29 Works

Handicap, famille et soutien : Regard croisé Québec-Suisse

Geneviève Piérart, Sylvie Tétreault, Pascale Marier Deschênes & Sophie Blais-Michaud
Ce texte propose une analyse croisée du soutien aux familles d’enfants handicapés au Québec et en Suisse romande. Il présente, pour chaque région, les principales législations en lien avec la politique familiale et le handicap, les dispositifs de sécurité sociale ainsi que l’organisation des services sociaux, scolaires et de santé. Les deux territoires possèdent un héritage historique commun ancré dans une approche caritative du handicap. Dans les années 1970, les revendications des mouvements associatifs ont...

What Peer-review Experiences Can Offer To Early Career Scientists And To The Scientific Community

Gwenaëlle Gremion, Mathieu Casado, Kelsey Aho, Jilda Alicia Caccavo, Nicolas Champollion, Emily Choy, Sarah L. Connors, Rahul Dey, Alfonso Fernandez, Gerlis Fugmann, Juan Höfer, Shridhar Jawak, Martine Lizotte, Sarah Maes, Kyle Mayers, Katja Mintenbeck, Jhon Fredy Mojica Moncada, Prashant H. Pandit, Elvira Poloczanska, Paul Rosenbaum, Elisa Seyboth, Sarah Shakil & Maud van Soest

Effects of different moose browsing pressures on the succession of plant communities within the herbaceous and saplings layers of a boreal forest

Laurent De Vriendt, Sébastien Lavoie, Jean-Pierre Tremblay & Maxime Brousseau
The present data is constituted of four different excel files: browsing data, herbs layer data, saplings layer data and latin names data. 1) Browsing data contains the number of browsed and unbrowsed twigs from all ligneous plants in the samplings plots along time. 2) Herbs layer data contains the cumulated cover of all plants species along 14 three meters long and one meter high transcects within each experimental units. 3) Saplings layer data contains the...

Vascular plant community data for Northwest Territories, Canada

Jennifer Baltzer, Nicola Day, Alison White, Kirsten Reid, Geneviève Degré-Timmons, Steve Cumming, Michelle Mack, Merritt Turetsky, Xanthe Walker & Jill Johnstone
Climate change is altering disturbance regimes outside of historical norms, which can impact biodiversity by selecting for plants with particular traits. The relative impact of disturbance characteristics on plant traits and community structure may be mediated by environmental gradients. We aimed to understand how wildfire impacted understory plant communities and plant regeneration strategies along gradients of environmental conditions and wildfire characteristics in boreal forests. We established 207 plots (60m2) in recently burned stands and 133...

Rearing environment affects the genetic architecture and plasticity of DNA methylation in Chinook salmon

Clare Venney, Kyle Wellband & Daniel Heath
Genetic architecture and phenotypic plasticity are important considerations when studying trait variation within and among populations. Since environmental change can induce shifts in the genetic architecture and plasticity of traits, it is important to consider both genetic and environmental sources of phenotypic variation. While there is overwhelming evidence for environmental effects on phenotype, the underlying mechanisms are less clear. Variation in DNA methylation is a potential mechanism mediating environmental effects on phenotype due to its...

Adult survival in migratory caribou is negatively associated with MHC functional diversity

Marianne Gagnon, Glenn Yannic, Frédéric Boyer & Steeve Côté
The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are involved in acquired, specific immunity in vertebrates. Yet, only a few studies have investigated the fitness consequences of MHC gene diversity in wild populations. Here, we looked at the association between annual survival and body mass and MHC-DRB exon 2 (MHC-DRB) genetic diversity, obtained from high-throughput sequencing, in two declining migratory caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herds. To disentangle the potential direct and general effects of MHC-DRB genetic...

Det tør!: Frozen-Ground Cartoons; Et international samarbejde mellem kunstnere og permafrostforskere

Heta Nääs, Noémie Ross, Frédéric Bouchard, Michelle Paquette, Audrey Veillette, Michael Fritz, Stefanie Weege, Julie Malenfant-Lepage, Bethany Deshpande, Alexander Nieuwendam, Ashley Rudy, Matthias Siewert, Ylva Sjöberg, Jonathan Harbor, J. Otto Habeck, Kerstin Krøier Rasmussen & Kirstey Langley
This project started in October 2015 with a crazy idea : prepare and submit a funding application for an international, multidisciplinary and non-traditional scientific outreach project… within the next 48 hours. Well, it worked out. A group of highly motivated young researchers from Canada and Europe united to combine arts and science and produce a series of outreach comic strips about permafrost (frozen ground). The aim of the project is to present and explain scientific...

Comparative gene expression analysis reveals mechanism of Pinus contorta response to the fungal pathogen Dothistroma septosporum

Mengmeng Lu, Nicolas Feau, Dragana Obreht Vidakovic, Nicholas Ukrainetz, Barbara Wong, Sally Aitken, Richard Hamelin & Sam Yeaman
Many conifers have distributions that span wide ranges in both biotic and abiotic conditions, but the basis of response to biotic stress has received much less attention than response to abiotic stress. In this study, we investigated the gene expression response of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) to attack by the fungal pathogen Dothistroma septosporum, which causes Dothistroma needle blight (DNB), a disease that has caused severe climate-related outbreaks in northwestern British Columbia. We inoculated tolerant...

Extremely low genetic diversity in the European clade of the model bryophyte Anthoceros agrestis

Tom Dawes, Juan Carlos Villarreal A. & Laura L. Forrest
The hornwort Anthoceros agrestis is emerging as a model system for the study of symbiotic interactions and carbon fixation processes. It is an annual species with a remarkably small and compact genome. Single accessions of the plant have been shown to be related to the cosmopolitan perennial hornwort Anthoceros punctatus. We provide the first detailed insight into the evolutionary history of the two species. Due to the rather conserved nature of organellar loci, we sequenced...

Deciphering lifelong thermal niche using otolith δ18O thermometry within supplemented lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations

Olivier Morissette, Louis Bernatchez, Michael Wiendenbeck & Pascal Sirois
1. The selection of thermal habitat by fish is strongly regulated by physiology and behaviour. However, delineation of a species lifelong thermal niche remains technically challenging. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) survival and productivity are recognised as being tightly linked to a somewhat restricted thermal habitat. The factors guiding temperature selection during each life stage remain poorly understood. 2. In this study, we tested the significant factors controlling the realised thermal niche of lake trout from...

Individual genotypes of 1 416 brook trout genotyped at 14 779 high-quality SNPs for studying local adaptation and maladaptation in small populations

Anne-Laure Ferchaud, Maeva Leitwein, Martin Laporte, Damien Boivin-Delisle, Bérénice Bougas, Cécilia Hernandez, Eric Normandeau, Isabel Thibault & Louis Bernatchez
Investigating the relative importance of neutral versus selective processes governing the accumulation of genetic variants is a key goal in both evolutionary and conservation biology. This is particularly true in the context of small populations, where genetic drift can counteract the effect of selection. Using Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) from Québec, Canada as a case study, we investigated the importance of demographic versus selective processes governing the accumulation of both adaptive and maladaptive mutations in...

Demographic history shaped geographical patterns of deleterious mutation load in a broadly distributed Pacific Salmon

Quentin Rougemont
A thorough reconstruction of historical processes is essential for a comprehensive understanding the mechanisms shaping patterns of genetic diversity. Indeed, past and current conditions influencing effective population size have important evolutionary implications for the efficacy of selection, increased accumulation of deleterious mutations, and loss of adaptive potential. Here, we gather extensive genome-wide data that represent the extant diversity of the Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to address two objectives. We demonstrate that a single glacial refugium...

Data from: Shells of the bivalve Astarte moerchi give new evidence of a strong pelagic-benthic coupling shift occurring since the late 1970s in the NOW Polynya

Frederic Olivier, Blandine Gaillard, Julien Thébault, Tarik Meziane, Réjean Tremblay, Dany Dumont, Simon Bélanger, Michel Gosselin, Aurélie Jolivet, Laurent Chauvaud, André L. Martel, Søren Rysgaard, Anne-Hélène Olivier, Julien Pettré, Jérôme Mars, Silvain Gerber & Philippe Archambault
Climate changes in the Arctic may weaken the currently tight pelagic-benthic coupling. In response to decreasing sea ice cover, arctic marine systems are expected to shift from a ‘sea-ice algae-benthos’ to a ‘phytoplankton-zooplankton’ dominance. We used mollusk shells as bioarchives and fatty acid trophic markers to estimate the effects of the reduction of sea ice cover on the exported food to the seafloor. Bathyal bivalve Astarte moerchi that lives at 600 m depth in northern...

Data from: Shared ancestral polymorphism and chromosomal rearrangements as potential drivers of local adaptation in a marine fish

Hugo Cayuela, Quentin Rougemont & Louis Bernatchez
Gene flow has tremendous importance on local adaptation, by influencing the fate of de novo mutations, maintaining standing genetic variation, and driving adaptive introgression. Furthermore, structural variation as chromosomal rearrangements may facilitate adaptation despite high gene flow. However, our understanding of evolutionary mechanisms impending or favoring local adaptation in the presence of gene flow is still limited to a restricted number of study systems. In this study, we examined how demographic history, shared ancestral polymorphism,...

Identifying functional impacts of heat-resistant fungi on boreal forest recovery after wildfire

Nicola Day, Steve Cumming, Kari Dunfield, Jill Johnstone, Michelle Mack, Kirsten Reid, Merritt Turetsky, Xanthe Walker & Jennifer Baltzer
Fungi play key roles in carbon (C) dynamics of ecosystems: saprotrophs decompose organic material and return C in the nutrient cycle, and mycorrhizal species support plants that accumulate C through photosynthesis. The identities and functions of extremophile fungi present after fire can influence C dynamics, particularly because plant-fungal relationships are often species-specific. However, little is known about the function and distribution of fungi that survive fires. We aim to assess the distribution of heat-resistant soil...

Data and Code for: Isotopic Niche Size of Coregonus artedi (sensu lato) Increases in the Presence of Mysis diluviana, Expanded Habitat Use and Phenotypic Diversity

Mark Ridgway, Allan Bell, Piette-Lauziere Piette-Lauziere & Julie Turgeon
Post-glacial colonization of lakes in Algonquin Park, Ontario, Canada resulted in food webs with cisco (Coregonus artedi sensu lato) and either Mysis diluviana or Chaoborus spp. as the dominant diel migrator. Mysis as prey, its diel movements and benthic occupancy, are hypothesized to be key elements of ecological opportunity for cisco diversity in the Laurentian Great Lakes. If correct, the hypothesis strongly implies that lakes with Mysis would have greater trophic niche size and drive...

Latitudinal variation in climate-associated genes imperils range-edge populations

Steve Smith, Chris Brauer, Minami Sasaki, Peter Unmack, Gilles Guillot, Martin Laporte, Louis Bernatchez & Luciano Beheregaray
The ecological impacts of increasing global temperatures are evident in most ecosystems on Earth, but our understanding of how climatic variation influences natural selection and adaptive resilience across latitudes is still largely unknown. Latitudinal gradients allow testing general ecosystem-level theories relevant to climatic adaptation. We assessed differences in adaptive diversity of populations along a latitudinal region spanning highly variable temperate to subtropical climates. We generated and integrated large-scale information from environmental mapping, phenotypic variation and...

Drivers of amphibian population dynamics and asynchrony at local and regional scales

Hugo Cayuela, Richard A. Griffiths, Nurul Zakaria, Jan W. Arntzen, Pauline Priol, Jean-Paul Léna, Aurélien Besnard & Pierre Joly
Identifying the drivers of population fluctuations in spatially distinct populations remains a significant challenge for ecologists. Whereas regional climatic factors may generate population synchrony (i.e., the Moran effect), local factors including the level of density-dependence may reduce the level of synchrony. Although divergences in the scaling of population synchrony and spatial environmental variation have been observed, the regulatory factors that underlie such mismatches are poorly understood. Few previous studies have investigated how density-dependent processes and...

Landscape composition and local floral resources influence foraging behavior but not the size of Bombus impatiens Cresson (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers

Amélie Gervais, Ève Courtois, Valérie Fournier & Marc Bélisle
Here, we assessed how the morphology, weight and foraging behavior of individual workers are affected by their surrounding landscape. We hypothesized that colonies established in landscapes showing high cover of intensive crops and low cover of flowering crops, as well as low amounts of local floral resources, would produce smaller workers, which would perform fewer foraging trips and collect pollen loads less constant in species composition. We tested these predictions with 80 colonies of commercially...

The BenBioDen database, a global database for meio-, macro- and megabenthic biomass and densities

Tanja Stratmann, Dick Van Oevelen, Pedro Martínez Arbizu, Chih-Lin Wei, Jian-Xiang Liao, Mathieu Cusson, Ricardo A. Scrosati, Philippe Archambault, Paul V. R. Snelgrove, Patricia A. Ramey-Balci, Brenda J. Burd, Ellen Kenchington, Kent Gilkinson, Rénald Belley & Karline Soetaert
Benthic fauna refers to all fauna that live in or on the seafloor, which researchers typically divide into size classes meiobenthos (32/ 64 µm – 0.5/ 1 mm), macrobenthos (250 µm – 1 cm), and megabenthos (> 1 cm). Benthic fauna play important roles in bioturbation activity, mineralization of organic matter, and in marine food webs. Evaluating their role in these ecosystem functions requires knowledge of their global distribution and biomass. We therefore established the...

Integrating functional connectivity in designing networks of protected areas under climate change: a caribou case-study

Martin-Hugues St-Laurent, Sarah Bauduin, Steven G. Cumming & Eliot J.B. McIntire
Land-use change and climate change are recognized as two main drivers of the current biodiversity decline. Protected areas help safeguard the landscape from additional anthropogenic disturbances and, when properly designed, can help species cope with climate change impacts. When designed to protect the regional biodiversity rather than to conserve focal species or landscape elements, protected areas need to cover a representative sample of the regional biodiversity and be functionally connected, facilitating individual movements among protected...

Data from: Demographic history and genomic diversity and divergence in blue tit populations across heterogeneous environments

Charles Perrier, Quentin Rougemont & Anne Charmantier
Understanding the genomic processes underlying local adaptation is a central aim of modern evolutionary biology. This task requires identifying footprints of local selection but also estimating spatio-temporal variation in population demography and variation in recombination rate and diversity along the genome. Here, we investigated these parameters in blue tit populations inhabiting deciduous versus evergreen forests and insular versus mainland areas, in the context of a previously described strong phenotypic differentiation. Neighboring population pairs of deciduous...

Data from: Combining stable isotopes, morphological, and molecular analyses to reconstruct the diet of free-ranging consumers

Michaël Bonin, Christian Dussault, Joëlle Taillon, Nicolas Lecomte & Steeve D. Côté
1. Accurate estimates of animal diet composition are essential to untangle complex interactions in food webs. Biomarkers and molecular tools are increasingly used to estimate diet, sometimes alongside traditional dietary tracing methods. Yet only a few empirical studies have compared the outcomes and potential gains of using a combination of these methods, especially using free-ranging animals with distinct foraging preferences. 2. We used stable isotopes, morphological and molecular analyses to investigate the diet of free-ranging...

Data from: Divergence of Arctic shrub growth associated with sea ice decline

Agata Buchwal, Patrick F. Sullivan, Marc Macias-Fauria, Eric Post, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Julienne C. Stroeve, Daan Blok, Ken D. Tape, Bruce C. Forbes, Pascale Ropars, Esther Lévesque, Bo Elberling, Sandra Angers-Blondin, Joseph S. Boyle, Stéphane Boudreau, Noémie Boulanger-Lapointe, Cassandra Gamm, Martin Hallinger, Grzegorz Rachlewicz, Amanda Young, Pentti Zetterberg & Jeffrey M. Welker
Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) is declining at an accelerating rate with a wide range of ecological consequences. However, determining sea ice effects on tundra vegetation remains a challenge. In this study, we examined the universality or lack thereof in tundra shrub growth responses to changes in SIE and summer climate across the Pan-Arctic, taking advantage of 23 tundra shrub-ring chronologies from 19 widely distributed sites (56⁰-83⁰N).

Anthropogenic disturbance drives dispersal syndromes, demography, and gene flow in amphibian populations

Hugo Cayuela
There is growing evidence that anthropogenic landscapes can strongly influence the evolution of dispersal, particularly through fragmentation, and may drive organisms into an evolutionary trap by suppressing dispersal. However, the influence on dispersal evolution of anthropogenic variation in habitat patch turnover has so far been largely overlooked. In this study, we examined how human-driven variation in patch persistence affects dispersal rates and distances, determines dispersal-related phenotypic specialization, and drives neutral genetic structure in spatially structured...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • Université Laval
    29
  • Université du Québec à Rimouski
    4
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks
    3
  • Wilfrid Laurier University
    2
  • Université du Québec à Chicoutimi
    2
  • Auckland University of Technology
    2
  • Northern Arizona University
    2
  • University of Manitoba
    2
  • Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
    2
  • Grenoble Alpes University
    2