49 Works

Searching for Stellar Associations in Gaia DR2

Brolan Jennings, Jeff Andrews, Marcel Agüeros & Julio Chanamé

Data from: The positive side of a negative reference: the delay between linguistic processing and common ground

Edmundo Kronmüller, Ira Noveck, Natalia Rivera, Francisco Jaume-Guazzini & Dale Barr
Interlocutors converge on names to refer to entities. For example, a speaker might refer to a novel looking object as the jellyfish and, once identified, the listener will too. The hypothesized mechanism behind such referential precedents is a subject of debate. The common ground view claims that listeners register the object as well as the identity of the speaker who coined the label. The linguistic view claims that, once established, precedents are treated by listeners...

Data from: Fluctuating thermal environments and time-dependent effects on fruit fly egg-hatching performance

Grisel Cavieres, Jose M. Bogdanovich, Paloma Toledo & Francisco Bozinovic
Organismal performance in a changing environment is dependent on temporal patterns and duration of exposure to thermal variability. We experimentally assessed the time-dependent effects of thermal variability (i.e. patterns of thermal exposure) on the hatching performance of Drosophila melanogaster. Flies were collected in central Chile and maintained for four generations in laboratory conditions. Fourth generation eggs were acclimated to different thermal fluctuation cycles until hatching occurred. Our results show that the frequency of extreme thermal...

Data from: Diet reveals links between morphology and foraging in a cryptic temperate reef fish

Natalia S. Winkler, Maite Paz-Goicoechea, Robert W. Lamb & Alejandro Pérez-Matus
Predators select prey so as to maximize energy and minimize manipulation time. In order to reduce prey detection and handling time, individuals must actively select their foraging space (microhabitat) and populations exhibit morphologies that are best suited for capturing locally available prey. We explored how variation in diet correlates with habitat type, and how these factors influence key morphological structures (mouth gape, eye diameter, fin length, fin area, and pectoral fin ratio) in a common...

Latitudinal trend in the reproductive mode of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum invading a wide climatic range

Sebastián Martel, Carmen Ossa, Jean-Christophe Simon, Chrisitian Figueroa & Francisco Bozinovic
The maintenance of sexuality is a puzzling phenomenon in evolutionary biology. Many universal hypotheses have been proposed to explain the prevalence of sex despite its costs, but it has been hypothesized that sex could be also retained by lineage-specific mechanisms that would confer some short-term advantage. Aphids are good models to study the maintenance of sex because they exhibit coexistence of both sexual and asexual populations within the same species and because they invade a...

Thermal effects vary predictably across levels of organization: empirical results and theoretical basis

Enrico Rezende, Francisco Bozinovic, Grisel Cavieres, Sebastián I. Martel, Jose Alruiz, Andrés N. Molina, Hannetz Roschzttardtz & Enrico Rezende
Thermal performance curves have provided a common framework to study the impact of temperature in biological systems. However, few generalities have emerged to date. Here we combine an experimental approach with theoretical analyses to demonstrate that performance curves are expected to vary predictably with the levels of biological organization. We measured rates of enzymatic reactions, organismal performance and population viability in Drosophila acclimated to different thermal conditions and show that performance curves become narrower with...

Encapsulation of Chemotherapeutic Drug Melphalan in Cucurbit[7]uril: Effects on Its Alkylating Activity, Hydrolysis, and Cytotoxicity

Gustavo Villarroel-Lecourt, Javiera Carrasco-Carvajal, Felipe Andrade-Villalobos, Fresia Solís-Egaña, Ignacio Merino-San Martín, José Robinson-Duggon & Denis Fuentealba
The formation of inclusion complexes between drugs and macrocycles has proven to be an effective strategy to increase solubilization and stabilization of the drug, while in several cases improving their biological activity. In this context, we explored the formation of an inclusion complex between chemotherapeutic drug Melphalan (Mel) and cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), and studied its effect on Mel alkylating activity, hydrolysis, and cytotoxicity. The formation of the inclusion complex (Mel@CB[7]) was proven by absorption and fluorescence...

Der copo canelado (Portugal, 3. Jahrtausend v. Chr.) : ein möglicher Vorläufer des maritimes Glockenbechers

Gonçalo De Carvalho Amaro
Madrider Mitteilungen, 54 (2013)

Data accompanying ‘Microstructural controls on thermal crack damage and the presence of a temperature-memory effect during cyclic thermal stressing of rocks’ submitted for publication in Geophysical Research Letters

John Browning, Ali Daoud, Philip Meredith & Thomas Mitchell
Acoustic emissions (AE) and ultrasonic wave velocity data recorded during a series of high temperature thermal cracking experiments by Daoud et al., in the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory of the University College London. The data gives the time and magnitude of AE output which were recorded contemporaneously whilst cyclically heating three rock types (A Slaufrudalur Granophyre, A Santorini Andesite and a Seljadalur Basalt). The ultrasonic wave velocity data was recorded pre- and post- heating....

Chile

Enrique Núñez-Mussa

Data from: Genetic structure of introduced American mink (Neovison vison) in Patagonia: colonisation insights and implications for control and management strategies

Mónica Mora, Gonzalo Medina-Vogel, Maximiliano A. Sepúlveda, Daly Noll, Rocío Álvarez-Varas & Juliana A. Vianna
Context: Biological invasions have caused dramatic changes in native biodiversity and ecosystem function. Studies of genetic variation and evolutionary changes are useful for understanding population dynamics during biological invasions, and shed light on management, prevention and restoration strategies. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the structure and genetic variability of American mink (Neovison vison), an invasive species in southern South America, introduced for fur farming in the 1930s. Methods: Samples from 153 mink were obtained...

Data from: Decoupled evolution of foliar freezing resistance, temperature-niche and morphological leaf traits in Chilean Myrceugenia

Fernanda Pérez, Luis Felipe Hinojosa, Carmen Gloria Ossa, Francisa Campano & Francisca Campano
1. Phylogenetic conservatism of tolerance to freezing temperatures has been cited to explain the tendency of plant lineages to grow in similar climates. However there is little information about whether or not freezing resistance is conserved across phylogenies, and whether conservatism of physiological traits could explain conservatism of realized climatic niches. Here we compared the phylogenetical lability of realized climatic niche, foliar freezing resistance, and four morphological leaf traits that are generally considered adaptations to...

Disturbance and the (surprising?) role of ecosystem engineering in explaining spatial patterns of non-native plant establishment

Meredith Root-Bernstein, Cesar Muñoz & Juan Armesto
The Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis is widely considered to be wrong but is rarely tested against alternative hypotheses. It predicts that soil disturbances and herbivory have identical impacts on species richness via identical mechanisms (reduction in biomass and in competition). An alternative hypothesis is that the specific traits of disturbance agents (small mammals) and plants differentially affects richness or abundance of different plant groups. We tested these hypotheses on a degu (Octodon degus) colony in central...

Data from: Heat tolerance in ectotherms scales predictably with body size

Enrico Rezende & Ignacio Peralta-Maraver
This study analyses how heat stress varies with body size in ectothermic organisms. The analytical approach is based on thermal death time (TDT) curves, which take into consideration both the intensity and the duration of a thermal stress, and result in a linear relationship between temperature and the logarithm of time. We analyzed two separate heat tolerance datasets measured in mollusk, arthropod, fish, amphibian and reptile species, covering nearly 9 orders of magnitude in size....

Detection histories of mesocarnivores in agricultural areas of Southern Chile

Nicolás Gálvez, José Infante, Adrián Fernandez, Jesús Díaz & Lisanne Petracca
We obtained mesocarnivore detection/non-detection data from 180 sampling units (4 km2 each) located in the agricultural landscapes of southern Chile from January-April of 2019. We used single-species occupancy models to investigate the associations of forest fragmentation, forest loss, and private land ownership subdivision (as a measure of human use intensification) with the occurrence of four mesocarnivores (güiña, grey fox, culpeo fox, and Molina’s hog-nosed skunk), and extended this framework to two-species occupancy models to assess...

Data from: Rapid within- and transgenerational changes in thermal tolerance and fitness in variable thermal landscapes

Grisel Cavieres, Enrico L. Rezende, Sabrina Clavijo-Baquet, Jose Alruiz, Carla Rivera-Rebella, Francisca Boher & Francisco Bozinovic
Phenotypic plasticity may increase performance and fitness and allow organisms to cope with variable environmental conditions. We studied within-generation plasticity and transgenerational effects of thermal conditions on temperature tolerance and demographic parameters in Drosophila melanogaster. We employed a fully factorial design, in which both parental (P) and offspring generations (F1) were reared in a constant or a variable thermal environment. Thermal variability during ontogeny increased heat tolerance in P, but with demographic cost as this...

Data from: O father where art thou? Paternity analyses in a natural population of the haploid-diploid seaweed Chrondrus crispus

Stacy A. Krueger-Hadfield, Denis Roze, Christophe Destombe, Juan A. Correa & Myriam Valero
The link between life history traits and mating systems in diploid organisms has been extensively addressed in the literature, whereas the degree of selfing and/or inbreeding in natural populations of haploid–diploid organisms, in which haploid gametophytes alternate with diploid sporophytes, has been rarely measured. Dioecy has often been used as a proxy for the mating system in these organisms. Yet, dioecy does not prevent the fusion of gametes from male and female gametophytes originating from...

Data from: Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia

Mauricio Seguel, Francisco Muñoz, Felipe Montalva, Diego Perez-Venegas, Héctor Paves & Nicole Gottdenker
During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms (Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic...

Data from: Partitioning the effects of regional, spatial and local variables on beta diversity of salt marsh arthropods in Chile

Cristina Coccia & Jose M. Fariña
Aim: We examined the influence of regional, spatial and local variables (edaphic characteristics and vegetation structure) on patterns of arthropod variation along the Chilean coast by partitioning beta diversity into its turnover and nestedness components. Location: 2000 km along the coast of Chile Methods: We collected ground-dwelling arthropod samples from 9 marshes during two seasons. A clustering method was used to examine patterns of arthropod similarity across salt marshes. We also calculated multiple site beta...

Metapopulation dynamics and foraging plasticity in a highly vagile seabird, the southern rockhopper penguin

Nicolas Lois, Leonardo Campagna, Ulises Balza, Michael Polito, Klemens Pütz, Juliana Vianna, Annick Morgenthaler, Esteban Frere, Ricardo Saenz-Samaniego, Andrea Raya Rey & Bettina Mahler
Population connectivity is driven by individual dispersal potential and modulated by natal philopatry. In seabirds, high vagility facilitates dispersal yet philopatry is also common, with foraging area overlap often correlated with population connectivity. We assess the interplay between these processes by studying past and current connectivity and foraging niche overlap among southern rockhopper penguin colonies of the coast of southern South America using genomic and stable isotope analyses. We found two distinct genetic clusters and...

After a catastrophe, a little bit of sex is better than nothing: genetic consequences of a major earthquake on asexual and sexual populations

Ronan Becheler, Marie-Laure Guillemin, Solenn Stoeckel, Stéphane Mauger, Alice Saunier, Antonio Brante, Destombe Christophe & Valero Myriam
Catastrophic events can have profound effects on the demography of a population and consequently, on genetic diversity. The dynamics of post-catastrophic recovery as well as the role of sexual versus asexual reproduction in buffering the effects of massive perturbations remain poorly understood, in part because the opportunity to document genetic diversity before and after such events is rare. Six natural (purely sexual) and seven cultivated (mainly clonal due to farming practices) populations of the red...

Shrinking dinosaurs and the evolution of endothermy in birds

Enrico Rezende
The evolution of endothermy represents a major transition in vertebrate history and a major factor underlying the diversity of birds and mammals. Despite the several advantages of an endothermic lifestyle, the tempo and mode of the evolution of endothermy in these lineages remains one of the most controversial subjects in paleontology and evolutionary physiology. Here, we combine a heat transfer model with body size estimates in the theropod phylogeny to reconstruct the evolution of metabolic...

Data from: Comparative phylogeography of three host sea anemones in the Indo-Pacific

Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Madeleine Emms, Emily Giles, Remy Gatins, Gerrit Nanninga, Anna Scott, Jean Paul Hobbs, Ashley Frisch, Suzanne Mills, Ricardo Beldade & Michael Berumen
Aim The mutualistic relationship between anemones and anemonefishes is one of the most iconic examples of symbiosis. However, while anemonefishes have been extensively studied in terms of genetic connectivity, such information is lacking entirely for host sea anemones. Here, we provide the first information on the broad-scale population structure and phylogeographic patterns of three species of host sea anemone, Heteractis magnifica, Stichodactyla mertensii, and Entacmaea quadricolor. We evaluate if there is concordance in genetic structure...

Bizarre tail weaponry in a transitional ankylosaur from subantarctic Chile

Sergio Soto-Acuña, Alexander Vargas & Joao F. Botelho
Armoured dinosaurs are well known for their evolution of specialized tail weapons— paired tail spikes in stegosaurs and heavy tail clubs in advanced ankylosaurs1. Armoured dinosaurs from southern Gondwana are rare and enigmatic, but probably include the earliest branches of Ankylosauria2–4. Here we describe a mostly complete, semi-articulated skeleton of a small (approximately 2 m) armoured dinosaur from the late Cretaceous period of Magallanes in southernmost Chile, a region that is biogeographically related to West...

Data For: The developing bird pelvis passes through ancestral Archosaurian and Dinosaurian conditions

Christopher Griffin, João Botelho, Michael Hanson, Matteo Fabbri, Daniel Smith-Paredes, Ryan Carney, Mark Norell, Shiro Egawa, Stephen Gatesy, Timothy Rowe, Ruth Elsey, Sterling Nesbitt & Bhart-Anjan Bhullar
Living birds (Aves) have bodies dramatically modified from the ancestral reptilian condition. The avian pelvis in particular experienced dramatic changes during the transition from early archosaurs to living birds. This stepwise transformation is well documented by an excellent fossil record; however, the ontogenetic alterations that underly it are less well-understood. We used embryological imaging techniques to examine the morphogenesis of avian pelvic tissues in three dimensions, allowing direct comparison with the fossil record. Many ancestral...

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