38 Works

Trend Inflation, Wage and Price Rigidities, and Welfare

Robert Amano, Kevin Moran, Stephen Murchison & Andrew Rennison
This paper studies the steady-state costs of inflation in a general-equilibrium model with real per capita output growth and staggered nominal price and wage contracts. Our analysis shows that trend inflation has important effects on the economy when combined with nominal contracts and real output growth. Steady-state output and welfare losses are quantitatively important even for low values of trend inflation. Further, we show that nominal wage contracting is quantitatively more important than nominal price...

Context-dependent dispersal determines relatedness and genetic structure in a patchy amphibian population

Bianca Unglaub, Hugo Cayuela, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Kathleen Preißler, Julian Glos & Sebastian Steinfartz
Dispersal is a central process in ecology and evolution with far reaching consequences for the dynamics and genetics of spatially structured populations (SSPs). Individuals can adjust their decisions to disperse according to local fitness prospects, resulting in context-dependent dispersal. By determining dispersal rate, distance, and direction, these individual-level decisions further modulate the demography, relatedness, and genetic structure of SSPs. Here, we examined how context-dependent dispersal influences the dynamics and genetics of a Great Crested Newt...

Do ecological specialization and functional traits explain the abundance–frequency relationship? Arable weeds as a case study

Guillaume Fried, Laura Armengot, Jonathan Storkey, Bérenger Bourgeois, Sabrina Gaba, Cyrille Violle & François Munoz
Aim: The abundance-frequency relationship (AFR) is among the most-investigated pattern in biogeography, yet the relative contributions of niche-based processes related to ecological strategies, and of neutral processes related to spatial colonization-extinction dynamics, remains uncertain. Here, we tested the influences of ecological specialization and functional traits on local abundance and regional frequency, to determine the contribution of niche-based processes. Location: France and the UK. Taxon: Vascular plants. Methods: We used two arable weed surveys covering 1544...

Sensitivity analysis of the maximum entropy production method to model evaporation in boreal and temperate forests

Audrey Maheu, Pierre-Erik Isabelle, Laure Viens, Daniel F. Nadeau, François Anctil & Jingfeng Wang
The maximum entropy production (MEP) approach has been little used to simulate evaporation in forests and its sensitivity to input variables has yet to be systematically evaluated. This study addresses these shortcomings. First, we show that the MEP model performed well in simulating evaporation during the snow-free period at six sites in temperate and boreal forests (0.68 ≤ NSE ≤ 0.82). Second, we computed a sensitivity coefficient S representing the proportion of change in the...

Linking genetic, morphological, and behavioural divergence between inland island and mainland deer mice

Joshua Miller, Dany Garant, Charles Perrier, Tristan Juette, Joël Jameson, Denis Réale, Eric Normandeau & Louis Bernatchez
The island syndrome hypothesis (ISH) stipulates that, as a result of local selection pressures and restricted gene flow, individuals from island populations should differ from individuals within mainland populations. Specifically, island populations are predicted to contain individuals that are larger, less aggressive, more sociable, and that invest more in their offspring. To date, tests of the ISH have mainly compared oceanic islands to continental sites, and rarely smaller spatial scales such as inland watersheds. Here,...

Dataset for: Effects of chloride and nutrients on freshwater plankton communities

Danielle Greco, Shelley Arnott, Isabelle Fournier & Brandon Schamp
Increasing chloride concentrations threaten freshwater zooplankton. We questioned the protectiveness of the Canadian Water Quality Guideline for chloride because it is based on individual species studied under laboratory conditions and does not account for potential interactive factors, such as nutrient concentration. We exposed plankton communities to thirty chloride concentration increments for six weeks, crossed with either ambient or high nutrient treatments. Total zooplankton abundance, biomass, and richness declined with increasing chloride, with losses observed below...

Immigrants and Mortgage Delinquency in the United States

Zhenguo Lin, Yingchun Liu & Jia Xie
We investigate the relationship between immigrant status and mortgage delinquency in the United States. We find that after controlling for observables, newly arrived immigrants are likely to have a higher delinquency rate on mortgages than natives, while immigrants who have resided in the United States for more than 20 years are no different than natives in this regard. In addition, there is no evidence that the second generation of immigrants has a higher delinquency rate...

Variable strength of predator-mediated effects on species occurrence in an arctic terrestrial vertebrate community

Éliane Duchesne, Jean-François Lamarre, Gilles Gauthier, Dominique Berteaux, Dominique Gravel & Joël Bêty
Indirect effects resulting from species sharing the same enemy can shape spatio-temporal variations in species occurrence. The strength of such effects remains poorly known in natural communities composed of species from different trophic levels interacting in heterogeneous landscapes. Benefiting from a well-known arctic vertebrate community and marked spatio-temporal variations in the density of key prey species, we examined the effects of direct predator-prey and indirect predator-mediated effects on species occurrence in the landscape. We found...

Data from: Interspecific hybrids show a reduced adaptive potential under DNA damaging conditions

Carla Bautista, Souhir Marsit & Christian R. Landry
The data is framed in a context of experimental evolution. Popular Summary: Hybridization between species can be a dead end or a stimulus for adaptation and speciation. This stimulus could be fueled, among other things, by the intrinsic elevated rate of evolution of hybrid genomes. Whether this serves as an advantage for hybrids when faced with extreme stress is largely unknown. Here we tested this by evolving yeast species and their hybrids in UV mimetic...

The Role of Bank Capital in the Propagation of Shocks

Cesaire Meh & Kevin Moran
Recent events in financial markets have underlined the importance of analyzing the link between the financial health of banks and real economic activity. This paper contributes to this analysis by constructing a dynamic general equilibrium model in which the balance sheet of banks affects the propagation of shocks. We use the model to conduct quantitative experiments on the economy's response to technology and monetary policy shocks, as well as to disturbances originating within the banking...

Small‐Sample Tests for Stock Return Predictability with Possibly Non‐Stationary Regressors and GARCH‐Type Effects

Sermin Gungor & Richard Luger
We develop a simulation-based procedure to test for stock return predictability with multiple regressors. The process governing the regressors is left completely free and the test procedure remains valid in small samples even in the presence of non-normalities and GARCH-type effects in the stock returns. The usefulness of the new procedure is demonstrated both in a simulation study and by examining the ability of a group of financial variables to predict excess stock returns. We...

Dataset for \"Theoretical analysis of backscattering in hollow-core antiresonant fibers\"

Eric Numkam Fokoua, Vincent Michaud-Belleau, Jérôme Genest, Radan Slavik & Francesco Poletti
Dataset for "Theoretical analysis of backscattering in hollow-core antiresonant fibers" in APL Photonics

A target enrichment probe set for resolving the flagellate land plant tree of life

Jesse W. Breinholt, Sarah B. Carey, George P. Tiley, E. Christine Davis, Lorena Endara, Stuart F. McDaniel, Leandro Neves, Emily B. Sessa, Matt Von Konrat, Susan Fawcett, Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond, Paulo H. Labiak, Juan Larraín, Marcus Lehnert, Lily R. Lewis, Nathalie S. Nagalingum, Nikisha Patel, Stefan A. Rensing, Weston Testo, Alejandra Vasco, Juan Carlos Villarreal, Evelyn Webb Williams, J. Gordon Burleigh, Sahut Chantanaorrapint, Leandro G. Neves … & Stefanie M. Ickert‐Bond
Premise of the Study: New sequencing technologies enable the possibility of generating large-scale molecular datasets for constructing the plant tree of life. We describe a new probe set for target enrichment sequencing to generate nuclear sequence data to build phylogenetic trees with any flagellate land plants, including hornworts, liverworts, mosses, lycophytes, ferns, and all gymnosperms. Methods and Results: We leveraged existing transcriptome and genome sequence data to design a set of 56,989 probes for target...

Genes involved in the constitutive production of phenolic compounds in white spruce

Sébastien Gérardi, Justine Laoué, Claire Depardieu, Manuel Lamothe, Claude Bomal, Aïda Azaiez, Marie-Claude Gros-Louis, Jerôme Laroche, Brian Boyle, Almuth Hammerbacher, Nathalie Isabel & Jean Bousquet
Conifer forests worldwide are becoming increasingly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Although the production of phenolic compounds (PCs) has been shown to be modulated by biotic and abiotic stresses, the genetic basis underlying the variation in their constitutive production level remains poorly documented in conifers. We used QTL mapping and RNA-Seq to explore the complex polygenic network underlying the constitutive production of PCs in a white spruce (Picea glauca) full-sib family for 2...

Pathogen-mediated selection favours the maintenance of innate immunity gene polymorphism in a widespread wild ungulate

Erwan Quéméré, Pauline Hessenauer, Maxime Galan, Marie Fernandez, Joël Merlet, Yannick Chaval, Nicolas Morellet, Hélène Verheyden, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont & Nathalie Charbonnel
Toll-like Receptors (TLR) play a central role in recognition and host frontline defence against a wide range of pathogens. A number of recent studies have shown that TLR genes (Tlrs) often exhibit large polymorphism in natural populations. Yet, there is little knowledge on how this polymorphism is maintained and how it influences disease susceptibility in the wild. In previous work, we showed that some Tlrs exhibit similarly high levels of genetic diversity as genes of...

Exchange Rate Fluctuations and Labour Market Adjustments in Canadian Manufacturing Industries

Gabriel Bruneau & Kevin Moran
We estimate the link between exchange rate fluctuations and the labour input of Canadian manufacturing industries. The analysis is based on a dynamic model of labour demand, and the econometric strategy employs a panel two-step approach for cointegrating regressions. Our data are drawn from a panel of 20 manufacturing industries from the KLEMS database and cover a long sample period that includes two full cycles of appreciation and depreciation of the Canadian dollar. Our results...

The Determinants of Consumers’ Inflation Expectations: Evidence from the US and Canada

Charles Bellemare, Rolande Kpekou Tossou & Kevin Moran
Expectations about future inflation are of central importance for public policy and monetary authorities. The inflation expectations of consumers influence their economic choices related to wage negotiations, consumption and savings and, in turn, influence firms’ pricing decisions and aggregate price changes. Monitoring and analyzing consumer inflation expectations is a key aspect of monetary policy practice. This paper examines two current surveys—the Federal Reserve Bank of New York’s Survey of Consumer Expectations and the Bank of...

Inflation and Growth: A New Keynesian Perspective

Robert Amano, Thomas J. Carter & Kevin Moran
The long-run relation between growth and inflation has not yet been studied in the context of nominal price and wage rigidities, despite the fact that these rigidities now figure prominently in workhorse macroeconomic models. We therefore integrate staggered price- and wage-setting into an endogenous growth framework. In this setting, growth and inflation are linked via the incentive to innovate. For standard calibrations, the linkage is strong: as trend inflation shifts from –5 to 5 percent,...

Données sur les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans les sédiments de l'estuaire et du golfe du Saint-Laurent (est du Canada)

Anne Corminboeuf
The St. Lawrence Estuarine System is a major seaway connecting eastern Canada with the Atlantic Ocean. Approximately 4000 vessels travel along this seaway every year that contribute, in addition to industrial activities, to anthropogenic stress in regard to many pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, the concentrations of 23 PAHs (16 parent PAHs and 7 alkyl-PAHs), total organic carbon (TOC) as well as grain-size distributions were determined in 45 surface sediment and...

The predator activity landscape predicts the anti‐predator behavior and distribution of prey in a tundra community

Jeanne Clermont, Alexis Grenier-Potvin, Éliane Duchesne, Charline Couchoux, Frédéric Dulude-De Broin, Andréanne Beardsell, Joël Bêty & Dominique Berteaux
Predation shapes communities through consumptive and non-consumptive effects. In the latter case, prey respond to perceived predation risk through proactive or reactive risk management strategies occurring at different spatial and temporal scales. The predator-prey space race and landscape of fear concepts are useful to better understand how predation risk affects prey behavioral decisions and distribution. We assessed predation-risk effects in a terrestrial Arctic community, where the arctic fox is the main predator of ground-nesting birds....

Patterns and determinants of lichen abundance and diversity across a subarctic to arctic latitudinal gradient

Catherine Chagnon, Martin Simard & Stéphane Boudreau
Macrolichen abundance at the species level in 42 sites across a subarctic (56°N) to arctic (62°N) latitudinal gradient in Nunavik (Québec, Canada). Data was collected in the dominant vegetation types of six regions sampled along this gradient.

Shedding light on the threespine stickleback circadian clock

Marie-Pier Brochu & Nadia Aubin-Horth
The circadian clock is an internal timekeeping system shared by most organisms, and knowledge about its functional importance and evolution in natural environments is still needed. Here, we investigated the circadian clock of wild-caught threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) at the behavioural and molecular levels. While their behaviour, ecology, and evolution are well studied, information on their circadian rhythms are scarce. We quantified the daily locomotor activity rhythm under a light-dark cycle (LD) and under constant...

Copy Number variants in Mallotus villosus

Hugo Cayuela & Louis Bernatchez
Taking advantage of recent developments allowing CNV analysis from RAD-seq data (10.1111/mec.15565), we investigated how variation in fitness-related traits, local environmental conditions and demographic history are associated with CNVs, and how subsequent copy number variation drives population genetic structure in a marine fish, the capelin (Mallotus villosus). We collected 1536 DNA samples from 35 sampling sites in the north Atlantic Ocean and identified 6620 putative CNVs. Raw sequencing data for GBS libraries have been published...

Data from: Growth and reproduction trade-offs can estimate previous reproductive history in alpine ungulates

Benjamin Larue, Sandra Hamel, Steeve D. Côté, Fanie Pelletier & Marco Festa-Bianchet
1. Life-history theory predicts energy allocation trade-offs between traits when resources are limited. If females reduce allocation to growth when they reproduce, annual growth could reveal past reproductive effort, which would be useful to assess population dynamics and harvest sustainability. The potential and accuracy of growth measures for predicting reproductive success have rarely been evaluated with individuals with known reproductive history. 2. We used long-term monitoring of annual growth and reproduction of marked female bighorn...

Early social deprivation shapes neuronal programming of the social decision-making network in a cooperatively breeding fish

Diogo Antunes, Magda Teles, Matthew Zuellig, Caitlin Friesen, Rui Oliveira, Nadia Aubin-Horth & Barbara Taborsky
The early social environment an animal experiences may have pervasive effects on its behaviour. The Social Decision-Making network (SDMN), consisting of interconnected brain nuclei from the forebrain and midbrain, is involved in the regulation of behaviours during social interactions. In species with advanced sociality such as cooperative breeders, offspring are exposed to a large number and a great diversity of social interactions every day of their early life, which may have life-long consequences on the...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    38

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    28
  • Text
    10

Affiliations

  • Université Laval
    38
  • Bank of Canada
    9
  • Université de Sherbrooke
    5
  • Université du Québec à Rimouski
    3
  • National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment
    2
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
    2
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks
    2
  • Grenoble Alpes University
    2
  • University of Quebec at Montreal
    1
  • Universidade Federal de Goiás
    1