72 Works

Health and economic effects on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the long run: predictions for the Chilean population

Manuel Antonio Espinoza, Tomas Abbott, Alvaro Passi & Carlos Balmaceda
Abstract Background Diabetes is associated to a high financial and disease burden, explaining a large proportion of expenditure of the health system in one year. The purpose of this study was to estimate long-term costs and health outcomes of recently diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes in Chile. Methods Cost and consequence study based on mathematical discrete event simulation (DES) model. We modelled expected costs (USD) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) from diagnosis to death (or...

Encapsulation of Chemotherapeutic Drug Melphalan in Cucurbit[7]uril: Effects on Its Alkylating Activity, Hydrolysis, and Cytotoxicity

Gustavo Villarroel-Lecourt, Javiera Carrasco-Carvajal, Felipe Andrade-Villalobos, Fresia Solís-Egaña, Ignacio Merino-San Martín, José Robinson-Duggon & Denis Fuentealba
The formation of inclusion complexes between drugs and macrocycles has proven to be an effective strategy to increase solubilization and stabilization of the drug, while in several cases improving their biological activity. In this context, we explored the formation of an inclusion complex between chemotherapeutic drug Melphalan (Mel) and cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), and studied its effect on Mel alkylating activity, hydrolysis, and cytotoxicity. The formation of the inclusion complex (Mel@CB[7]) was proven by absorption and fluorescence...

Data from: The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic lignin decomposition reconstructed from 31 fungal genomes

Dimitrios Floudas, Manfred Binder, Robert Riley, Kerrie Barry, Robert A. Blanchette, Bernard Henrissat, Angel T. Martínez, Robert Ortillar, Joseph W. Spatafora, Jagjit S. Yadav, Andrea Aerts, Isabelle Benoit, Alex Boyd, Alexis Carlson, Alex Copeland, Pedro M. Coutinho, Ronald P. De Vries, Patricia Ferreira, Keisha Findley, Brian Foster, Jill Gaskell, Dylan Glotzer, Paweł Górecki, Joseph Heitman, Cedar Hesse … & David S. Hibbett
Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non–lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study) suggest that lignin-degrading peroxidases expanded in the lineage leading to the ancestor of the Agaricomycetes, which is reconstructed as...

Data from: Tracing the trans-Pacific evolutionary history of a domesticated seaweed (Gracilaria chilensis) with archaeological and genetic data

Marie-Laure Guillemin, Myriam Valero, Sylvain Faugeron, Wendy Nelson & Christophe Destombe
The history of a domesticated marine macroalga is studied using archaeological, phylogeographic and population genetic tools. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses demonstrated that the cultivated red alga Gracilaria chilensis colonised the Chilean coast from New Zealand. Combining archaeological observations with phylogeographic data provided evidence that exchanges between New Zealand and Chile have occurred at least before the Holocene, likely at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and we suggest that migration probably occurred...

Data from: Masculinized females produce heavier offspring in a group living rodent

Loreto Alejandra Correa, Cecilia León, Juan Ramírez-Estrada, Mauricio Soto-Gamboa, Roger Dani Sepúlveda & Luis Alberto Ebensperger
Alternative morphotypes have been reported less frequently in females than in males. An exception to this rule is the gradient of phenotypical masculinization reported in some female mammals, in which feminized and masculinized females represent two opposite ends along this gradient. These phenotypical differences originate during prenatal development as the consequence of maternal effects. Feminized and masculinized females differ in several traits, including morphological, physiological, behavioural and reproductive traits. Differences previously reported in reproductive traits...

Data from: How structured is the entangled bank? The surprisingly simple organization of multiplex ecological networks leads to increased persistence and resilience

Sonia Kéfi, Vincent Miele, Evie A. Wieters, Sergio A. Navarrete & Eric L. Berlow
Species are linked to each other by a myriad of positive and negative interactions. This complex spectrum of interactions constitutes a network of links that mediates ecological communities’ response to perturbations, such as exploitation and climate change. In the last decades, there have been great advances in the study of intricate ecological networks. We have, nonetheless, lacked both the data and the tools to more rigorously understand the patterning of multiple interaction types between species...

Data from: Early life experience drives short-term acclimation of metabolic and osmoregulatory traits in the leaf-eared mouse

Grisel Cavieres, Monica Nuñez-Villegas, Francisco Bozinovic & Pablo Sabat
We studied the putative effect of early experience on the physiological flexibility of metabolic and osmoregulatory traits in the leaf-eared mouse Phyllotis darwini, an altricial rodent inhabiting seasonal mediterranean environments. Adult individuals were collected in central Chile and maintained in breeding pairs. Pups were isolated after weaning and acclimated to different temperature (cold or warm) and water availability (unrestricted and restricted) until adulthood. Subsequently, individuals were re-acclimated to the opposite treatment. Rodents reared in warm...

Data from: Asymmetric competitive effects during species range expansion: an experimental assessment of interaction strength between ‘equivalent’ grazer species at their range overlap

Moises A. Aguilera, Nelson Valdivia, Stuart Jenkins, Sergio A. Navarrete & Bernardo Broitman
1. Biotic interactions are central to the development of theory and concepts in community ecology; experimental evidence has shown their strong effects on patterns of population and community organization and dynamics over local spatial scales. The role of competition in determining range limits and preventing invasions at biogeographic scales is more controversial, partly because of the complexity of processes involved in species colonization of novel habitats and the difficulties in performing appropriate manipulations and controls....

Data from: Generic and specific facets of vulnerability for analyzing trade-offs and synergies in natural resource management

Stefan Gelcich, Joshua E. Cinner & Sebastian Tapia-Lewin
1. The concept of vulnerability as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity to a stressor is gaining traction outside of the climate realm, opening new avenues to address contemporary sustainability issues more holistically. Yet, critical notions that underpin vulnerability have yet to be integrated into its application to natural resource management and non-climatic stressors. In particular, the way generic and stressor-specific facets of vulnerability interact and can inform decision-makers about how interventions combine...

Dataset and scripts from: Predicting temperature mortality and selection in natural Drosophila populations

Enrico Rezende, Francisco Bozinovic, András Szilágyi & Mauro Santos
The study develops and validates a theoretical model to predict thermal mortality under natural conditions, based on measurements of mortality performed in the laboratory at multiple constant temperatures. The theoretical model first fits a thermal tolerance landscape, which describes how survival probability is affected by both temperature and exposure time, to the empirical measurements of mortality obtained in the laboratory under controlled conditions. Then, employing a numerical approximation to the analytical solution based on differential...

Data from: The ecology of the collapse of Rapa Nui society

Mauricio Lima, Eugenia Gayo, Claudio Latorre, Calogero M. Santoro, Sergio A. Estay, Nuria Cañellas-Bolta, Olga Margalef, Santiago Giralt, Alberto Saez, Sergi Plá-Rabes & Nils Chr. Stenseth
Collapses of food producer societies are recurrent events in prehistory and have triggered a growing concern for identifying the underlying causes of convergences/divergences across cultures around the world. One of the most studied and used as a paradigmatic case is the population collapse of the Rapa Nui society. Here, we test different hypotheses about by developing explicit population dynamic models that integrate feedbacks between climatic, demographic and ecological factors that underpinned the socio-cultural trajectory of...

Defining Hazing: Gender Differences

Daniela Véliz-Calderón & Elizabeth J. Allan

Combining point counts and autonomous recording units improves avian survey efficacy across elevational gradients on two continents

Anna Drake, Devin R. De Zwaan, Tomás A. Altamirano, Scott Wilson, Kristina Hick, Camila Bravo, José Tomás Ibarra & Kathy Martin
Accurate biodiversity and population monitoring is a requirement for effective conservation decision-making. Survey method bias is therefore a concern, particularly when research programs face logistical and cost limitations. We employed point counts (PCs) and autonomous recording units (ARUs) to survey avian biodiversity within comparable, high elevation, temperate mountain habitats at opposite ends of the Americas: 9 mountains in British Columbia (BC), Canada and 10 in southern Chile. We compared detected species richness against multi-year species...

Body size variation in polyplacophoran mollusks: geographic clines and community structure along the Southeastern Pacific

Christian Ibanez, Mauricio Carter, Moises Aguilera, M. Cecilia Pardo-Gandarillas & Enrico Rezende
Aim: To evaluate the latitudinal pattern of body size within and among chiton species employing phylogenetically structured analyses, and to examine the role of geographic variation in temperature, productivity and oxygen availability as potential environmental drivers. Location: Coastal habitats of the Southeastern Pacific along a latitudinal range of nearly 6,000 km, from the Equator to Patagonia (~ 2º to 56º S). Time Period: Present (2011 – 2017). Major taxa: 31 species of polyplacophoran mollusks. Methods:...

Additional file 1 of Health and economic effects on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the long run: predictions for the Chilean population

Manuel Antonio Espinoza, Tomas Abbott, Alvaro Passi & Carlos Balmaceda
Additional file 1: Expected costs and outcomes of the outcome based subgroup analysis.

Additional file 2 of Health and economic effects on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the long run: predictions for the Chilean population

Manuel Antonio Espinoza, Tomas Abbott, Alvaro Passi & Carlos Balmaceda
Additional file 2: Baseline characteristics of the microstimulated cohort and meta-analyzed utility values.

Le plébiscite de 1988 : le début de la fin de la dictature militaire chilienne (Les Études du CERI, n°239-240)

Manuel Gárate Château
Au-delà des débats relatifs aux caractéristiques de la transition politique et à l’héritage politique et social encore vivace de la dictature civico-militaire du général Pinochet, le 5 octobre 1988 reste une date-clé pour les Chiliens, celle du retour à la démocratie.

ASKXXI: Ecologies of Interdisciplinary Research and Practice in Art + Science and Technology

Genevieve Tremblay, Jeff Brice, Fernanda X. Oyarzún Dunlop, Nélida Pohl & Belén Gallardo
ASKXXI: Arts + Science Knowledge Building and Sharing in the XXI (21st) Century was a US-Chile pilot program fostering inquiry and inter-hemispheric collaboration in art, emerging technologies, and the ecological sciences. Funded through an US Embassy public diplomacy grant, ASKXXI was an adaptive curriculum model situated on a collaborative platform of academic partners. This model provided freedom, flexibility and responsiveness to dynamic learning and professional development opportunities. The year-long pilot was customized to a jury-selected...

Additional file 2 of Secondary respiratory early and late infections in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19

María Elena Ceballos, Carolina Nuñez, Javier Uribe, María Magdalena Vera, Ricardo Castro, Patricia García, Gabriel Arriata, Vicente Gándara, Camila Vargas, Angélica Dominguez, Inés Cerón, Pablo Born & Eduardo Espíndola
Additional file 2: Table S2. Multivariate logistic regression for secondary infection.

Additional file 2 of Secondary respiratory early and late infections in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19

María Elena Ceballos, Carolina Nuñez, Javier Uribe, María Magdalena Vera, Ricardo Castro, Patricia García, Gabriel Arriata, Vicente Gándara, Camila Vargas, Angélica Dominguez, Inés Cerón, Pablo Born & Eduardo Espíndola
Additional file 2: Table S2. Multivariate logistic regression for secondary infection.

Adaptive effects of parental and developmental environments on offspring survival, growth, and phenotype

Daphne Cortese, Amélie Crespel, Suzanne Mills, Tommy Norin, Shaun Killen & Ricardo Beldade
Phenotypic adjustments to environmental variation are particularly relevant to cope with putative environmental mismatches often imposed by natal dispersal. We used an inter-generational cross-transplant field-based experiment to evaluate the morphological and physiological effects of parental and post-settlement water flow environments on the orange-fin anemonefish Amphiprion chrysopterus through ontogeny (at pre- and post-settlement stages). Offspring born from parents under high water flow had an 18% higher caudal fin aspect ratio (a compound measure of shape) at...

Data from: Pre-domestication bottlenecks of the cultivated seaweed Gracilaria chilensis

Oscar R. Huanel, Suany Quesada-Calderón, Cristian Ríos, Saraí Morales-González, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Wendy A. Nelson, Natalia Arakaki, Stéphane Mauger, Sylvain Faugeron & Marie-Laure Guillemin
Gracilaria chilensis is the main cultivated seaweed in Chile. The low genetic diversity observed in the Chilean population has been associated with the over-exploitation of natural beds and/or the founder effect that occurred during the post-glacial colonization from New Zealand. How these processes have affected its evolutionary trajectory before farming and incipient domestication is poorly understood. In this study, we used 2,232 SNPs to assess how the species' evolutionary history in New Zealand (its region...

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