196 Works

Data from: Three-dimensional reconstructions come to life – interactive 3D PDF animations in functional morphology

Thomas Van De Kamp, Tomy Dos Santos Rolo, Patrik Vagovič, Tilo Baumbach & Alexander Riedel
Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements...

Data from: Molecular dynamics investigation of gluazo, a photo-switchable ligand for the glutamate receptor GluK2

Yanan Guo, Tino Wolter, Tomáš Kubař, Martin Sumser, Dirk Trauner & Marcus Elstner
Photochromic ligands (PCLs), defined as photoswitchable molecules that are able to endow native receptors with a sensitivity towards light, have become a promising photopharmacological tool for various applications in biology. In general, PCLs consist of a ligand of the target receptor covalently linked to an azobenzene, which can be reversibly switched between two configurations upon light illumination. Gluazo, as a PCL that targets excitatory amino acid receptors, in its dark-adapted trans iso-form was characterized to...

Data from: A taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic perspective on the community assembly of passerine birds along an elevational gradient in southwest China

Xuelian He, Kang Luo, Calum Brown & Luxiang Lin
Integrating multiple-facets of biodiversity to describe spatial and temporal distribution patterns is one way of revealing the mechanisms driving community assembly. We assessed the species, functional and phylogenetic composition and structure of passerine bird communities along an elevational gradient both in wintering and breeding seasons in the Ailao Mountains, southwest China, in order to identify the dominant ecological processes structuring the communities and how these processes change with elevation and season. Our research confirms that...

Data from: EPA-ng: massively parallel evolutionary placement of genetic sequences

Pierre Barbera, Alexey M. Kozlov, Lucas Czech, Benoit Morel, Diego Darriba, Tomas Flouri & Alexandros Stamatakis
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies have led to a ubiquity of molecular sequence data. This data avalanche is particularly challenging in metagenetics, which focuses on taxonomic identification of sequences obtained from diverse microbial environments. Phylogenetic placement methods determine how these sequences fit into anevolutionary context. Previous implementations of phylogenetic placement algorithms, such as the Evolutionary Placement Algorithm (EPA) included in RAxML, or pplacer, are being increasingly used for this purpose. However, due to the steady...

Data from: New records of very high nitrous oxide fluxes from rice cannot be generalized for water management and climate impacts

Reiner Wassmann, Bjoern Ole Sander, Sudhir Yadav, Bas Bouman, Grant Singleton, Alexander Stuart, Jonathan Hellin, David Johnson, Jacqueline Hughes, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Ralf Kiese, David Kraus, Baldur Janz, Bruce Linquist, Yam Kanta Gaihre, Ngonidzashe Chirinda & Eva Wollenberg
This supplement aims to substantiate and expand our comments made in the Letter to the Editor. This format as a separate document was necessary due to the complexity of the issues raised in our comments vis-à-vis the word limit of PNAS Letters (500 words). The text elaborates on individual concerns raised in the letter and also adds new aspects on the research quality that have not yet been discussed in the letter. Moreover, the supplement...

Stadtbäume im Stress. Interview [Teil 1]

Somidh Saha, Jana Kandarr & Oliver Jorzik
Im Trockenjahr 2018 sind in vielen Städten und Gemeinden Deutschlands frisch gepflanzte Bäume eingegangen. Im ersten Teil unseres ESKP-Interviews fordert Dr. Somidh Saha vom Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) bessere Baumregister, um alle Stadtbäume zu erfassen.

Tuna-Steak und Co. Methylquecksilber im Fisch

Jana Kandarr & Florian Wittmann
Sushi erfreut sich immer größerer Beliebtheit. Weltweit nimmt der Appetit auf Fisch zu, in den letzten 50 Jahren hat sich dessen Verzehr verdoppelt. Nicht unwesentlich ist daher die Schadstoff-Belastung von Speisefischen für den Menschen. Insbesondere Raubfische weisen hohe Konzentrationen an Methylquecksilber auf.

Stadtbäume besser umsorgen. Interview [Teil 2]

Somidh Saha, Jana Kandarr & Oliver Jorzik
Oftmals fehlt es in Städten an einem geeigneten Baum-Management. Im zweiten Teil unseres ESKP-Interviews plädiert der Forstexperte Dr. Somidh Saha für gesetzliche Regelungen, die das Fällen von Großbäumen in Städten bundesweit stoppen.

Stauseen setzen große Mengen Methan frei

Jana Kandarr & Florian Wittmann
Kohlestrom, Erdgas, Erdöl, Atomkraft – im Vergleich dazu erscheint Energie aus Wasserkraft als saubere Alternative. Doch für Großprojekte müssen häufig riesige Gebiete dauerhaft geflutet werden. Sind diese voller üppiger Vegetation wie im Mekong-Delta oder Amazonasbecken, gehen nicht nur einzigartige Lebensräume verloren, sondern diese großen Staudämme weisen auch eine teils miserable Klimabilanz auf.

Quartet-based computations of internode certainty provide robust measures of phylogenetic incongruence

Xiaofan Zhou, Sarah Lutteropp, Lucas Czech, Alexandros Stamatakis, Moritz Von Looz & Antonis Rokas
Incongruence, or topological conflict, is prevalent in genome-scale data sets. Internode certainty (IC) and related measures were recently introduced to explicitly quantify the level of incongruence of a given internal branch among a set of phylogenetic trees and complement regular branch support measures (e.g., bootstrap, posterior probability) that instead assess the statistical confidence of inference. Since most phylogenomic studies contain data partitions (e.g., genes) with missing taxa and IC scores stem from the frequencies of...

Data from: Differing impacts of two major plant invaders on urban plant-dwelling spiders (Araneae) during flowering season

Tobias Bauer, Daria Bäte, Fabian Kempfer & Jens Schirmel
The dataset contains spider (Araneae) specimen numbers collected from flowering invasive American goldenrod (Solidago canadensis/gigantea) and invasive Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera) stands occuring naturally in urban areas of the city of Karlsruhe, Germany. Corresponding plots with native ruderalized vegetation in direct vicinity of each invaded plot were used as a comparison plot, resulting in a fully paired design for each plant invader study. An additional column represents potential non-araneae prey items collected together with the...

Europäische Versäumnisse bei der Erschließung und Bewertung neuer Lagerstätten. Interview

Jochen Kolb
Auch mit modernsten Technologien benötigen Geologen mindestens zehn Jahre, um einen Rohstoff als Reserve oder Ressource der Industrie bereitstellen zu können. Europa investiert bisher wenig in die Bewertung und Erschließung eigener Lagerstätten. Mit einer Änderung dieser Philosophie ließen sich auch viele Umweltprobleme in Entwicklungsländern vermeiden, die der Bergbau dort verursacht. Der Lagerstättenkundler Prof. Dr. Jochen Kolb vom Institut für Angewandte Geowissenschaften des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie (KIT) im Interview.

Konvektive Starkwindereignisse in Deutschland

Susanna Mohr
Sturmböen im Sommer sind häufig mit schweren Schäden verbunden. Da sie in Mitteleuropa vor allem in den warmen Sommermonaten auftreten, können sie zudem bei Outdoor-Aktivitäten oder Open-Air-Veranstaltungen ein erhebliches Gefahrenpotential darstellen.

Checkliste zur Unterstützung der Helmholtz-Zentren bei der Implementierung von Richtlinien für nachhaltige Forschungssoftware

Reinhard Messerschmidt, Heinz Pampel, Felix Bach, Wolfgang zu Castell, Michael Denker, Ants Finke, Bernadette Fritzsch, Martin Hammitzsch, Uwe Konrad, Yvonne Leifels, Christoph Möhl, Marco Nolden, Markus Scheinert, Tobias Schlauch, Thomas Schnicke & Dirk Steglich
Mit der voranschreitenden Digitalisierung von Forschung und Lehre steigt die Zahl an Software-Lösungen, die an wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen entstehen und zur Erkenntnisgewinnung genutzt werden. Die – unter dem Stichwort Open Science geforderte – Zugänglichkeit und Nachnutzung von wissenschaftlichen Ergebnissen kann in vielen Fachgebieten nur sichergestellt werden, wenn neben Forschungsdaten auch Programmcode offen zugänglich gemacht wird. Die vorliegende Handreichung richtet sich an Entscheider*innen in den Helmholtz-Zentren, die sich mit der Implementierung von Richtlinien für nachhaltige Forschungssoftware befassen....

Mikroseismisches Kandel Elztal Experiment

The aim of the microseismic Kandel-Elztal experiment (MiKaEl-Ex) is to continuously record the micro-earthquakes with a highly sensitive measuring network. From this measurement data, the micro-earthquake signals will then be identified from the background noise using innovative methods based on artificial intelligence. Then the arrival time of the earthquakes waves are used to calculate the exact location of their sources in the interior of the earth. In this way, potential active faults are found and...

Electrostatic interactions contribute to the control of intramolecular thiol–disulfide isomerization in a protein

Tomáš Kubař, Denis Maag, Marina Putzu, Claudia L. Goméz-Flores, Frauke Gräter & Marcus Elstner
The role of structural factors and of electrostatic interactions with the environment on the outcome of thiol–disulfide exchange reactions were investigated in a mutated immunoglobulin domain (I27*) under mechanical stress. An extensive ensemble of molecular dynamics trajectories was generated by means of QM/MM simulations for a total sampling of 5.7 μs. A significant number of thiol–disulfide exchanges were observed, and the Cys32 thiolate preferred to attack Cys55 over Cys24, in agreement with previous experimental and...

Additional file 1 of On the use of Earth Observation to support estimates of national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks for the Global stocktake process: lessons learned from ESA-CCI RECCAP2

Ana Bastos, Philippe Ciais, Stephen Sitch, Luiz E. O. C. Aragão, Frédéric Chevallier, Dominic Fawcett, Thais M. Rosan, Marielle Saunois, Dirk Günther, Lucia Perugini, Colas Robert, Zhu Deng, Julia Pongratz, Raphael Ganzenmüller, Richard Fuchs, Karina Winkler, Sönke Zaehle & Clément Albergel
Additional file 1: Supplementary Information.

Additional file 1 of On the use of Earth Observation to support estimates of national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks for the Global stocktake process: lessons learned from ESA-CCI RECCAP2

Ana Bastos, Philippe Ciais, Stephen Sitch, Luiz E. O. C. Aragão, Frédéric Chevallier, Dominic Fawcett, Thais M. Rosan, Marielle Saunois, Dirk Günther, Lucia Perugini, Colas Robert, Zhu Deng, Julia Pongratz, Raphael Ganzenmüller, Richard Fuchs, Karina Winkler, Sönke Zaehle & Clément Albergel
Additional file 1: Supplementary Information.

sj-docx-1-spo-10.1177_17479541221130054 - Supplemental material for Shedding some light on in-game formation changes in the German Bundesliga: Frequency, contextual factors, and differences between offensive and defensive formations

Leon Forcher, Leon Preine, Leander Forcher, Hagen Wäsche, Darko Jekauc, Alexander Woll, Timo Gross & Stefan Altmann
Supplemental material, sj-docx-1-spo-10.1177_17479541221130054 for Shedding some light on in-game formation changes in the German Bundesliga: Frequency, contextual factors, and differences between offensive and defensive formations by Leon Forcher, Leon Preine, Leander Forcher, Hagen Wäsche, Darko Jekauc, Alexander Woll, Timo Gross and Stefan Altmann in International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching

Shedding some light on in-game formation changes in the German Bundesliga: Frequency, contextual factors, and differences between offensive and defensive formations

Leon Forcher, Leon Preine, Leander Forcher, Hagen Wäsche, Darko Jekauc, Alexander Woll, Timo Gross & Stefan Altmann
The tactical formation is considered an important factor in soccer, however, changes in tactical formation during matches (in-game) and the distinction between offensive and defensive formations has rarely been considered in previous studies analyzing match performance. Therefore, objectives of this study were to investigate the following research questions: (i) How frequently do in-game formation changes occur? (ii) What contextual factors are associated with these changes? (iii) How often do defensive and offensive formations differ? The...

Platelet membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles carry microRNA inhibitor against myocardial ischaemia‒reperfusion injury

Tianyi Wang, Tingting Zhou, Mingming Xu, Shuo Wang, Anqi Wu, Mingyang Zhang, You Lang Zhou & Jiahai Shi
Abstract The incidence of myocardial ischaemia‒reperfusion injury (MIRI) is increasing every year, and there is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic approaches. Nrf2 is thought to play a protective role during MIRI and it is regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). This study focused on PLGA nanoparticles camouflaged by platelet membrane vesicles (PMVs) (i.e., PMVs@PLGA complexes) carrying microRNA inhibitors, which regulate Nrf2 and can play a therapeutic role in the MIRI process. In vitro and in...

Additional file 1 of Platelet membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles carry microRNA inhibitor against myocardial ischaemia‒reperfusion injury

Tianyi Wang, Tingting Zhou, Mingming Xu, Shuo Wang, Anqi Wu, Mingyang Zhang, You Lang Zhou & Jiahai Shi
Additional file 1: Figure S1. Toxicity assessment of PMVs@PLGA complexes on cardiac muscle tissue. A TUNEL apoptosis assay of cardiomyocytes after targeting the PMVs@PLGA complexes to the heart of SD MIRI model rats. B BAX IF assay of cardiomyocytes after targeting the PMVs@PLGA complexes to the heart of SD MIRI model rats. C BCL-2 IF in cardiomyocytes after targeting the PMVs@PLGA complexes to the heart of SD MIRI model rats (scale bars indicate 100 μm).

Additional file 2 of Platelet membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles carry microRNA inhibitor against myocardial ischaemia‒reperfusion injury

Tianyi Wang, Tingting Zhou, Mingming Xu, Shuo Wang, Anqi Wu, Mingyang Zhang, You Lang Zhou & Jiahai Shi
Additional file 2: Figure S2. Schematic representation of the sequences of the dual luciferase reporter gene vectors for the 4 miRNAs.

Additional file 1 of Platelet membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles carry microRNA inhibitor against myocardial ischaemia‒reperfusion injury

Tianyi Wang, Tingting Zhou, Mingming Xu, Shuo Wang, Anqi Wu, Mingyang Zhang, You Lang Zhou & Jiahai Shi
Additional file 1: Figure S1. Toxicity assessment of PMVs@PLGA complexes on cardiac muscle tissue. A TUNEL apoptosis assay of cardiomyocytes after targeting the PMVs@PLGA complexes to the heart of SD MIRI model rats. B BAX IF assay of cardiomyocytes after targeting the PMVs@PLGA complexes to the heart of SD MIRI model rats. C BCL-2 IF in cardiomyocytes after targeting the PMVs@PLGA complexes to the heart of SD MIRI model rats (scale bars indicate 100 μm).

Potential of low-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (LT-ATES) in Germany

Ruben Stemmle, Vanessa Hammer, Philipp Blum & Kathrin Menberg
Abstract More than 30% of Germany’s final energy consumption currently results from thermal energy for heating and cooling in the building sector. One possibility to achieve significant greenhouse gas emission savings in space heating and cooling is the application of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems. Hence, this study maps the spatial technical potential of shallow low-temperature ATES systems in Germany. Important criteria for efficient ATES operation considered in this assessment encompass suitable hydrogeological conditions,...

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