266 Works

Data from: Distinct sources of gene flow produce contrasting population genetic dynamics at different range boundaries of a Choristoneura budworm

Gwylim S. Blackburn, Bryan M. T. Brunet, Kevin Muirhead, Michel Cusson, Catherine Béliveau, Roger C. Levesque, Lisa M. Lumley & Felix A. H. Sperling
Populations are often exposed to multiple sources of gene flow, but accounts are lacking of the population genetic dynamics that result from these interactions or their effects on local evolution. Using a genomic clines framework applied to 1195 SNPs, we documented genome-wide, locus-specific patterns of introgression between Choristoneura occidentalis biennis spruce budworms and two ecologically divergent relatives, C. o. occidentalis and C. fumiferana, that it interacts with at alternate boundaries of its range. We observe...

Data from: Simulated caribou browsing limits the effect of nutrient addition on the growth of Betula glandulosa, an expanding shrub species in Eastern Canada

Clara Morrissette-Boileau, Stéphane Boudreau, Jean-Pierre Tremblay & Steeve D. Côté
1.Warmer summer temperatures and enhanced soil fertility increase shrub growth in tundra ecosystems, and these factors have likely contributed to shrub expansion at the circumpolar scale over the last decades. Conversely, large herbivores have the potential to counteract the positive impacts of climate change on shrub growth. Indeed, by stripping the leaves, herbivores have the potential to control the growth of shrub species and, consequently, limit their expansion. 2.To disentangle the impacts of climate change...

Data from: Complementary mechanisms for upright balance during walking

Hendrik Reimann, Tyler D. Fettrow, Elizabeth D. Thompson, Peter Agada, Bradford J. McFadyen & John J. Jeka
Lateral balance is a critical factor in keeping the human body upright during walking. Two important mechanisms for balance control are the stepping strategy, in which the foot placement is changed in the direction of a sensed fall to modulate how the gravitational force acts on the body, and the lateral ankle strategy, in which the body mass is actively accelerated by an ankle torque. Currently, there is minimal evidence about how these two strategies...

Data from: Null alleles are ubiquitous at microsatellite loci in the Wedge Clam (Donax trunculus)

Ciro Rico, Jose Antonio Cuesta, Pilar Drake, Enrique Macpherson, Louis Bernatchez & Amandine D. Marie
Recent studies have reported an unusually high frequency of nonamplifying alleles at microsatellite loci in bivalves. Null alleles have been associated with heterozygous deficits in many studies. While several studies have tested for its presence using different analytical tools, few have empirically tested for its consequences in estimating population structure and differentiation. We characterised 16 newly developed microsatellite loci and show that null alleles are ubiquitous in the wedge clam, Donax trunculus. We carried out...

Data from: Coping with strong variations in winter severity: plastic habitat selection of deer at high density

Nicolas Courbin, Christian Dussault, Alexandre Veillette, Marie-Andrée Giroux & Steeve D. Côté
Few empirical studies on large herbivores considered how behavioral plasticity could enhance their capacity to cope with rapid and extreme changes in weather conditions at several spatiotemporal scales. During winter, large herbivores living under low predation pressure mainly trade-off benefits of forage acquisition with the costs of exposure to harsh weather conditions. We assessed the changes in this trade-off for white-tailed deer adult females on Anticosti Island (Canada) at different scales during 2 contrasted winters...

Data from: Vegetation response to control of invasive Tamarix in southwestern US rivers: a collaborative study including 416 sites

Eduardo González, Anna A. Sher, Robert M. Anderson, Robin F. Bay, Daniel W. Bean, Gabriel J. Bissonnete, Bérenger Bourgeois, David J. Cooper, Kara Dohrenwend, Kim D. Eichhorst, Hisham El Waer, Deborah K. Kennard, Rebecca Harms-Weissinger, Annie L. Henry, Lori J. Makarick, Steven M. Ostoja, Lindsay V. Reynolds, W. Wright Robinson & Patrick B. Shafroth
Most studies assessing vegetation response following control of invasive Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers have been small in scale (e.g., river reach), or at a regional scale but with poor spatial-temporal replication, and most have not included testing the effects of a now widely-used biological control. We monitored plant composition following Tamarix control along hydrologic, soil and climatic gradients in 244 treated and 172 reference sites across six U.S. States. This represents the largest...

Data from: Genomics and telemetry suggest a role for migration harshness in determining overwintering habitat choice, but not gene flow, in anadromous Arctic Char

Jean-Sébastien Moore, Les N. Harris, Jérémy Le Luyer, Ben J.G. Sutherland, Quentin Rougemont, Ross F. Tallman, Aaron T. Fisk & Louis Bernatchez
Migration is a ubiquitous life history trait with profound evolutionary and ecological consequences. Recent developments in telemetry and genomics, when combined, can bring significant insights on the migratory ecology of non-model organisms in the wild. Here, we used this integrative approach to document dispersal, gene flow and potential for local adaptation in anadromous Arctic Char from six rivers in the Canadian Arctic. Acoustic telemetry data from 124 tracked individuals indicated asymmetric dispersal, with a large...

Data from: Maternal longevity and offspring sex in wild ungulates

Mathieu Douhard, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Sandra Hamel, Dan Nussey, Steeve Côté, Josephine Pemberton & Fanie Pelletier
In species with sexual size dimorphism, offspring of the larger sex usually have greater energy requirements and may lead to greater fitness costs for parents. The effects of offspring sex on maternal longevity, however, have only been tested in humans. Human studies produced mixed results and considerable debate mainly due to the difficulty of distinguishing the effects of sexual dimorphism from sociocultural factors. To advance this debate, we examined how the relative number of sons...

Data from: Landscape genetic structure of Scirpus mariqueter reveals a putatively adaptive differentiation under strong gene flow in estuaries

Mei Yang, Chengyuan Xu, Pierre Duchesne, Qiang Ma, Ganqiang Yin, Yang Fang, Fan Lu & Wenju Zhang
Estuarine organisms grow in highly heterogeneous habitats and their genetic differentiation are driven by selective and neutral processes as well as population colonization history. However, the relative importance of the processes that underlie genetic structure is still puzzling. Scirpus mariqueter is a perennial grass almost limited in the Changjiang River estuary and it’s adjacent Qiantang River estuary. Here, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), a moderate-high level of genetic differentiation among populations (range FST: 0.0310-0.3325)...

Terrestrial lichen data for Northwest Territories, Canada

Jennifer Baltzer, Geneviève Degré-Timmons, Nicola Day, Steve Cumming, Merritt Turetsky & Jill Johnstone
Increased fire activity due to climate change may impact the successional dynamics of boreal forests, with important consequences for caribou habitat. Early successional forests have been shown to support lower quantities of caribou forage lichens, but geographic variation in, and controls on, the rates of lichen recovery have been largely unexplored. In this study, we sampled across a broad region in northwestern Canada to compare lichen biomass accumulation in ecoprovinces, including the Saskatchewan Boreal Shield,...

Integrating functional connectivity in designing networks of protected areas under climate change: a caribou case-study

Martin-Hugues St-Laurent, Sarah Bauduin, Steven G. Cumming & Eliot J.B. McIntire
Land-use change and climate change are recognized as two main drivers of the current biodiversity decline. Protected areas help safeguard the landscape from additional anthropogenic disturbances and, when properly designed, can help species cope with climate change impacts. When designed to protect the regional biodiversity rather than to conserve focal species or landscape elements, protected areas need to cover a representative sample of the regional biodiversity and be functionally connected, facilitating individual movements among protected...

DNA microarray of long-lived neutrophils versus control

Patrice Poubelle
The concept of plasticity of neutrophils is highlighted by studies showing their ability to transdifferentiate into antigen-presenting cells. In this regard, transdifferentiated neutrophils were found at inflammatory sites of autoimmune arthritis (AIA). Exposure of neutrophils to inflammatory stimuli prolongs their survival, thereby favoring the acquisition of pathophysiologically relevant phenotypes and functions. By using microarrays, qRT-PCR, and ELISAs, we showed that long-lived (LL) neutrophils obtained after 48 h of culture in the presence of GM-CSF, TNF,...

Bank Leverage Regulation and Macroeconomic Dynamics

Ian Christensen, Cesaire Meh & Kevin Moran
This paper assesses the merits of countercyclical bank balance sheet regulation for the stabilization of financial and economic cycles and examines its interaction with monetary policy. The framework used is a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with banks and bank capital, in which bank capital solves an asymmetric information problem between banks and their creditors. In this economy, the lending decisions of individual banks affect the riskiness of the whole banking sector, though banks do...

Setting a Structured Food and Feed Laboratory Testing Capacity in the Arab Region

Samuel Godefroy

Testing the Pricing-to-Market Hypothesis: Case of the Transportation Equipment Industry

Lynda Khalaf & Maral Kichian
Pricing-to-market (PTM) theory suggests that monopolistic firms which export adjust their destination-specific markups in reaction to exchange rate shocks. These adjustments limit changes in the price of their exports. Thus, important movements in the bilateral nominal exchange rate between two countries that trade are not necessarily fully reflected in the price of imports. Evidence in favour of PTM has been mostly obtained through hypothesis testing on the OLS, instrumental variable (IV), or single-equation error-correction estimates...

Data from: Divergence of Arctic shrub growth associated with sea ice decline

Agata Buchwal, Patrick F. Sullivan, Marc Macias-Fauria, Eric Post, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Julienne C. Stroeve, Daan Blok, Ken D. Tape, Bruce C. Forbes, Pascale Ropars, Esther Lévesque, Bo Elberling, Sandra Angers-Blondin, Joseph S. Boyle, Stéphane Boudreau, Noémie Boulanger-Lapointe, Cassandra Gamm, Martin Hallinger, Grzegorz Rachlewicz, Amanda Young, Pentti Zetterberg & Jeffrey M. Welker
Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) is declining at an accelerating rate with a wide range of ecological consequences. However, determining sea ice effects on tundra vegetation remains a challenge. In this study, we examined the universality or lack thereof in tundra shrub growth responses to changes in SIE and summer climate across the Pan-Arctic, taking advantage of 23 tundra shrub-ring chronologies from 19 widely distributed sites (56⁰-83⁰N).

Mesophyll conductance to CO2 in relation to drought in hybrid poplar

Lahcen Benomar
The study examines the physiological response of two hybrid poplar clones to two soil moisture: control (80% field capacity) and drought (40 % field capacity). Four weeks after treatments, we measured the photosynthetic CO2 response curve and estimated mesophyll conductance, Vcmax and Jmax. Amax, gse, gm et Vcmax decreased under drought. The ratio gm to gs increased under drought conditions.

Insect-mediated apparent competition between mammals in a boreal food web

Guillemette Labadie, Philip D. McLoughlin, Mark Hebblewhite & Daniel Fortin
Datasets generated and analyzed within the study area located in the Côte-Nord region of Québec, Canada. "DataFinal_Vegetation.csv" was used to evaluate the availability of deciduous vegetation (column Cover_Deciduous) in stands impacted by the spruce budworm (SBW, severity index values presented in column SBW_SevCum) outbreak and test our prediction that the reduction in canopy cover caused by SBW in coniferous stands would result in greater deciduous vegetation. We determined the percentage cover of deciduous vegetation for...

eDNA metabarcoding as a means to assess distribution of subterranean fish communities: Iranian blind cave fishes as a case study

Iraj Hashemzadeh Segherloo, Seyedeh Narjes Tabatabaei, Eisa Abdolahi-Mousavi, Cecilia Hernandez, Eric Normandeau, Martin Laporte, Brian Boyle, Mohsen Amiri, Nabiallah GhaedRahmati, Eric Hallerman & Louis Bernatchez
One of the most important steps in conservation of the subterranean life forms is to decipher their distribution and ecology, which is challenging using traditional approaches. Development of an environmental DNA (eDNA) assay provides an efficient means for discovering and monitoring subterranean life forms. In this study, the distribution of three Iranian blind cave fish species (blind Iran cave barb Garra typhlops, blind Lorestan cave barb Garra lorestanensis, and blind cave loach Eidinemacheilus smithi) was...

Raw data of eDNA quantities from an experimental study testing temperature, water masses, and fish species

Isabeau Caza-Allard, Martin Laporte, Guillaume Côté, Julien April & Louis Bernatchez
Environmental DNA (eDNA) is a very promising approach to facilitate and improve the aquatic species monitoring, which is crucial for their management and conservation. In comparison with the plethora of monitoring studies in the fields, relatively few studies have focused on experimentally investigating the “ecology” of eDNA, in particular pertaining to processes influencing the detection of eDNA. The paucity of knowledge about its ecology hampers the use of eDNA analysis to its full potential. In...

Temporal changes in the potential geographic distribution of Histiotus velatus (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae), the “decade effect\"

Liriann Chrisley Da Silva, Rafaela Almeida, Pablo Henrique Da Silva, Monik Oprea, Poliana Mendes, Daniel Brito & Thiago Vieira
Also investigate how the potential distribution of this species changes with the addition of new records over the decades (decade effect). Assuming that (1: hypothesis of the effect of the decade) the addition of new occurrence records over time increases the potential size of the species distribution; and (2: Wallacean distance hypothesis) over the years, the new points added are increasingly distant from the research centers. Considering the geographic knowledge gap of Histiotu velatus, our...

Data for the detection of the boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata) using environmental DNA and call surveys at 180 ponds sampled in 2017-2018 in southeastern Québec, Canada

Marc J. Mazerolle, Marie-Pier Dubois-Gagnon, Louis Bernatchez, Marc Bélisle & Yohann Dubois
The boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata) is at risk of extinction in parts of its range in Canada. Our objectives were to quantify the influence of local and landscape characteristics on the occurrence of the species in wetlands in southern Québec. We hypothesized that site occupancy depends on local characteristics and landscape characteristics contributing to site connectivity. We developed an environmental DNA (eDNA) method to detect the species and compared the detection probability of this...

Effects of population density on static allometry between horn length and body mass in mountain ungulates

Christophe Pelabon, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Steeve Côté, Carole Toigo, Mathieu Garel & Anne Loison
Little is known about the effects of environmental variation on allometric relationships of condition-dependent traits, especially in wild populations. We estimated sex-specific static allometry between horn length and body mass in four populations of mountain ungulates that experienced periods of contrasting density over the course of the study. These species displayed contrasting sexual dimorphism in horn size; high dimorphism in Capra ibex and Ovis canadensis and low dimorphism in Rupicapra rupicapra and Oreamnos americanus. The...

Data from an experimental study to determine the impact of snow hardness on lemming locomotion

Mathilde Poirier, Dominique Fauteux, Gilles Gauthier, Florent Dominé & Jean-François Lamarre
Lemmings are an essential link of the Arctic food web as they are the main prey of many predators inhabiting these regions. These small rodents exhibiting cyclic fluctuation of their population can stay active throughout the winter and must dig a network of tunnels in the snow to reach vegetation on which they are feeding. Therefore, snow hardness where they dig has the potential to affect their effort while digging as well as their performance....

Data from: Above- and belowground drivers of intraspecific trait variability across subcontinental gradients for five ubiquitous forest plants in North America

Isabelle Aubin, Françoise Cardou, Alison Munson, Madhur Anand, André Arsenault, F. Wayne Bell, Yves Bergeron, Isabelle Boulangeat, Sylvain Delagrange, Nicole J. Fenton, Dominique Gravel, François Hébert, Jill Johnstone, S. Ellen Macdonald, Azim Mallik, Anne C.S. McIntosh, Jennie R. McLaren, Christian Messier, Dave Morris, Bill Shipley, Luc Sirois, Nelson Thiffault, Laura Boisvert-Marsh & Bright B. Kumordzi
Intraspecific trait variability (ITV) provides the material for species adaptation to environmental changes. To advance our understanding of how ITV can contribute to species adaptation to a wide range of environmental conditions, we studied five widespread understory forest species exposed to both continental-scale climate gradients, and local soil and disturbance gradients. We investigated the environmental drivers of between-site leaf and root trait variation, and tested whether higher between-site ITV was associated with increased trait sensitivity...

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