266 Works

Data from: Inter-continental karyotype-environment parallelism supports a role for a chromosomal inversion in local adaptation in a seaweed fly

Claire Mérot, Emma Berdan, Charles Babin, Eric Normandeau, Maren Wellenreuther, Louis Bernatchez & Emma L. Berdan
Large chromosomal rearrangements are thought to facilitate adaptation to heterogeneous environments by limiting genomic recombination. Indeed, inversions have been implicated in adaptation along environmental clines and in ecotype specialisation. Here, we combine classical ecological studies and population genetics to investigate an inversion polymorphism previously documented in Europe among natural populations of the seaweed fly Coelopa frigida along a latitudinal cline in North America. We test if the inversion is present in North America and polymorphic,...

Circum-Arctic distribution of chemical anti-herbivore compounds arctic shrubs

Elin Lindén, Mariska Te Beest, Ilka Abreu, Thomas Moritz, Maja Sundqvist, Isabel C Barrio, Julia Boike, John Bryant, Kari Anne Bråthen, Agata Buchwal, Guillermo Bueno, Alain Cuerrier, Dagmar Egelkraut, Bruce Forbes, Martin Hallinger, Monique Heijmans, Luise Hermanutz, David S Hik, Annika Hofgaard, Milena Holmgren, Diane C Huebner, Toke Hoye, Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir, Elina Kaarlejärvi, Emilie Kissler … & Johan Olofsson
Spatial variation in plant chemical defence towards herbivores can help us understand variation in herbivore top-down control of shrubs in the Arctic and possibly also shrub responses to global warming. Less defended, non-resinous shrubs could be more influenced by herbivores than more defended, resinous shrubs. However, sparse field measurements limit our current understanding of how much of the circum-Arctic variation in defence compounds is explained by taxa or defence functional groups (resinous/non-resinous). We measured circum-Arctic...

Data from: Habitat selection predicts genetic relatedness in an alpine ungulate

Aaron B. A. Shafer, Joseph M. Northrup, Kevin S. White, Mark S. Boyce, Steeve D. Côté & David W. Coltman
Landscape heterogeneity plays an integral role in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes. Despite links between the two disciplines, ecologists and population geneticists have taken different approaches to evaluating habitat selection, animal movement, and gene flow across the landscape. Ecologists commonly use statistical models such as resource selection functions (RSFs) to identify habitat features disproportionately selected by animals, while population genetic approaches model genetic differentiation according to the distribution of habitat variables. We combined ecological and...

Occupancy modeling of habitat use by white-tailed deer after more than a decade of exclusion in the boreal forest

Aimie Baribeau, Jean-Pierre Tremblay & Steeve Côté
The exclusion of herbivores in forest areas is a strategy used to reduce the impact of selective browsing and increase the regeneration of desired plant species. On Anticosti Island (Québec, Canada), selective browsing by white-tailed deer prevents the regeneration of balsam fir – white birch forests leading to their conversion into white spruce forests. Large deer exclosures were established for ca . 10 to 12 years in clear-cuts with patches of residual forest from 2001...

Individual-based eco-evolutionary models for understanding adaptation in changing seas

Amanda Xuereb, Quentin Rougemont, Peter Tiffin, Huijie Xue & Megan Phifer-Rixey
As climate change threatens species’ persistence, predicting the potential for species to adapt to rapidly changing environments is imperative for the development of effective conservation strategies. Eco-evolutionary individual-based models (IBMs) can be useful tools for achieving this objective. We performed a literature review to identify studies that apply these tools in marine systems. Our survey suggested that this is an emerging area of research fueled in part by developments in modeling frameworks that allow simulation...

Data from: Mating patterns and determinants of individual reproductive success in brown trout (Salmo trutta) revealed by parentage analysis of an entire stream living population

Dimitar Serbezov, Louis Bernatchez, Esben Olsen & Leif Vøllestad
Reproductive success and its determinants are difficult to infer for wild populations of species with no parental care where behavioral observations are difficult or impossible. In this study, we characterized the breeding system and provide estimates of individual reproductive success under natural conditions for a stream-resident, semi-isolated brown trout (Salmo trutta) population. We inferred parentage using a full probability Bayesian model that combines genetic (microsatellite) with phenotypic data. We had tried to exhaustively sample all...

Data from: All roads lead to home: panmixia of European eel in the Sargasso Sea

Thomas D Als, Michael M Hansen, Gregory E Maes, Martin Castonguay, Lasse Riemann, Kim Aarestrup, Peter Munk, Henrik Sparholt, Reinhold Hanel & Louis Bernatchez
European eels (Anguilla anguilla) spawn in the remote Sargasso Sea in partial sympatry with American eels (Anguilla rostrata), and juveniles are transported more than 5,000 kilometres back to the European and North African coasts. The two species have been regarded as classic textbook examples of panmixia, each comprising a single, randomly mating population. However, several recent studies based on continental samples have found subtle, but significant, genetic differentiation, interpreted as geographical or temporal heterogeneity between...

Data from: Hot spots of genetic diversity descended from multiple Pleistocene refugia in an alpine ungulate

Aaron BA Shafer, Steeve D Côté & David W Coltman
Species that inhabit naturally fragmented environments are expected to be spatially structured and exhibit reduced genetic diversity at the periphery of their range. Patterns of differentiation may also reflect historical processes such as recolonization from glacial refugia. We examined the relative importance of these factors in shaping the spatial patterns of genetic differentiation across the range of an alpine specialist, the North American mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Contrary to fossil evidence which suggests a single...

Data from: Habitat selection predicts genetic relatedness in an alpine ungulate

Aaron B. A. Shafer, Joseph M. Northrup, Kevin S. White, Mark S. Boyce, Steeve D. Côté & David W. Coltman
Landscape heterogeneity plays an integral role in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes. Despite links between the two disciplines, ecologists and population geneticists have taken different approaches to evaluating habitat selection, animal movement, and gene flow across the landscape. Ecologists commonly use statistical models such as resource selection functions (RSFs) to identify habitat features disproportionately selected by animals, while population genetic approaches model genetic differentiation according to the distribution of habitat variables. We combined ecological and...

Data from: Historical introgression and the role of selective vs. neutral processes in structuring nuclear genetic variation (AFLP) in a circumpolar marine fish, the capelin (Mallotus villosus)

Gabriel J Colbeck, Julie Turgeon, Pascal Sirois & Julian J Dodson
The capelin (Mallotus villosus) is a widespread marine fish species for which previous work has identified geographically distinct mtDNA clades, the frontiers of which are well within adult and larval dispersal capabilities. Here, we use AFLPs to test for the presence of nuclear gene flow among clades. In addition, we evaluate genetic structuring within one clade, the Northwest Atlantic (NWA). We found that each of the mtDNA clades corresponds with a unique nuclear DNA genetic...

Data from: Putative causes and consequences of MHC variation within and between locally adapted stickleback demes

R. J. Scott McCairns, Sébastien Bourget & Louis Bernatchez
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex have been a source of considerable research interest, owing in large part to the growing body of evidence that they may be subject to both natural and sexual selection. However, much remains to be learned about the dynamics of MHC genes in subdivided populations, particularly those characterized by divergent ecological pressures. In this study, we attempt to disentangle the relative roles of both parasite-mediated selection, and MHC-mediated mate choice...

Data from: The transcriptomics of sympatric dwarf and normal lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis spp., Salmonidae) divergence as revealed by next-generation sequencing

Julie Jeukens, Sébastien Renaut, Jérôme St-Cyr, Arne W. Nolte & Louis Bernatchez
Gene expression divergence is one of the mechanisms thought to be involved in the emergence of incipient species. Next-generation sequencing has become an extremely valuable tool for the study of this process by allowing whole transcriptome sequencing, or RNA-Seq. We have conducted a 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing experiment in order to refine our understanding of adaptive divergence between dwarf and normal lake whitefish species (Coregonus clupeaformis spp.). The objectives were to: (1) investigate transcriptomic divergence as...

Data from: Strong and consistent natural selection associated with armour reduction in sticklebacks

Arnaud Le Rouzic, Kjartan Østbye, Tom O. Klepaker, Thomas F. Hansen, Louis Bernatchez, Dolph Schluter & Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad
Measuring the strength of natural selection is tremendously important in evolutionary biology, but remains a challenging task. In this work, we analyse the characteristics of selection for a morphological change (lateral-plate reduction) in the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Adaptation to freshwater, leading to the reduction or loss of the bony lateral armor, has indeed occurred in parallel on numerous occasions in this species. Completely-plated and low-plated sticklebacks were introduced into a pond, and the phenotypic...

Data from: Population genomics of wild and laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Andrew R Whiteley, Anuradha Bhat, Emilia P Martins, Richard L Mayden, M Arunachalam, Silva Uusi-Heikkilä, A.T.A. Ahmed, Jiwan Shrestha, Matthew Clark, Derek Stemple & Louis Bernatchez
Understanding a wider range of genotype-phenotype associations can be achieved through ecological and evolutionary studies of traditional laboratory models. Here, we conducted the first large-scale geographic analysis of genetic variation within and among wild zebrafish (Danio rerio) populations occurring in Nepal, India, and Bangladesh and we genetically compared wild populations to several commonly used lab strains. We examined genetic variation at 1,832 polymorphic EST-based SNPs and the cytb mitochondrial gene in 13 wild populations and...

Data from: Patterns of colonization and spread in the fungal spruce pathogen Onnia tomentosa

Hugo Germain, Marie-Josée Bergeron, Louis Bernier, Gaston Laflamme & Richard C Hamelin
The basidiomycetous fungus Onnia tomentosa is one of the most widespread root rot pathogens in North America. Although the disease is more severe on spruce and pine trees, this pathogen can infect several coniferous species. In order to study the population structure of O. tomentosa, we harvested 180 basidiocarps in a 45-year-old white spruce plantation in western Quebec in autumn 1997, and extracted DNA directly from individual basidiocarps. Using a combination of spatial coordinates and...

Data from: Regional divergence and mosaic spatial distribution of two closely related damselfly species (Enallagma hageni and Enallagma ebrium)

Audrey Bourret, Mark A. McPeek & Julie Turgeon
North American Enallagma damselflies radiated during the Pleistocene, and species differ mainly by reproductive structures. Although morphologically very different, Enallagma hageni and Enallagma ebrium are genetically very similar. Partitioning of genetic variation (AFLP), isolation by distance and clustering analyses indicate that these morphospecies are locally differentiated genetically. Spatial analyses show that they are rarely sympatric at local sites, and their distributions form a mosaic of patches where one is clearly dominant over hundreds of square...

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