64 Works

Data from: Analysis of genome-wide structure, diversity and fine mapping of Mendelian traits in traditional and village chickens

David Wragg, Joram M. Mwacharo, Paul M. Hocking, Olivier Hanotte & Jose A. Alcalde
Extensive phenotypic variation is a common feature among village chickens found throughout much of the developing world, and in traditional chicken breeds that have been artificially selected for traits such as plumage variety. We present here an assessment of traditional and village chicken populations, for fine mapping of Mendelian traits using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping while providing information on their genetic structure and diversity. Bayesian clustering analysis reveals two main genetic backgrounds in traditional...

Data from: The modulating role of group stability on fitness effects of group size is different in females and males of a communally rearing rodent

Luis A. Ebensperger, Loreto A. Correa, Cecilia León, Juan Ramírez-Estrada, Sebastian Abades, Alvaro Villegas & Loren D. Hayes
Group size may influence fitness benefits and costs that emerge from cooperative and competitive interactions in social species. However, evidence from plural breeding mammals indicates that group size is insufficient to explain variation in direct fitness, implying other attributes of social groups were overlooked. We studied the natural population of a social rodent during 5 years to test the hypothesis that social stability – in terms of group composition – modulates the effects of increasing...

Data from: Revisiting the measurement of anomie

Ali Teymoori, Jolanda Jetten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, Nadia Ayub, Constantina Badea, Tomasz Besta, Fabrizio Butera, Rui Costa-Lopes, Lijuan Cui, Carole Fantini, Gillian Finchilesc, Lowell Gaertner, Mario Gollwitzer, Ángel Gómez, Roberto González, Ying Yi Hong, Dorthe Høj Jensen, Minoru Karasawa, Thomas Kessler, Olivier Klein, Marcus Lima, Tuuli Anna Mähönen, Laura Megevand … & Gillian Finchilescu
Sociologists coined the term "anomie" to describe societies that are characterized by disintegration and deregulation. Extending beyond conceptualizations of anomie that conflate the measurements of anomie as 'a state of society' and as a 'state of mind', we disentangle these conceptualizations and develop an analysis and measure of this phenomenon focusing on anomie as a perception of the 'state of society'. We propose that anomie encompasses two dimensions: a perceived breakdown in social fabric (i.e.,...

Data from: Agreements between industry and academia on publication rights: a retrospective study of protocols and publications of randomized clinical trials

Benjamin Kasenda, Erik Von Elm, John J. You, Anette Blümle, Yuki Tomonaga, Ramon Saccilotto, Alain Amstutz, Theresa Bengough, Joerg J. Meerpohl, Mihaela Stegert, Kelechi K. Olu, Kari A. O. Tikkinen, Ignacio Neumann, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Markus Faulhaber, Sohail M. Mulla, Dominik Mertz, Elie A. Akl, Dirk Bassler, Jason W. Busse, Ignacio Ferreira-González, Francois Lamontagne, Alain Nordmann, Viktoria Gloy, Heike Raatz … & Matthias Briel
Background: Little is known about publication agreements between industry and academic investigators in trial protocols and the consistency of these agreements with corresponding statements in publications. We aimed to investigate (i) the existence and types of publication agreements in trial protocols, (ii) the completeness and consistency of the reporting of these agreements in subsequent publications, and (iii) the frequency of co-authorship by industry employees. Methods and Findings: We used a retrospective cohort of randomized clinical...

Data from: Ontogenetic thermal tolerance and performance of ectotherms at variable temperatures

Grisel Cavieres, Jose Miguel Bogdanovich & Francisco Bozinovic
Early experience and environmental conditions during ontogeny may effect organismal structure, physiology and fitness. Here, we assessed the effect of developmental acclimation to environmental thermal variability on walking speed in Drosophila melanogaster adults. Our results showed a shift in the performance curve to the right. Thus, upper and lower thermal limits exhibited developmental plasticity. Additionally, in constant and variable climatic scenarios, flies shifted to the right the optimum temperature but the maximum performance decreased only...

Data from: The phenotypic correlates and quantitative genetics of masculinization in the rodent, Octodon degus

Derek A. Roff, Matthew E. Wolak, Loreto A. Correa & Mauricio Soto-Gamboa
In some mammals female characteristics have been shown to depend in part on the intrauterine position during development of female fetuses relative to male fetuses. Females developing in close proximity to males show behavioural, physiological and life history characteristics that are masculinized. With the exception of one inconclusive study, nothing is known of the genetic basis of this phenomenon. In this paper we reported an analysis of the quantitative genetic basis of masculinization, as indicated...

Data from: Highly masculinized and younger males attain higher reproductive success in a social rodent

Loreto A. Correa, Cecilia León, Juan Ramírez-Estrada, Alvaro Ly-Prieto, Sebastian Abades, Loren D. Hayes, Mauricio Soto-Gamboa & Luis A. Ebensperger
Abstract: Alternative morphotypes have been reported in males of different taxa. In some mammals highly masculinized and slightly masculinized males represent two opposite ends along a gradient of phenotypic variation in males. This phenotypical gradient originates during prenatal development. Laboratory studies have documented how highly and slightly masculinized males differ in several traits, including their reproductive success. However, the extent to which these reported differences materialize in natural populations remains unknown. We quantified the impact...

Data from: Testing the effects of heterozygosity on growth rate plasticity in the seaweed Gracilaria chilensis (Rhodophyta)

Cristobal F. Gallegos Sanchez, Jessica Beltrán, Verónica Flores, Alejandra V. González & Bernabé Santelices
Heterozygosity has been positively associated with fitness and population survival. However, the relationship between heterozygosity and adaptive phenotypic plasticity (i.e., plasticity which results in fitness homeostasis or improvement in changing environments), is unclear and has been poorly explored in seaweeds. In this study, we explored this relationship in the clonal red seaweed, Gracilaria chilensis by conducting three growth rate plasticity experiments under contrasting salinity conditions and by measuring heterozygosity with five microsatellite DNA markers. Firstly,...

Genome-wide analyses reveal drivers of penguin diversification

Juliana Vianna, Flávia A. N. Fernandes, María José Frugone, Henrique V. Figueiró, Luis R. Pertierra, Daly Noll, Ke Bi, Cynthia Y. Wang-Claypool, Andrew Lowther, Patricia Parker, Celine Le Bohec, Francesco Bonadonna, Barbara Wienecke, Pierre Pistorius, Antje Steinfurth, Christopher P. Burridge, Gisele P. M. Dantas, Elie Poulin, W. Brian Simison, Jim Henderson, Eduardo Eizirik, Mariana F. Nery & Rauri C. K. Bowie
Penguins are the only extant family of flightless diving birds. They currently comprise at least 18 species, distributed from polar to tropical environments in the Southern Hemisphere. The history of their diversification and adaptation to these diverse environments remains controversial. We used 22 new genomes from 18 penguin species to reconstruct the order, timing, and location of their diversification, to track changes in their thermal niches through time, and to test for associated adaptation across...

The macroecology of fish migration

Dominique Alò, Shaw Lacy, Andrea Castillo, Horacio Samaniego & Pablo Marquet
Aim: We still lack a consensus on the main variables driving changes in migratory strategies. Different hypotheses have been proposed: productivity, energy, environmental heterogeneity, and genetic predisposition. This work takes an integrative view and analyzes migrations from a macroecological perspective estimating the extent to which different environmental variables and historic factors influence migratory life histories. Location: Global Time period: Current Major taxa studied: Actinopterygian fishes Methods: Using public domain museum records, global repositories, and global...

Effects of harvesting on subtidal kelp forests (Lessonia trabeculata) in Central Chile

Alejandro Pérez-Matus, Bryan Bularz, Miriam Fernández, Evie Wieters & María Dulce Subida
The systematic degradation of marine ecosystems is a global phenomenon that has important and diverse consequences including biodiversity loss and reduced ecosystem service provisions. In temperate regions, subtidal kelp forests are dominant ecosystems in rocky coasts, subjected to the influence of local-scale stressors and regional environmental variation. For example, kelps within the Humboldt Current System are at risk of degradation from live-harvesting by fisheries. However, limited information exists regarding the long-term consequences of kelp harvesting...

Data from: Diet reveals links between morphology and foraging in a cryptic temperate reef fish

Natalia S. Winkler, Maite Paz-Goicoechea, Robert W. Lamb & Alejandro Pérez-Matus
Predators select prey so as to maximize energy and minimize manipulation time. In order to reduce prey detection and handling time, individuals must actively select their foraging space (microhabitat) and populations exhibit morphologies that are best suited for capturing locally available prey. We explored how variation in diet correlates with habitat type, and how these factors influence key morphological structures (mouth gape, eye diameter, fin length, fin area, and pectoral fin ratio) in a common...

Data from: Fluctuating thermal environments and time-dependent effects on fruit fly egg-hatching performance

Grisel Cavieres, Jose M. Bogdanovich, Paloma Toledo & Francisco Bozinovic
Organismal performance in a changing environment is dependent on temporal patterns and duration of exposure to thermal variability. We experimentally assessed the time-dependent effects of thermal variability (i.e. patterns of thermal exposure) on the hatching performance of Drosophila melanogaster. Flies were collected in central Chile and maintained for four generations in laboratory conditions. Fourth generation eggs were acclimated to different thermal fluctuation cycles until hatching occurred. Our results show that the frequency of extreme thermal...

Data from: The positive side of a negative reference: the delay between linguistic processing and common ground

Edmundo Kronmüller, Ira Noveck, Natalia Rivera, Francisco Jaume-Guazzini & Dale Barr
Interlocutors converge on names to refer to entities. For example, a speaker might refer to a novel looking object as the jellyfish and, once identified, the listener will too. The hypothesized mechanism behind such referential precedents is a subject of debate. The common ground view claims that listeners register the object as well as the identity of the speaker who coined the label. The linguistic view claims that, once established, precedents are treated by listeners...

Thermal effects vary predictably across levels of organization: empirical results and theoretical basis

Enrico Rezende, Francisco Bozinovic, Grisel Cavieres, Sebastián I. Martel, Jose Alruiz, Andrés N. Molina, Hannetz Roschzttardtz & Enrico Rezende
Thermal performance curves have provided a common framework to study the impact of temperature in biological systems. However, few generalities have emerged to date. Here we combine an experimental approach with theoretical analyses to demonstrate that performance curves are expected to vary predictably with the levels of biological organization. We measured rates of enzymatic reactions, organismal performance and population viability in Drosophila acclimated to different thermal conditions and show that performance curves become narrower with...

Latitudinal trend in the reproductive mode of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum invading a wide climatic range

Sebastián Martel, Carmen Ossa, Jean-Christophe Simon, Chrisitian Figueroa & Francisco Bozinovic
The maintenance of sexuality is a puzzling phenomenon in evolutionary biology. Many universal hypotheses have been proposed to explain the prevalence of sex despite its costs, but it has been hypothesized that sex could be also retained by lineage-specific mechanisms that would confer some short-term advantage. Aphids are good models to study the maintenance of sex because they exhibit coexistence of both sexual and asexual populations within the same species and because they invade a...

Encapsulation of Chemotherapeutic Drug Melphalan in Cucurbit[7]uril: Effects on Its Alkylating Activity, Hydrolysis, and Cytotoxicity

Gustavo Villarroel-Lecourt, Javiera Carrasco-Carvajal, Felipe Andrade-Villalobos, Fresia Solís-Egaña, Ignacio Merino-San Martín, José Robinson-Duggon & Denis Fuentealba
The formation of inclusion complexes between drugs and macrocycles has proven to be an effective strategy to increase solubilization and stabilization of the drug, while in several cases improving their biological activity. In this context, we explored the formation of an inclusion complex between chemotherapeutic drug Melphalan (Mel) and cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), and studied its effect on Mel alkylating activity, hydrolysis, and cytotoxicity. The formation of the inclusion complex (Mel@CB[7]) was proven by absorption and fluorescence...

Countering misinformation in and from the newsroom: How digital platforms redefine journalistic practice and the democratic role of news media

Eva Mayerhöffer, Marinella Belluati, Brooks DeCillia, Leen d’Haenens, Alice Fubini, Wai Han Lo, Enrique Núñez-Mussa, Jón Gunnar Ólafsson & Rossella Rega

The professionalisation of journalism: Global trends and the challenges of training and job insecurity

Christian Ruggiero, Achilleas Karadimitriou, Wai Han Lo, Enrique Núñez-Mussa, Mauro Bomba & Simone Sallusti

Searching for Stellar Associations in Gaia DR2

Brolan Jennings, Jeff Andrews, Marcel Agüeros & Julio Chanamé

Heat tolerance of marine ectotherms in a warming Antarctica

Enrico Rezende, Andres Molina, José Pulgar & Mauricio Carter
Global warming is affecting the Antarctic continent in complex ways. Because Antarctic organisms are specialized to living in the cold, they are vulnerable to increasing temperatures, though quantitative analyses of this issue are currently lacking. Here we compiled a total of 184 estimates of heat tolerance belonging to 39 marine species and quantified how survival is affected concomitantly by the intensity and duration of a thermal stress. Species exhibit thermal limits displaced towards colder temperatures,...

Secondary respiratory early and late infections in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19

María Elena Ceballos, Carolina Nuñez, Javier Uribe, María Magdalena Vera, Ricardo Castro, Patricia García, Gabriel Arriata, Vicente Gándara, Camila Vargas, Angélica Dominguez, Inés Cerón, Pablo Born & Eduardo Espíndola
Abstract Background Patients with COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation may become aggravated with a secondary respiratory infection. The aim of this study was to describe secondary respiratory infections, their predictive factors, and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation. Methods A cohort study was carried out in a single tertiary hospital in Santiago, Chile, from 1st June to 31st July 2020. All patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit that required mechanical ventilation...

Data from: Decoupled evolution of foliar freezing resistance, temperature-niche and morphological leaf traits in Chilean Myrceugenia

Fernanda Pérez, Luis Felipe Hinojosa, Carmen Gloria Ossa, Francisa Campano & Francisca Campano
1. Phylogenetic conservatism of tolerance to freezing temperatures has been cited to explain the tendency of plant lineages to grow in similar climates. However there is little information about whether or not freezing resistance is conserved across phylogenies, and whether conservatism of physiological traits could explain conservatism of realized climatic niches. Here we compared the phylogenetical lability of realized climatic niche, foliar freezing resistance, and four morphological leaf traits that are generally considered adaptations to...

Data from: Genetic structure of introduced American mink (Neovison vison) in Patagonia: colonisation insights and implications for control and management strategies

Mónica Mora, Gonzalo Medina-Vogel, Maximiliano A. Sepúlveda, Daly Noll, Rocío Álvarez-Varas & Juliana A. Vianna
Context: Biological invasions have caused dramatic changes in native biodiversity and ecosystem function. Studies of genetic variation and evolutionary changes are useful for understanding population dynamics during biological invasions, and shed light on management, prevention and restoration strategies. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the structure and genetic variability of American mink (Neovison vison), an invasive species in southern South America, introduced for fur farming in the 1930s. Methods: Samples from 153 mink were obtained...

Data accompanying ‘Microstructural controls on thermal crack damage and the presence of a temperature-memory effect during cyclic thermal stressing of rocks’ submitted for publication in Geophysical Research Letters

John Browning, Ali Daoud, Philip Meredith & Thomas Mitchell
Acoustic emissions (AE) and ultrasonic wave velocity data recorded during a series of high temperature thermal cracking experiments by Daoud et al., in the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory of the University College London. The data gives the time and magnitude of AE output which were recorded contemporaneously whilst cyclically heating three rock types (A Slaufrudalur Granophyre, A Santorini Andesite and a Seljadalur Basalt). The ultrasonic wave velocity data was recorded pre- and post- heating....

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