291 Works

The distribution and spread of naturally occurring Medea selfish genetic elements in the United States

Sarah Cash, Fred Gould & Marce Lorenzen
Selfish genetic elements (SGEs) are DNA sequences that are transmitted to viable offspring in greater than Mendelian frequencies. Medea SGEs occur naturally in some populations of red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and are expected to increase in frequency within populations and spread among populations. The large-scale USA distributions of Medea-4 (M4) had been mapped based on samples from 1993-1995. We sampled beetles in 2011-2014 and show that the distribution of M4 in the United States...

Data from: Quantifying shape and ecology in avian pedal claws: the relationship between the bony core and keratinous sheath

Brandon Hedrick, Samantha Cordero, Lindsay Zanno, Christopher Noto & Peter Dodson
Terrestrial tetrapods use their claws to interact with their environments in a plethora of ways. Birds in particular have developed a diversity of claw shapes since they are often not bound to terrestrial locomotion and have heterogeneous body masses ranging several orders of magnitude. Numerous previous studies have hypothesized a connection between pedal claw shape and ecological mode in birds, yet have generated conflicting results, spanning from clear ecological groupings based on claw shape to...

Relative reproductive phenology and synchrony affect neonate survival in a nonprecocial ungulate

Eric Michel, Bronson Strickland, Stephen Demarais, Jerrold Belant, Todd Kautz, Jared Duquette, Dean Beyer, Michael Chamberlain, Karl Miller, Rebecca Shuman, John Kilgo, Duane Diefenbach, Bret Wallingford, Justin Vreeland, Steve Ditchkoff, Christopher DePerno, Christopher Moorman, Michael Chitwood & Marcus Lashley
1. Degree of reproductive synchronization in prey is hypothesized as a predator defense strategy reducing prey risk via predator satiation or predator avoidance. Species with precocial young, especially those exposed to specialist predators, should be highly synchronous to satiate predators (predator satiation hypothesis), while prey with nonprecocial (i.e., altricial) young, especially those exposed to generalist predators, should become relatively asynchronous to avoid predator detection (predator avoidance hypothesis). The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in North America...

Great smoky mountain ant community composition

Nathan J. Sanders, Jean-Philippe Lessard & Robert R. Dunn
Disentangling the drivers of diversity gradients can be challenging. The Measurement of Biodiversity (MoB) framework decomposes scale-dependent changes in species diversity into three components of community structure: the species abundance distribution (SAD), the total community abundance, and the within-species spatial aggregation. Here we extend MoB from categorical treatment comparisons to quantify variation along continuous geographic or environmental gradients. Our approach requires sites along a gradient, each consisting of georeferenced plots of abundance-based species composition data....

Compensatory growth and costs of molluscivory in Gambusia holbrooki

Brian Langerhans, Taylor Goins, Kenzi Stemp & Rüdiger Riesch
Some prey are exceptionally difficult to digest, and yet even non-specialized animals may consume them—why? Durophagy, the consumption of hard-shelled prey, is thought to require special adaptations for crushing or digesting the hard shells to avoid the many potential costs of this prey type. But many animals lacking specializations nevertheless include hard-bodied prey in their diets. We describe several non-mutually exclusive adaptive mechanisms that could explain such a pattern, and point to optimal foraging and...

Drought legacy affects microbial community trait distributions related to moisture along a savannah grassland precipitation gradient

Ainara Leizeaga, Lettice C. Hicks, Lokeshwaran Manoharan, Christine V. Hawkes & Johannes Rousk
Ecosystem models commonly use stable-state assumptions to predict responses of soil microbial functions to environmental change. However, past climatic conditions can shape microbial functional responses resulting in a “legacy effect”. For instance, exposure to drier conditions in the field may shape how soil microbial communities respond to subsequent drought and drying and rewetting events. We investigated microbial tolerance to low moisture levels (“resistance”) and ability to recover after a drying and rewetting (DRW) perturbation (“resilience”)...

Large losses of ammonium-nitrogen from a rice ecosystem under elevated CO2

Lei Cheng, Chenchao Xu, Kaihang Zhang, Wanying Zhu, Jing Xiao, Chen Zhu, Naifang Zhang, Fangjian Yu, Shuyao Li, Chunwu Zhu, Qichao Tu, Xin Chen, Jianguo Zhu, Shuijin Hu, Roger T Koide & Mary K Firestone
Inputs of nitrogen into terrestrial ecosystems, mainly via the use of ammonium-based fertilizers in agroecosystems, are enormous, but its fate under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is not well understood. We have taken advantage of a 15-year free air CO2 enrichment study to investigate the influence of elevated CO2 on the transformation of ammonium-nitrogen in a rice ecosystem in which ammonium is usually assumed to be stable under anaerobic conditions. We demonstrate that elevated CO2...

Outdoor activity participation improves adolescents’ mental health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic

Steven Jackson, Kathryn Stevenson, Lincoln Larson, Nils Peterson & Erin Seekamp
The COVID-19 pandemic is reshaping human interactions with the natural environment, generating profound consequences for health and well-being. To assess the effects of COVID-19 on the outdoor recreation participation and well-being of adolescents we conducted a nationally representative survey of youth ages 10-18 across the United States (n = 624) using a Qualtrics XM panel between April 30 and June 15, 2020. Survey questions focused on frequency of participation in several types of outdoor activities...

Data from: Bee phenology is predicted by climatic variation and functional traits

Michael Stemkovski, Will Pearse, Sean Griffin, Gabriella Pardee, Jason Gibbs, Terry Griswold, John Neff, Ryan Oram, Molly RightMyer, Cory Sheffield, Karen Wright, Brian Inouye, David Inouye & Rebecca Irwin
Climate change is shifting the environmental cues that determine the phenology of interacting species. Plant-pollinator systems may be susceptible to temporal mismatch if bees and flowering plants differ in their phenological responses to warming temperatures. While the cues that trigger flowering are well-understood, little is known about what determines bee phenology. Using Generalized Additive Models, we analyzed time-series data representing 67 bee species collected over nine years in the Colorado Rocky Mountains to perform the...

Recurrent mismatch binding by MutS mobile clamps on DNA localizes repair complexes nearby

Keith Weninger, Pengyu Hao, Sharonda J. LeBlanc, Brandon C. Case, Timothy C. Elston, Manju M. Hingorani & Dorothy A. Erie
DNA mismatch repair (MMR), the guardian of the genome, commences when MutS identifies a mismatch and recruits MutL to nick the error-containing strand, allowing excision and DNA resynthesis. Dominant MMR models posit that after mismatch recognition, ATP converts MutS to a hydrolysis-independent, diffusive mobile clamp that no longer recognizes the mismatch. Little is known about the postrecognition MutS mobile clamp and its interactions with MutL. Two disparate frameworks have been proposed: One in which MutS–MutL...

Molecular prevalence of Bartonella, Babesia, and hemotropic Mycoplasma species in dogs with hemangiosarcoma from across the United States

Erin Lashnits, Pradeep Neupane, Julie Bradley, Toni Richardson, Rachael Thomas, Keith Linder, Matthew Breen & Ricardo Maggi
Hemangiosarcoma (HSA), a locally invasive and highly metastatic endothelial cell neoplasm, accounts for two-thirds of all cardiac and splenic neoplasms in dogs. Bartonella spp. infection has been reported in association with neoplastic and non-neoplastic vasoproliferative lesions in animals and humans. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in conjunction with two other hemotropic pathogens, Babesia spp. and hemotropic Mycoplasma spp., in tissues and blood samples from 110 dogs with...

Anonymized Researcher Interview Data - from the Raising the Profile of the NCSU Libraries Research Support Strategies & Engagement project

Hilary Davis & Colin Nickels
The data are from semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with researchers (all status levels from undergraduate to tenured faculty) at NC State University between August 2018 - January 2019

Legacy effect of grazing intensity mediates the bottom-up controls of resource addition on soil food webs

Dima Chen, Bing Wang, Ying Wu, Shuijin Hu & Yongfei Bai
1. Large-scale studies have demonstrated that nitrogen (N) and water (W) availability greatly affect terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, and this is especially true for the resource-poor semi-arid grasslands. Yet, experimental evidence is lacking for how N and W availability affect soil food webs across historical grazing intensity-altered environments at a local scale. 2. Here, we included N- and W-addition treatments in an 8-year grazing experiment (with four grazing intensities) to determine how the legacy effects of...

Data from: The hidden history of the snowshoe hare, Lepus americanus: extensive mitochondrial DNA introgression inferred from multilocus genetic variation

José Melo-Ferreira, Fernando A. Seixas, Ellen Cheng, L. Scott Mills & Paulo C. Alves
Hybridization drives the evolutionary trajectory of many species or local populations, and assessing the geographic extent and genetic impact of interspecific gene flow may provide invaluable clues to understand population divergence or the adaptive relevance of admixture. In North America, hares (Lepus spp.) are key species for ecosystem dynamics and their evolutionary history may have been affected by hybridization. Here we reconstructed the speciation history of the three most widespread hares in North America -...

Data from: Biologically and diagenetically derived peptide modifications in Moa collagens

Timothy P. Cleland, Elena R. Schroeter & Mary Higby Schweitzer
The modifications that occur on proteins in natural environments over time are not well studied, yet characterizing them is vital to correctly interpret sequence data recovered from fossils. The recently extinct moa (Dinornithidae) is an excellent candidate for investigating the preservation of proteins, their post-translational modifications (PTMs) and diagenetic alterations during degradation. Moa protein extracts were analysed using mass spectrometry, and peptides from collagen I, collagen II and collagen V were identified. We also identified...

Data from: Genetic structure and post-glacial expansion of Cornus florida L. (Cornaceae): integrative evidence from phylogeography, population demographic history, and species distribution modeling

Ashley Call, Yan-Xia Sun, Yan Yu, Peter B. Pearman, David T. Thomas, Robert Trigiano, Ignazio Carbone, Qiu-Yun Xiang, Robert N. Trigiano, Yan-Xia Sun & Qiu-Yun Jenny Xiang
Repeated global climatic cooling and warming cycles during the Pleistocene played a major role in the distribution and evolution of the Earth biota. Here, we integrate phylogeography, coalescent-based Bayesian estimation of demographic history, and species distribution modeling (SDM) to understand the genetic patterns and biogeography of the flowering dogwood, Cornus florida subsp. florida L., since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Natural populations of the species are severely threatened by dogwood anthracnose. We genotyped 306 plants...

Data from: Reproductive interference explains persistence of aggression between species

Jonathan P. Drury, Kenichi W. Okamoto, Christopher N. Anderson & Gregory F. Grether
Interspecific territoriality occurs when individuals of different species fight over space, and may arise spontaneously when populations of closely related territorial species first come into contact. But defence of space is costly, and unless the benefits of excluding heterospecifics exceed the costs, natural selection should favour divergence in competitor recognition until the species no longer interact aggressively. Ordinarily males of different species do not compete for mates, but when males cannot distinguish females of sympatric...

Data from: Enhanced diversity and aflatoxigenicity in interspecific hybrids of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

Rodrigo A. Olarte, Carolyn J. Worthington, Bruce W. Horn, Geromy G. Moore, Rakhi Singh, James T. Monacell, Joe W. Dorner, Eric A. Stone, De-Yu Xie & Ignazio Carbone
Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the two most important aflatoxin-producing fungi responsible for the contamination of agricultural commodities worldwide. Both species are heterothallic and undergo sexual reproduction in laboratory crosses. Here we examine the possibility of interspecific matings between A. flavus and A. parasiticus. These species can be distinguished morphologically and genetically, as well as by their mycotoxin profiles. Aspergillus flavus produces both B aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), B aflatoxins or CPA alone,...

Data from: Soil acidification exerts a greater control on soil respiration than soil nitrogen availability in grasslands subjected to long-term nitrogen enrichment

Dima Chen, Jianjun Li, Zhichun Lan, Shuijin Hu & Yongfei Bai
Terrestrial ecosystems worldwide are receiving increasing amounts of biologically reactive nitrogen (N) as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. This intended or unintended fertilization can have a wide-range of impacts on biotic communities and hence on soil respiration. Reduction in below-ground carbon (C) allocation induced by high N availability has been assumed to be a major mechanism determining the effects of N enrichment on soil respiration. In addition to increasing available N, however, N enrichment causes...

Data from: Macronutrient intake regulates sexual conflict in decorated crickets

James Rapkin, Kim Jensen, Sarah M. Lane, Clarissa M. House, Scott K. Sakaluk & John Hunt
Sexual conflict results in a diversity of sex-specific adaptations, including chemical additions to ejaculates. Male decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) produce a gelatinous nuptial gift (the spermatophylax) that varies in size and free amino acid composition, which influences a female's willingness to fully consume this gift. Complete consumption of this gift maximizes sperm transfer through increased retention of the sperm-containing ampulla, but hinders post-copulatory mate choice. Here, we examine the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate...

Data from: Phantoms of the forest: legacy risk effects of a regionally extinct large carnivore

Ellinor Sahlén, Sonja Noell, Christopher S. DePerno, Jonas Kindberg, Göran Spong, Joris P. G. M. Cromsigt & Joris P.G.M. Cromsigt
The increased abundance of large carnivores in Europe is a conservation success, but the impact on the behavior and population dynamics of prey species is generally unknown. In Europe, the recolonization of large carnivores often occurs in areas where humans have greatly modified the landscape through forestry or agriculture. Currently, we poorly understand the effects of recolonizing large carnivores on extant prey species in anthropogenic landscapes. Here, we investigated if ungulate prey species showed innate...

Data from: Diversity and evolution of the primate skin microbiome

Sarah E. Council, Amy M. Savage, Julie M. Urban, Megan E. Ehlers, J. H. Pate Skene, Michael L. Platt, Robert R. Dunn & Julie E. Horvath
Skin microbes play a role in human body odour, health and disease. Compared to gut microbes we know comparatively little about the changes in the composition of skin microbes in response to evolutionary changes in hosts, or more recent behavioral and cultural changes in humans. No studies have used sequence-based approaches to consider the skin microbe communities of gorillas and chimpanzees, for example. Comparison of the microbial associates of non-human primates with those of humans...

Data from: Dynamic occupancy modeling reveals a hierarchy of competition among fishers, grey foxes, and ringtails

David S. Green, Sean M. Matthews, Robert C. Swiers, Richard L. Callas, J. Scott Yaeger, Stuart L. Farber, Michael K. Schwartz & Roger A. Powell
1. Determining how species coexist is critical for understanding functional diversity, niche partitioning and interspecific interactions. Identifying the direct and indirect interactions among sympatric carnivores that enable their coexistence are particularly important to elucidate because they are integral for maintaining ecosystem function. 2. We studied the effects of removing 9 fishers (Pekania pennanti) on their population dynamics and used this perturbation to elucidate the interspecific interactions among fishers, grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and ringtails (Bassariscus...

Data from: Winter coat color polymorphisms identify global hotspots for evolutionary rescue from climate change

L. Scott Mills, Eugenia V. Bragina, Alexander V. Kumar, Marketa Zimova, Diana J.R. Lafferty, Jennifer Feltner, Brandon M. Davis, Klaus Hacklander, Paulo C. Alves, Jeffrey M. Good, Jose Melo-Ferreira, Andreas Dietz, Alexei V. Abramov, Natalia Lopatina & Kairsten Fay
Maintenance of biodiversity in a rapidly changing climate will depend on the efficacy of evolutionary rescue, whereby population declines due to abrupt environmental change are reversed by shifts in genetically-driven adaptive traits. However, a lack of traits known to be under direct selection by anthropogenic climate change has limited the incorporation of evolutionary processes into global conservation efforts. In 22 vertebrate species, some individuals undergo a seasonal color molt from summer brown to winter white...

Data from: Muscle–spring dynamics in time-limited, elastic movements

Michael V. Rosario, Gregory P. Sutton, Sheila N. Patek & Gregory S. Sawicki
Muscle contractions that load in-series springs with slow speed over a long duration do maximal work and store the most elastic energy. However, time constraints, such as those experienced during escape and predation behaviours, may prevent animals from achieving maximal force capacity from their muscles during spring-loading. Here, we ask whether animals that have limited time for elastic energy storage operate with springs that are tuned to submaximal force production. To answer this question, we...

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