49 Works

Data from: Resource selection and landscape change reveal mechanisms suppressing population recovery for the world's most endangered antelope

Abdullahi H. Ali, Adam T. Ford, Jeffrey S. Evans, David P. Mallon, Matthew M. Hayes, Juliet King, Rajan Amin & Jacob R. Goheen
Understanding how bottom-up and top-down forces affect resource selection can inform restoration efforts. With a global population size of <500 individuals, the hirola Beatragus hunteri is the world's most endangered antelope, with a declining population since the 1970s. While the underlying mechanisms are unclear, some combination of habitat loss and predation are thought to be responsible for low abundances of contemporary populations. Efforts to conserve hirola are hindered by a lack of understanding as to...

Habitat fragmentation shapes natal dispersal and sociality in an Afrotropical cooperative breeder

Laurence Cousseau, Martijn Hammers, Dries Van De Loock, Beate Apfelbeck, Mwangi Githiru, Erik Matthysen & Luc Lens
It remains poorly understood how effects of anthropogenic activity, such as large-scale habitat fragmentation, impact sociality in animals. In cooperatively breeding species, groups are mostly formed through delayed offspring dispersal, and habitat fragmentation can affect this process in two opposite directions. Increased habitat isolation may increase dispersal costs, promoting delayed dispersal. Alternatively, reduced patch size and quality may decrease benefits of philopatry, promoting dispersal. Here, we test both predictions in a cooperatively breeding bird (placid...

Why the long teeth? Morphometric analysis suggests different selective pressures on functional occlusal traits in Plio-Pleistocene African suids

Deming Yang, Asli Pisano, Joan Kolasa, Tea Jashashvili, Job Kibii, Ana Gomez Cano, Laurent Viriot, Frederick Grine & Antoine Souron
Neogene and Pleistocene African suids displayed convergent evolutionary trends in the third molar (M3) morphology, with increasingly elongated and higher crowns through time. While these features can prevent premature loss of masticatory functionality and potentially increase long-term reproductive success, changes in dental occlusal traits such as enamel complexity and thickness can also improve chewing efficiency and increase short-term energetic return. While both long-term and short-term benefits can contribute to the thriving of a lineage, the...

sj-docx-3-hol-10.1177_09596836221121766 – Supplemental material for Buffering new risks? Environmental, social and economic changes in the Turkana Basin during and after the African Humid Period

Elisabeth Hildebrand, Katherine M Grillo, Kendra L Chritz, Markus L Fischer, Steven T Goldstein, Anneke Janzen, Annett Junginger, Rahab N Kinyanjui, Emmanuel Ndiema, Elizabeth Sawchuk, Amanuel Beyin & Susan K Pfeiffer
Supplemental material, sj-docx-3-hol-10.1177_09596836221121766 for Buffering new risks? Environmental, social and economic changes in the Turkana Basin during and after the African Humid Period by Elisabeth Hildebrand, Katherine M Grillo, Kendra L Chritz, Markus L Fischer, Steven T Goldstein, Anneke Janzen, Annett Junginger, Rahab N Kinyanjui, Emmanuel Ndiema, Elizabeth Sawchuk, Amanuel Beyin and Susan K Pfeiffer in The Holocene

Data from: Role of grooming in reducing tick load in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

Mercy Y. Akinyi, Susan C. Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Nilesh B. Patel, Jenny Tung & Maamun Jeneby
Nonhuman primate species spend a conspicuous amount of time grooming during social interactions, a behaviour that probably serves both social and health-related functions. While the social implications of grooming have been relatively well studied, less attention has been paid to the health benefits, especially the removal of ectoparasites, which may act as vectors in disease transmission. In this study, we examined whether grooming behaviour reduced tick load (number of ticks) and haemoprotozoan infection status in...

Data from: Organic matter and nutrient inputs from large wildlife influence ecosystem function in the Mara River, Africa

Amanda L. Subalusky, Christopher L. Dutton, Laban Njoroge, Emma J. Rosi & David M. Post
Animals can be important vectors for the movement of resources across ecosystem boundaries. Animals add resources to ecosystems primarily through egestion, excretion and carcasses, and the stoichiometry and bioavailability of these inputs likely interacts with characteristics of the recipient ecosystem to determine their effects on ecosystem function. We studied the influence of hippopotamus excretion/egestion and wildebeest carcasses, and their interactions with discharge, in the Mara River, Kenya. We measured nutrient dissolution and decomposition rates of...

Data from: Interacting effects of wildlife loss and climate on ticks and tick-borne disease

Georgia Titcomb, Brian F. Allan, Tyler Ainsworth, Henson Lauren, Tyler Hedlund, Robert M. Pringle, Todd M. Palmer, Laban Njoroge, Michael G. Campana, Robert C. Fleischer, John Naisikie Mantas, Hillary S. Young & Lauren Henson
Both large-wildlife loss and climatic changes can independently influence the prevalence and distribution of zoonotic disease. Given growing evidence that wildlife loss often has stronger community-level effects in low-productivity areas, we hypothesized that these perturbations would have interactive effects on disease risk. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by measuring tick abundance and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens (Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp.) within long-term, size-selective, large-herbivore exclosures replicated across a precipitation gradient in East Africa....

Fine-scale habitat heterogeneity influences browsing damage by elephant and giraffe

Duncan Kimuyu, David Kenfack, Paul Musili & Robert Ang'ila
Effects of large mammalian herbivores on woody vegetation tend to be heterogeneous in space and time, but the factors that drive such heterogeneity are poorly understood. We examined the influence of fine-scale habitat heterogeneity on the distribution and browsing effects of two of the largest African terrestrial mammals, the elephant and giraffe. We conducted this study within a 120-ha (500 x 2400 m) ForestGEO long-term vegetation monitoring plot located at Mpala Research Center, Kenya. The...

A new species of croton (Euphorbiaceae) from a Madagascan lineage discovered in coastal Kenya

Veronicah Ngumbau, Mwadime Nyange, Neng Wei, Benjamin Van Ee, Paul Berry, Itambo Malombe, Guang-Wan Hu & Qing-Feng Wang
Croton kinondoensis, a new species from Kenya, is described and illustrated here with photographs. It is found in the sacred Kaya Kinondo Forest, one of the last remaining coastal forests patches in Kenya. Its morphology and systematic position based on ITS and trnL-F DNA sequence data clearly place it within the Adenophorus Group of Croton, a clade of ca. 15 species otherwise known only from Madagascar and the Comoros Archipelago. Its closest affinities appear to...

Buffering new risks? Environmental, social and economic changes in the Turkana Basin during and after the African Humid Period

Elisabeth Hildebrand, Katherine M Grillo, Kendra L Chritz, Markus L Fischer, Steven T Goldstein, Anneke Janzen, Annett Junginger, Rahab N Kinyanjui, Emmanuel Ndiema, Elizabeth Sawchuk, Amanuel Beyin & Susan K Pfeiffer
This paper evaluates risk-oriented frameworks for explaining environmental, social, and economic changes faced by fishing and herding communities in the Turkana Basin during and after the African Humid Period (AHP, 15–5 ka). The orbitally-forced AHP created moist conditions, high lake levels, and unusual hydrological connections across much of northern and eastern Africa. As arid conditions set in and rainfall decreased between 5.3 and 3.9 ka in eastern Africa, Lake Turkana (NW Kenya) shrank dramatically. Shoreline...

sj-pdf-4-hol-10.1177_09596836221121766 – Supplemental material for Buffering new risks? Environmental, social and economic changes in the Turkana Basin during and after the African Humid Period

Elisabeth Hildebrand, Katherine M Grillo, Kendra L Chritz, Markus L Fischer, Steven T Goldstein, Anneke Janzen, Annett Junginger, Rahab N Kinyanjui, Emmanuel Ndiema, Elizabeth Sawchuk, Amanuel Beyin & Susan K Pfeiffer
Supplemental material, sj-pdf-4-hol-10.1177_09596836221121766 for Buffering new risks? Environmental, social and economic changes in the Turkana Basin during and after the African Humid Period by Elisabeth Hildebrand, Katherine M Grillo, Kendra L Chritz, Markus L Fischer, Steven T Goldstein, Anneke Janzen, Annett Junginger, Rahab N Kinyanjui, Emmanuel Ndiema, Elizabeth Sawchuk, Amanuel Beyin and Susan K Pfeiffer in The Holocene

sj-pdf-4-hol-10.1177_09596836221121766 – Supplemental material for Buffering new risks? Environmental, social and economic changes in the Turkana Basin during and after the African Humid Period

Elisabeth Hildebrand, Katherine M Grillo, Kendra L Chritz, Markus L Fischer, Steven T Goldstein, Anneke Janzen, Annett Junginger, Rahab N Kinyanjui, Emmanuel Ndiema, Elizabeth Sawchuk, Amanuel Beyin & Susan K Pfeiffer
Supplemental material, sj-pdf-4-hol-10.1177_09596836221121766 for Buffering new risks? Environmental, social and economic changes in the Turkana Basin during and after the African Humid Period by Elisabeth Hildebrand, Katherine M Grillo, Kendra L Chritz, Markus L Fischer, Steven T Goldstein, Anneke Janzen, Annett Junginger, Rahab N Kinyanjui, Emmanuel Ndiema, Elizabeth Sawchuk, Amanuel Beyin and Susan K Pfeiffer in The Holocene

Data from: Testosterone positively associated with both male mating effort and paternal behavior in savanna baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

Patrick Ogola Onyango, Laurence R. Gesquiere, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Testosterone (T) is often positively associated with male sexual behavior and negatively associated with paternal care. These associations have primarily been demonstrated in species where investment in paternal care begins well after mating activity is complete, when offspring are hatched or born. Different patterns may emerge in studies of species where investment in mating and paternal care overlap temporally, for instance in non-seasonal breeders in which males mate with multiple females sequentially and may simultaneously...

Data from: Aging in the natural world: comparative data reveal similar mortality patterns across primates

Anne M. Bronikowski, Jeanne Altmann, Diane K. Brockman, Marina Cords, Linda M. Fedigan, Anne Pusey, Tara Stoinski, William F. Morris, Karen B. Strier & Susan C. Alberts
Human senescence patterns – late onset of mortality increase, slow mortality acceleration, and exceptional longevity – are often described as unique in the animal world. Using an individual-based dataset from longitudinal studies of wild populations of seven primate species, we show that contrary to assumptions of human uniqueness, human senescence falls within the primate continuum of aging, the tendency for males to have shorter lifespans and higher age-specific mortality than females throughout much of adulthood...

Data from: Measuring fecal testosterone in females and fecal estrogens in males: comparison of RIA and LC/MS/MS methods for wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

Laurence R. Gesquiere, Toni E. Ziegler, Patricia A. Chen, Katherine A. Epstein, Susan C. Alberts & Jeanne Altmann
The development of non-invasive methods, particularly fecal determination, has made possible the assessment of hormone concentrations in wild animal populations. However, measuring fecal metabolites needs careful validation for each species and for each sex. We investigated whether radioimmunoassays (RIAs) previously used to measure fecal testosterone (fT) in male baboons and fecal estrogens (fE) in female baboons were well suited to measure these hormones in the opposite sex. We compared fE and fT concentrations determined by...

Data from: Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species

Anne M. Bronikowski, Marina Cords, Susan C. Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Diane K. Brockman, Linda M. Fedigan, Anne Pusey, Tara Stoinski, Karen B. Strier & William F. Morris
We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point...

Data from: Demographic drivers of a refugee species: large-scale experiments guide strategies for reintroductions of hirola

Abdullahi H. Ali, Matthew J. Kauffman, Rajan Amin, Amos Kibara, Juliet King, David Mallon, Charles Musyoki & Jacob R. Goheen
Effective reintroduction strategies require accurate estimates of vital rates and the factors that influence them. We estimated vital rates of hirola (Beatragus hunteri) populations exposed to varying levels of predation and rangeland quality from 2012 to 2015, and then built population matrices to estimate the finite rate of population change (λ) and demographic sensitivities. Mean survival for all age classes and population growth was highest in the low predation/high-rangeland quality setting (λ = 1.08 ±...

Data from: Fossil lemurs from Egypt and Kenya suggest an African origin for Madagascar’s aye-aye

Gregg F. Gunnell, Doug M. Boyer, Anthony F. Friscia, Steven Heritage, Fredrick K. Manthi, Ellen R. Miller, Hesham M. Sallam, Nancy B. Simmons, Nancy J. Stevens & Erik R. Seiffert
In 1967 G.G. Simpson described three partial mandibles from early Miocene deposits in Kenya that he interpreted as belonging to a new strepsirrhine primate, Propotto. This interpretation was quickly challenged, with the assertion that Propotto was not a primate, but rather a pteropodid fruit bat. The latter interpretation has not been questioned for almost half a century. Here we re-evaluate the affinities of Propotto, drawing upon diverse lines of evidence to establish that this strange...

Data from: Maasai pastoralists kill lions in retaliation for depredation of livestock by lions

Enoch M. Ontiri, Martin Odino, Antony Kasanga, Paula Kahumbu, Lance W. Robinson, Tom Currie & Dave J. Hodgson
The borders of national parks in Kenya are hotspots for human–wildlife conflict. The deliberate killing of lions by Maasai pastoralists is illegal, but continues despite mitigation attempts. Currently, there is a somewhat pervasive opinion, within the human–wildlife conflict literature, that lions are killed by Maasai people either as cultural ceremony or indiscriminately in response to the loss of livestock. We reconsider the indiscriminate reputation of lion‐killing, using a combination of structured dialogue and quantitative analysis....

Data from: Developing the global potential of citizen science: assessing opportunities that benefit people, society and the environment in East Africa

Michael J. O. Pocock, Helen E. Roy, Tom August, Anthony Kuria, Fred Barasa, John Bett, Mwangi Githiru, James Kairo, Julius Kimani, Wanja Kinuthia, Bernard Kissui, Ireene Madindou, Kamau Mbogo, Judith Mirembe, Paul Mugo, Faith Milkah Muniale, Peter Njoroge, Edwin Gichohi Njuguna, Mike Izava Olendo, Michael Opige, Tobias O. Otieno, Caroline Chebet Ng’weno, Elisha Pallangyo, Thuita Thenya, Ann Wanjiru … & Caroline Chebet Ng'weno
1. Citizen science is gaining increasing prominence as a tool for science and engagement but has little visibility in many developing countries, despite being a potentially valuable tool for sustainable development. 2. We undertook a collaborative prioritization process with experts in conservation and the environment to assess the potential of environmental citizen science in East Africa including its opportunities, benefits and barriers. This provided principles that are applicable across developing countries, particularly for large-scale citizen...

High social status males experience accelerated epigenetic aging in wild baboons

Jordan Anderson, Rachel Johnston, Amanda Lea, Fernando Campos, Tawni Voyles, Mercy Akinyi, Susan Alberts, Elizabeth Archie & Jenny Tung
Aging, for virtually all life, is inescapable. However, within populations, biological aging rates vary. Understanding sources of variation in this process is central to understanding the biodemography of natural populations. We constructed a DNA methylation-based age predictor for an intensively studied wild baboon population in Kenya. Consistent with findings in humans, the resulting “epigenetic clock” closely tracks chronological age, but individuals are predicted to be somewhat older or younger than their known ages. Surprisingly, these...

sj-docx-1-hol-10.1177_09596836221121766 – Supplemental material for Buffering new risks? Environmental, social and economic changes in the Turkana Basin during and after the African Humid Period

Elisabeth Hildebrand, Katherine M Grillo, Kendra L Chritz, Markus L Fischer, Steven T Goldstein, Anneke Janzen, Annett Junginger, Rahab N Kinyanjui, Emmanuel Ndiema, Elizabeth Sawchuk, Amanuel Beyin & Susan K Pfeiffer
Supplemental material, sj-docx-1-hol-10.1177_09596836221121766 for Buffering new risks? Environmental, social and economic changes in the Turkana Basin during and after the African Humid Period by Elisabeth Hildebrand, Katherine M Grillo, Kendra L Chritz, Markus L Fischer, Steven T Goldstein, Anneke Janzen, Annett Junginger, Rahab N Kinyanjui, Emmanuel Ndiema, Elizabeth Sawchuk, Amanuel Beyin and Susan K Pfeiffer in The Holocene

sj-docx-2-hol-10.1177_09596836221121766 – Supplemental material for Buffering new risks? Environmental, social and economic changes in the Turkana Basin during and after the African Humid Period

Elisabeth Hildebrand, Katherine M Grillo, Kendra L Chritz, Markus L Fischer, Steven T Goldstein, Anneke Janzen, Annett Junginger, Rahab N Kinyanjui, Emmanuel Ndiema, Elizabeth Sawchuk, Amanuel Beyin & Susan K Pfeiffer
Supplemental material, sj-docx-2-hol-10.1177_09596836221121766 for Buffering new risks? Environmental, social and economic changes in the Turkana Basin during and after the African Humid Period by Elisabeth Hildebrand, Katherine M Grillo, Kendra L Chritz, Markus L Fischer, Steven T Goldstein, Anneke Janzen, Annett Junginger, Rahab N Kinyanjui, Emmanuel Ndiema, Elizabeth Sawchuk, Amanuel Beyin and Susan K Pfeiffer in The Holocene

sj-docx-2-hol-10.1177_09596836221121766 – Supplemental material for Buffering new risks? Environmental, social and economic changes in the Turkana Basin during and after the African Humid Period

Elisabeth Hildebrand, Katherine M Grillo, Kendra L Chritz, Markus L Fischer, Steven T Goldstein, Anneke Janzen, Annett Junginger, Rahab N Kinyanjui, Emmanuel Ndiema, Elizabeth Sawchuk, Amanuel Beyin & Susan K Pfeiffer
Supplemental material, sj-docx-2-hol-10.1177_09596836221121766 for Buffering new risks? Environmental, social and economic changes in the Turkana Basin during and after the African Humid Period by Elisabeth Hildebrand, Katherine M Grillo, Kendra L Chritz, Markus L Fischer, Steven T Goldstein, Anneke Janzen, Annett Junginger, Rahab N Kinyanjui, Emmanuel Ndiema, Elizabeth Sawchuk, Amanuel Beyin and Susan K Pfeiffer in The Holocene

Data from: Two new species of Lecanora sensu stricto (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota) from east Africa

Paul Kirika, Sittiporn Parnmen & Thorsten Lumbsch
The new sorediate species Lecanora kenyana from Mount Kenya and Lecanora orientoafricana from the Rift Valley in Kenya are described. Lecanora kenyana has red-brown apothecia with a constricted base, a melacarpella–type amphithecium, pulicaris–type epihymenium, a hyaline hypothecium, and contains usnic acid as major constituent. Lecanora orientoafricana is characterized by having a dark hypothecium, pulicaris-type amphithecium, chlarotera-epihymenium, and contains atranorin and gangaleoidin. A phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood and a Bayesian approach based on DNA sequence...

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