379 Works

Data from: Disruption of endosperm development is a major cause of hybrid seed inviability between Mimulus guttatus and Mimulus nudatus

Elen Oneal, John H. Willis & Robert G. Franks
Divergence of developmental mechanisms within populations could lead to hybrid developmental failure, and might be a factor driving speciation in angiosperms. We investigate patterns of endosperm and embryo development in Mimulus guttatus and the closely related, serpentine endemic Mimulus nudatus, and compare them to those of reciprocal hybrid seed. We address whether disruption in hybrid seed development is the primary source of reproductive isolation between these sympatric taxa. M. guttatus and M. nudatus differ in...

Data from: Livestock grazing regulates ecosystem multifunctionality in semi‐arid grassland

Haiyan Ren, Valerie T. Eviner, Weiyang Gui, Gail W.T. Wilson, Adam B. Cobb, Gaowen Yang, Yingjun Zhang, Shuijin Hu, Yongfei Bai & Gail W. T. Wilson
1. Ecological theories and experimental evidence indicate that human activity induced losses in biodiversity can have substantial impacts on multiple ecosystem functions. It remains unclear, however, how grazing affects grassland biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionallity (EMF). 2. Here, we assessed the grazing effects on different dimensions of biodiversity (i.e. plants and soil microbes) and EMF based on a 11-year field experiment in a semi-arid grassland. 3. We found that soil organic C, available nitrogen, and plant...

Data from: Are shy individuals less behaviorally variable? Insights from a captive population of mouse lemurs

Jennifer L. Verdolin & John Harper
Increasingly, individual variation in personality has become a focus of behavioral research in animal systems. Boldness and shyness, often quantified as the tendency to explore novel situations, are seen as personality traits important to the fitness landscape of individuals. Here we tested for individual differences within and across contexts in behavioral responses of captive mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) to novel objects, novel foods, and handling. We report consistent differences in behavioral responses for objects and...

Data from: Reduced cellular immune response in social insect lineages

Margarita M. López-Uribe, Warren B. Sconiers, Steven D. Frank, Robert R. Dunn & David R. Tarpy
Social living poses challenges for individual fitness because of the increased risk of disease transmission among conspecifics. Despite this challenge, sociality is an evolutionarily successful lifestyle, occurring in the most abundant and diverse group of organisms on earth—the social insects. Two contrasting hypotheses predict the evolutionary consequences of sociality on immune systems. The social group hypothesis posits that sociality leads to stronger individual immune systems because of the higher risk of disease transmission in social...

Data from: Little evidence for morphological change in a resilient endemic species following the introduction of a novel predator

Diana M. T. Sharpe, R. Brian Langerhans, Etienne Low-Décarie & Lauren J Chapman
Human activities, such as species introductions, are dramatically and rapidly altering natural ecological processes, and often result in novel selection regimes. To date, we still have a limited understanding of the extent to which such anthropogenic selection may be driving contemporary phenotypic change in natural populations. Here we test whether the introduction of the piscivorous Nile perch, Lates niloticus, into East Africa's Lake Victoria and nearby lakes coincided with morphological change in one resilient native...

Combining epidemiological and ecological methods to quantify social effects on E. coli transmission

Trevor Farthing, Daniel Dawson, Michael Sanderson, Hannah Seger & Cristina Lanzas
Enteric microparasites like Escherichia coli utilize multiple transmission pathways to propagate within and between host populations. Characterizing the relative transmission risk attributable to host social relationships, and direct physical contact between individuals is paramount for understanding how microparasites like E. coli spread within affected communities and estimating colonization rates. To measure these effects, we carried out commensal E. coli transmission experiments in two cattle (Bos taurus) herds, wherein all individuals were equipped with real-time location...

Floral shape predicts bee-parasite transmission potential

Rebecca Irwin, Mario Pinilla-Gallego, Wee-Hao Ng & Victoria Amaral
The spread of parasites is one of the primary drivers of population decline of both managed and wild bees. Several bee parasites are transmitted by the shared use of flowers, turning floral resources into potential disease hotspots. However, we know little about how floral morphology and floral species identity affect different steps of the transmission process. Here, we used the gut parasite Crithidia bombi and its primary host, bumble bees (Bombus spp.), to examine whether...

Effects of an alternative host on the prevalence and infection intensity of a bumble bee parasite

Rebecca Irwin & Simon Pinilla-Gallego
Several bee parasites are transmitted through flowers, and some of them can infect multiple host species. Given the shared use of flowers by bee species, parasites can potentially encounter multiple host species, which could affect the evolution of parasite virulence. We used the trypanosomatid parasite Crithidia bombi and its host, the common eastern bumble bee (Bombus impatiens), to explore the effect of infecting an alternative host, the alfalfa leaf-cutter bee (Megachile rotundata), on parasite infectivity...

Probing the molecular basis of fruit firmness in southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum hybrid) through RNA sequencing

Lena Wilson & Hamid Ashrafi
Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) benefit from increased fruit firmness because of consumer preference and machine harvestability. However, the genetic component of fruit texture and skin thickness and their relationship to firmness have yet to be deciphered. This study used bulked segregant RNA-seq (BSR-seq) for differential gene expression analysis. Previously an F1 population of a cross between firm-fruited southern highbush cv. 'Reveille' and soft-fruited cv. 'Arlen' was developed in our laboratory. The total RNA of the...

Life-history stage and the population genetics of the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus at a fine spatial scale

Emily Reed, Michael Reiskind & Martha Burford Reiskind
As a widespread vector of disease, the mosquito species Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) is a high priority for both public health and invasive species research and management. Like all mosquitoes, A. albopictus has a complex life history with aquatic egg, larval, and pupal stages and a terrestrial adult stage. This requires targeted management strategies for each life stage, coordinated across time and space. Researchers use population genetics to inform control of A. albopictus. However,...

Collaborative Research: Ocean Acidification and Coral Reefs: Scale Dependence and Adaptive Capacity

Robert Carpenter
Title: Collaborative Research: Ocean Acidification and Coral Reefs - Scale Dependence and Adaptive Capacity This project focuses on the most serious threat to marine ecosystems, Ocean Acidification (OA), and addresses the problem in the most diverse and beautiful ecosystem on the planet, coral reefs. The research utilizes Moorea, French Polynesia as a model system, and builds from the NSF investment in the Moorea Coral Reef Long Term Ecological Research Site (LTER) to exploit physical and...

Plant census and microenvironment dataset from Mt. Baldy, Colorado, USA, 2014-2017

B. Blonder, R.E. Kapas, R.M. Dalton, B.J. Graae, J.M. Heiling & Ø.H. Opedal
The data comprise a long-term study of alpine plant community dynamics in the Gunnison National Forest of Colorado. The data comprise annual census data for all plants (including seedlings) in each of 50 2x2m plots, including information on size, reproduction, life stage, and mortality, with all plants identified and geo-located. These data are also made available transformed to provide individual-level estimates of growth, survival, fecundity, and recruitment. The dataset covers several thousand individuals of approximately...

Social media use and preferences of visitors to Crater Lake National Park: Data from a 2014 on-site survey

Rosemary B. Keane & Jordan Smith
These data describe the use, and preferences for, social media among visitors to Crater Lake National Park (Oregon, USA)

Spend to save: investigating the property acquisition process for risk reduction in Aotearoa New Zealand

Wendy S. A. Saunders & G. Smith
Limiting development in known high-hazard areas is among one of the most effective tools available to local governments to reduce future hazard risk and increase resilience, and yet, the widespread practice of acquiring hazard-prone properties and converting the land to open space in New Zealand remains highly varied. This report outlines Aotearoa New Zealand examples of hazard-prone housing acquisition (or buyout) processes, based on four legislative mechanisms: special legislation (Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Act 2011), the...

Uncertainty in health impact assessments of smoke from a wildfire event

Megan Johnson & Fernando Garcia-Menendez
Manuscript abstract: Wildfires cause elevated air pollution that can be detrimental to human health. However, health impact assessments associated with emissions from wildfire events are subject to uncertainty arising from different sources. Here, we quantify and compare major uncertainties in mortality and morbidity outcomes of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution estimated for a series of wildfires in the Southeastern U.S. We present an approach to compare uncertainty in estimated health impacts specifically due...

Experimental N and P additions relieve stoichiometric constraints on organic-matter flows through five stream food webs

Lee Demi, Jonathan Benstead, Amy Rosemond & John Maerz
1. Human activities have dramatically altered global patterns of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability. This pervasive nutrient pollution is changing basal resource quality in food webs, thereby affecting rates of biological productivity and the pathways of energy and material flow to higher trophic levels. 2. Here, we investigate how the stoichiometric quality of basal resources modulates patterns of material flow through food webs by characterizing the effects of experimental N and P enrichment on...

MVCNN++: CAD model shape classification and retrieval using multi-view convolutional neural networks

Binil Starly, Akshay Bharadwaj & Atin Angrish
Deep neural networks have shown promising success towards the classification and retrieval tasks for images and text data. While there have been several implementations of deep networks in the area of computer graphics, these algorithms do not translate easily across different datasets, especially for shapes used in product design and manufacturing domain. Unlike datasets used in the 3D shape classification and retrieval in the computer graphics domain, engineering level description of 3D models do not...

Amino acids (AA) all genes for: Beyond Drosophila: resolving the rapid radiation of schizophoran flies with phylotranscriptomics

Keith Bayless, Michelle Trautwein, Karen Meusemann, David Yeates & Brian Wiegmann
Background: The largest radiation of animal life since the end Cretaceous extinction event 66 million years ago is that of schizophoran flies: a third of fly diversity including Drosophila lab fruit flies, house flies, and many other well and poorly known true flies. Rapid diversification has hindered previous attempts to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among major schizophoran clades. A robust phylogenetic hypothesis for the major lineages containing these 55,000 described species would be critical to...

Robustness of the Dorsal morphogen gradient with respect to morphogen dosage

Gregory Reeves, Hadel Al Asafen, Sophia Carrell-Noel, Allison Schloop, Jeramey Friedman & Prasad Bandodkar
In multicellular organisms, the timing and placement of gene expression in a developing tissue assigns the fate of each cell in the embryo in order for a uniform field of cells to differentiate into a reproducible pattern of organs and tissues. This positional information is often achieved through the action of spatial gradients of morphogens. Spatial patterns of gene expression are paradoxically robust to variations in morphogen dosage, given that, by definition, gene expression must...

Do dog breeds differ in pain sensitivity? Veterinarians and the public believe they do

Margaret Gruen, Brian Hare & Philip White
Humans do not respond to the pain of all humans equally; physical appearance and associated group identity affect how people respond to the pain of others. Here we ask if a similar differential response occurs when humans evaluate different individuals of another species. Beliefs about pain in pet dogs (Canis familiaris) provide a powerful test, since dogs vary so much in size, shape, and color, and are often associated with behavioral stereotypes. Using an on-line...

Dityrosine formation via reactive oxygen consumption yields increasingly recalcitrant humic-like fluorescent organic matter in the ocean

Ryan Paerl, Iliana Claudio, Michael Shields, Thomas Bianchi & Christopher Osburn
Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a massive elemental pool on Earth and is thought to consist of a chemically complex mixture of molecules. Part of marine DOM is fluorescent (FDOM) and includes humic-like compounds. The chemical composition of, and biochemical pathways that yield, autochthonous humic-like FDOM in the ocean is largely unknown. Inspired by medical and biochemical research detailing the formation of colored and fluorescent dityrosine via peroxidase mediated reactions, we used fluorometry and...

Maintaining historic disturbance regimes increases species’ resilience to catastrophic hurricanes

Erica H Henry, Martha O Burford Reiskind, Aerin Land & Nick M Haddad
As habitat loss and fragmentation, urbanization, and global climate change accelerate, conservation of rare ecosystems increasingly relies on human intervention. However, any conservation strategy is vulnerable to unpredictable, catastrophic events. Whether active management increases or decreases a system’s resilience to these events remains unknown. Following Hurricane Irma’s landfall in our habitat restoration study sites, we found that rare ecosystems with active, human-imposed management suffered less damage in a hurricane’s path than unmanaged systems. At the...

Data from: Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus sclerotia: acquisition of novel alleles from soil populations and uniparental mitochondrial inheritance

Bruce W. Horn, Richard M. Gell, Rakhi Singh, Ronald B. Sorensen & Ignazio Carbone
Aspergillus flavus colonizes agricultural commodities worldwide and contaminates them with carcinogenic aflatoxins. The high genetic diversity of A. flavus populations is largely due to sexual reproduction characterized by the formation of ascospore-bearing ascocarps embedded within sclerotia. A. flavus is heterothallic and laboratory crosses between strains of the opposite mating type produce progeny showing genetic recombination. Sclerotia formed in crops are dispersed onto the soil surface at harvest and are predominantly produced by single strains of...

Data from: Genetic basis of continuous variation in the levels and modular inheritance of pigmentation in cichlid fishes

R. Craig Albertson, Kara E. Powder, Yinan Hu, Kaitlin P. Coyle, Reade B. Roberts & Kevin J. Parsons
Variation in pigmentation type and levels is a hallmark of myriad evolutionary radiations, and biologists have long been fascinated by the factors that promote and maintain variation in coloration across populations. Here we provide insights into the genetic basis of complex and continuous patterns of color variation in cichlid fishes, which offer a vast diversity of pigmentation patterns that have evolved in response to both natural and sexual selection. Specifically, we crossed two divergent cichlid...

Data from: Invasion of the Hawaiian Islands by a parasite infecting imperiled stream fishes

Roderick B. Gagne, C. Grace Sprehn, Fernando Alda, Peter B. McIntyre, James F. Gilliam & Michael J. Blum
Points of origin and pathways of spread are often poorly understood for introduced parasites that drive disease emergence in imperiled native species. Co-introduction of parasites with non-native hosts is of particular concern in remote areas like the Hawaiian Islands, where the introduced nematode Camallanus cotti has become the most prevalent parasite of at-risk native stream fishes. In this study, we evaluated the prevailing hypothesis that C. cotti entered the Hawaiian Islands with poeciliid fishes from...

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