, Frédéric Boyer & Steeve Côté
The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are involved in acquired, specific immunity in vertebrates. Yet, only a few studies have investigated the fitness consequences of MHC gene diversity in wild populations. Here, we looked at the association between annual survival and body mass and MHC-DRB exon 2 (MHC-DRB) genetic diversity, obtained from high-throughput sequencing, in two declining migratory caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herds. To disentangle the potential direct and general effects of MHC-DRB genetic...

Rearing environment affects the genetic architecture and plasticity of DNA methylation in Chinook salmon

Clare Venney, Kyle Wellband & Daniel Heath
Genetic architecture and phenotypic plasticity are important considerations when studying trait variation within and among populations. Since environmental change can induce shifts in the genetic architecture and plasticity of traits, it is important to consider both genetic and environmental sources of phenotypic variation. While there is overwhelming evidence for environmental effects on phenotype, the underlying mechanisms are less clear. Variation in DNA methylation is a potential mechanism mediating environmental effects on phenotype due to its...

Effects of different moose browsing pressures on the succession of plant communities within the herbaceous and saplings layers of a boreal forest

Laurent De Vriendt, Sébastien Lavoie, Jean-Pierre Tremblay & Maxime Brousseau
The present data is constituted of four different excel files: browsing data, herbs layer data, saplings layer data and latin names data. 1) Browsing data contains the number of browsed and unbrowsed twigs from all ligneous plants in the samplings plots along time. 2) Herbs layer data contains the cumulated cover of all plants species along 14 three meters long and one meter high transcects within each experimental units. 3) Saplings layer data contains the...

Do ecological specialization and functional traits explain the abundance–frequency relationship? Arable weeds as a case study

Guillaume Fried, Laura Armengot, Jonathan Storkey, Bérenger Bourgeois, Sabrina Gaba, Cyrille Violle & François Munoz
Aim: The abundance-frequency relationship (AFR) is among the most-investigated pattern in biogeography, yet the relative contributions of niche-based processes related to ecological strategies, and of neutral processes related to spatial colonization-extinction dynamics, remains uncertain. Here, we tested the influences of ecological specialization and functional traits on local abundance and regional frequency, to determine the contribution of niche-based processes. Location: France and the UK. Taxon: Vascular plants. Methods: We used two arable weed surveys covering 1544...

Vascular plant community data for Northwest Territories, Canada

Jennifer Baltzer, Nicola Day, Alison White, Kirsten Reid, Geneviève Degré-Timmons, Steve Cumming, Michelle Mack, Merritt Turetsky, Xanthe Walker & Jill Johnstone
Climate change is altering disturbance regimes outside of historical norms, which can impact biodiversity by selecting for plants with particular traits. The relative impact of disturbance characteristics on plant traits and community structure may be mediated by environmental gradients. We aimed to understand how wildfire impacted understory plant communities and plant regeneration strategies along gradients of environmental conditions and wildfire characteristics in boreal forests. We established 207 plots (60m2) in recently burned stands and 133...

Linking genetic, morphological, and behavioural divergence between inland island and mainland deer mice

Joshua Miller, Dany Garant, Charles Perrier, Tristan Juette, Joël Jameson, Denis Réale, Eric Normandeau & Louis Bernatchez
The island syndrome hypothesis (ISH) stipulates that, as a result of local selection pressures and restricted gene flow, individuals from island populations should differ from individuals within mainland populations. Specifically, island populations are predicted to contain individuals that are larger, less aggressive, more sociable, and that invest more in their offspring. To date, tests of the ISH have mainly compared oceanic islands to continental sites, and rarely smaller spatial scales such as inland watersheds. Here,...

Effects of temperature on mating behaviour and mating success: a meta-analysis

Natalie Pilakouta & Anais Baillet
In light of global climate change, there is a pressing need to understand how populations will respond to rising temperatures. Understanding the effects of temperature changes on mating behaviour is particularly important, given its implications for population viability. To this end, we performed a meta-analysis of 53 studies to examine how temperature changes influence mating latency, choosiness, and mating success. We hypothesized that if higher temperatures make mate searching and mate assessment more costly due...

Data from: Effects of sampling effort on biodiversity patterns estimated from environmental DNA metabarcoding surveys

Erin K. Grey, Louis Bernatchez, Phillip Cassey, Kristy Deiner, Marty Deveney, Kimberley L. Howland, Anaïs Lacoursière-Roussel, Sandric Chee Yew Leong, Yiyuan Li, Brett Olds, Michael E. Pfrender, Thomas A. A. Prowse, Mark A. Renshaw & David M. Lodge
Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding can greatly enhance our understanding of global biodiversity and our ability to detect rare or cryptic species. However, sampling effort must be considered when interpreting results from these surveys. We explored how sampling effort influenced biodiversity patterns and nonindigenous species (NIS) detection in an eDNA metabarcoding survey of four commercial ports. Overall, we captured sequences from 18 metazoan phyla with minimal differences in taxonomic coverage between 18 S and COI primer...

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  • Université Laval
  • Université de Sherbrooke
  • University of British Columbia
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
  • Université du Québec à Rimouski
  • University of Alberta
  • Canadian Forest Service
  • Aarhus University
  • Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks