295 Works

Development and testing of a novel Killer-Rescue self-limiting gene drive system in Drosophila melanogaster

Maxwell Scott, Sophia Webster & Michael Vella
Here we report the development and testing of a novel self-limiting gene drive system, Killer-Rescue, in Drosophila melanogaster. This system is composed of an auto-regulated Gal4 Killer (K) and a Gal4-activated Gal80 Rescue (R). Overexpression of Gal4 is lethal, but in the presence of R activation of Gal80 leads to much lower levels of Gal4 and rescue of lethality. We demonstrate that with a single 2:1 engineered to wildtype release, K drives R through the...

Data for: Tunable self-cleaving ribozymes for modulating gene expression in eukaryotic systems

Thomas Jacobsen, Gloria Yi, Hadel Al Asafen, Ashley Jermusyk, Chase Beisel & Gregory Reeves
Advancements in the field of synthetic biology have been possible due to the development of genetic tools that are able to regulate gene expression. However, the current toolbox of gene regulatory tools for eukaryotic systems have been outpaced by those developed for simple, single-celled systems. Here, we engineered a set of gene regulatory tools by combining self-cleaving ribozymes with various upstream competing sequences that were designed to disrupt ribozyme self-cleavage. As a proof-of-concept, we were...

Genomic population structure of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Cape Fear River

Nathalie LeBlanc, Benjamin Gahagan, Samuel Andrews, Trevor Avery, Gregory Puncher, Benjamin Reading, Colin Buhariwalla, R Allen Curry, Andrew Whitely & Scott Pavey
Striped Bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum, 1792), is an anadromous fish species that supports fisheries throughout North America and is native to the North American Atlantic Coast. Due to long coastal migrations that span multiple jurisdictions, a detailed understanding of population genomics is required to untangle demographic patterns, understand local adaptation, and characterize population movements. This study used 1256 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci to investigate genetic structure of 477 Striped Bass sampled from 15 locations...

Data from: Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments

Marlee A. Tucker, Olga Alexandrou, , Keith L. Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Chloe Bracis, John N. Brzorad, Evan R. Buechley, David Cabot, Justin M. Calabrese, Carlos Carrapato, André Chiaradia, Lisa C. Davenport, Sarah C. Davidson, Mark Desholm, Christopher R. DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Peter Enggist, William F. Fagan, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Christen H. Fleming, Alastair Franke, John M. Fryxell, Clara García-Ripollés … & João Paulo Silva
Aim: Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. Yet it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside of the migratory period, we examined how the distribution of resources affect the movement patterns of both large terrestrial birds (e.g., raptors, bustards, hornbills) and waterbirds (e.g., cranes, storks, ducks,...

Data from: Genetic diversity confers colony-level benefits due to individual immunity

Megan Walz, David R. Tarpy & Michael Simone-Finstrom
Several costs and benefits arise as a consequence of eusociality and group-living. With increasing group size, spread of disease among nest-mates poses selective pressure on both individual immunity and group-level mechanisms of disease resistance (social immunity). Another factor known to influence colony-level expression of disease is intracolony genetic diversity, which in honeybees (Apis mellifera) is a direct function of the number of mates of the queen. Colonies headed by queens with higher mating numbers have...

Data from: Peptide sequences from the first Castoroides ohioensis skull and the utility of old museum collections for paleoproteomics

Timothy Cleland, Elena Schroeter, Robert Feranec, Deepak Vashishth, Elena R. Schroeter, Timothy P. Cleland & Robert S. Feranec
Vertebrate fossils have been collected for hundreds years and are stored in museum collections around the world. These remains provide a readily available resource to search for preserved proteins; however, the vast majority of paleoproteomic studies have focused on relatively recently collected bones with a well-known handling history. Here, we characterize proteins from the nasal turbinates of the first Castoroides ohioensis skull ever discovered. Collected in 1845, this is the oldest museum curated specimen characterized...

Modeling Low Carbon Energy Futures for the United States

Joseph DeCarolis

Resonance Raman confirms partial hemoglobin preservation in dinosaur remains

Brandon Long
Still-soft, hollow, and flexible structures that are morphologically consistent with blood vessels were recovered from demineralized dinosaur bone and studied with resonance Raman techniques to test the hypothesis that these vessel-like structures are original to the dinosaur, and that they maintain endogenous molecular characteristics. We probed these ancient samples using resonance Raman at two different wavelengths, and the existence of a stronger resonance Raman signal level in the green compared to blue excitation is consistent...

Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Open Educational Resources

Meredith Jacob, Peter Jaszi, Prudence S. Adler & William Cross

National survey of college students' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to hunting, fishing, and wildlife conservation

Lincoln Larson
This dataset contains responses from an online survey of diverse undergraduate students (ages 18-34 years) attending 22 different universities across 22 U.S. states (total n = 17,203). Survey questions focused on students' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to hunting, fishing, and wildlife conservation. The survey was conducted from 2018-2020.

Deconstructing incubation behaviour in response to ambient temperature over different timescales

David Diez-Méndez, Caren Cooper, Juan José Sanz, Jose Verdejo & Emilio Barba
Avian embryos need a stable thermal environment to develop optimally, while incubating females need to allocate time to self-maintenance off the nest. In species with female-only incubation, eggs are exposed to ambient temperatures that usually cool them down during female absences. The lower the ambient temperature the sooner females should return to re-warm the eggs. When incubation constraints ease at increasing ambient temperatures, females respond by increasing either incubation effort or self-maintenance time. These responses...

Autonomous Vehicles and the Ethical Tension Between Occupant and Non-Occupant Safety

Jason Borenstein, Joseph Herkert & Keith Miller
Given that the creation and deployment of autonomous vehicles is likely to continue, it is important to explore the ethical responsibilities of designers, manufacturers, operators, and regulators of the technology. We specifically focus on the ethical responsibilities surrounding autonomous vehicles that these stakeholders have to protect the safety of non-occupants, meaning individuals who are around the vehicles while they are operating. The term “non-occupants” includes, but is not limited to, pedestrians and cyclists. We are...

Spine and dine: A key defensive trait promotes ecological success in spiny ants

Benjamin Blanchard, Akihiro Nakamura, Min Cao, Stephanie Chen & Corrie Moreau
A key focus of ecologists is explaining the origin and maintenance of morphological diversity and its association with ecological success. We investigate potential benefits and costs of a common and varied morphological trait, cuticular spines, for foraging behavior, interspecific competition, and predator-prey interactions in naturally co-occurring spiny ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Polyrhachis) in an experimental setting. We expect that a defensive trait like spines might be associated with more conspicuous foraging, a greater number of workers...

Data from: Rapid human-induced divergence of life-history strategies in Bahamian livebearing fishes (family Poeciliidae)

Rüdiger Riesch, Tara Easter, Craig A. Layman & Randall Brian Langerhans
1. Human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) can have dramatic impacts on ecosystems, leading to rapid trait changes in some organisms and extinction in others. Such changes in traits signify that human actions can lead to cases of increased phenotypic diversity and consequently can strongly impact population-, community- and ecosystem-level dynamics. 2. Here, we examine whether the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation have led to changes in the life histories of three native species of mosquitofish...

Data from: Host association drives significant genetic divergence in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius

Warren Booth, Ondřej Balvín, Edward L. Vargo, Jitka Vilímová & Coby Schal
Genetic differentiation may exist among sympatric populations of a species due to long-term associations with alternative hosts (i.e., host-associated differentiation). While host-associated differentiation has been documented in several phytophagus insects, there are far fewer cases known in animal parasites. The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, a wingless insect, represents a potential model organism for elucidating the processes involved in host-associated differentiation in animal parasites with relatively limited mobility. In conjunction with the expansion of modern humans...

Data from: Experimental evidence does not support the Habitat Amount Hypothesis

Nick M. Haddad, Andrew Gonzalez, Lars A. Brudvig, Melissa A. Burt, Douglas J. Levey & Ellen I. Damschen
For a half century, habitat configuration – the arrangement of habitat patches within a landscape – has been central to theories of landscape ecology, population dynamics, and community assembly, in addition to conservation strategies. A recent hypothesis advanced by Fahrig (2013) would, if supported, greatly diminish the relevance of habitat configuration as a predictor of diversity. The Habitat Amount Hypothesis posits that the sample area effect overrides patch size and patch isolation effects of habitat...

Data from: Livestock grazing regulates ecosystem multifunctionality in semi‐arid grassland

Haiyan Ren, Valerie T. Eviner, Weiyang Gui, Gail W.T. Wilson, Adam B. Cobb, Gaowen Yang, Yingjun Zhang, Shuijin Hu, Yongfei Bai & Gail W. T. Wilson
1. Ecological theories and experimental evidence indicate that human activity induced losses in biodiversity can have substantial impacts on multiple ecosystem functions. It remains unclear, however, how grazing affects grassland biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionallity (EMF). 2. Here, we assessed the grazing effects on different dimensions of biodiversity (i.e. plants and soil microbes) and EMF based on a 11-year field experiment in a semi-arid grassland. 3. We found that soil organic C, available nitrogen, and plant...

Data from: Does hunting or hiking affect wildlife communities in protected areas?

Roland Kays, Arielle W. Parsons, Megan C. Baker, Ellizabeth L. Kalies, Tavis Forrester, Robert Costello, Christopher T. Rota, Joshua J. Millspaugh & William J. McShea
Managed public wild areas have dual mandates to protect biodiversity and provide recreational opportunities for people. These goals could be at odds if recreation, ranging from hiking to legal hunting, disrupts wildlife enough to alter their space use or community structure. We evaluated the effect of managed hunting and recreation on 12 terrestrial wildlife species by employing a large citizen science camera trapping survey at 1947 sites stratified across different levels of human activities in...

Data from: Inducible versus constitutive social immunity: examining effects of colony infection on glucose oxidase and defensin-1 production in honeybees

Margarita M. López-Uribe, Andrea Fitzgerald & Michael Simone-Finstrom
Honeybees use a variety of defence mechanisms to reduce disease infection and spread throughout the colony. Many of these defences rely on the collective action of multiple individuals to prevent, reduce or eradicate pathogens—often referred to as ‘social immunity’. Glucose oxidase (GOX) and some antimicrobial peptides (e.g. defensin-1 or Def1) are secreted by the hypopharyngeal gland of adult bees on larval food for their antiseptic properties. Because workers secrete these compounds to protect larvae, they...

Data from: Male courtship preference during seasonal sympatry may maintain population divergence

Abigail A. Kimmitt, Samantha L. Dietz, Dustin G. Reichard & Ellen D. Ketterson
Animal migration can lead to a population distribution known as seasonal sympatry, in which closely related migrant and resident populations of the same species co-occur in sympatry during part of the year, but are otherwise allopatric. During seasonal sympatry in early spring, residents may initiate reproduction before migrants depart, presenting an opportunity for gene flow. Differences in reproductive timing between migrant and resident populations may favor residents that exhibit preferences for potential mates of similar...

Data from: Rare frost events reinforce tropical savanna-forest boundaries

William A. Hoffmann, Samuel W. Flake, Rodolfo C.R. Abreu, Natashi A.L. Pilon, Davi R. Rossatto, Giselda Durigan & Rodolfo C. R. Abreu
1) The ability of vegetation to ameliorate or exacerbate environmental extremes can generate feedbacks that mediate the distribution of biomes. It has been suggested that feedbacks between vegetation and frost damage may be important for maintaining savanna, particularly at the edge of the tropics. 2) We quantified frost damage and air temperature across a network of 30 permanent plots distributed across tropical savanna-forest boundaries in Brazil during an uncommonly hard frost. 3) Tree cover strongly...

Data from: Public questions spur the discovery of new bacterial species associated with lignin bioconversion of industrial waste

Stephanie L. Mathews, Mary J. Epps, Robert K. Blackburn, Michael B. Goshe, Amy M. Grunden & Robert R. Dunn
A citizen science project found that the greenhouse camel cricket (Diestrammena asynamora) is common in North American homes. Public response was to wonder “what good are they anyway?” and ecology and evolution guided the search for potential benefit. We predicted that camel crickets and similar household species would likely host bacteria with the ability to degrade recalcitrant carbon compounds. Lignocellulose is particularly relevant as it is difficult to degrade yet is an important feedstock for...

Data from: Assessment of coyote-wolf-dog admixture using ancestry-informative diagnostic SNPs

Javier Monzón, Roland Kays & Daniel E. Dykhuizen
The evolutionary importance of hybridization as a source of new adaptive genetic variation is rapidly gaining recognition. Hybridization between coyotes and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote gene pool that facilitated an expansion in their geographic range and dietary niche. Furthermore, hybridization between coyotes and domestic dogs may facilitate adaptation to human-dominated environments. We genotyped 63 ancestry-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms in 427 canids in order to examine the prevalence, spatial distribution, and...

Data from: Best practices for justifying fossil calibrations

James F. Parham, Philip C. J. Donoghue, Christopher J. Bell, Tyler D. Calway, Jason J. Head, Patricia A. Holroyd, Jun G. Inoue, Randall B. Irmis, Walter G. Joyce, Daniel T. Ksepka, José S. L. Patané, Nathan D. Smith, James E. Tarver, Marcel Van Tuinen, Ziheng Yang, Kenneth D. Angielczyk, Jenny M. Greenwood, Christy A. Hipsley, Jacobs Louis, Peter J. Makovicky, Johannes Müller, Krister T. Smith, Jessica M. Theodor, Rachel C. M. Warnock, Michael J. Benton … & Louis Jacobs
Our ability to correlate biological evolution with climate change, geological evolution, and other historical patterns is essential to understanding the processes that shape biodiversity. Combining data from the fossil record with molecular phylogenetics represents an exciting synthetic approach to this challenge. The first molecular divergence dating analysis (Zuckerkandl and Pauling 1962) was based on a measure of the amino acid differences in the hemoglobin molecule; with replacement rates established (calibrated) using inaccurate paleontological age estimates...

Data from: Are shy individuals less behaviorally variable? Insights from a captive population of mouse lemurs

Jennifer L. Verdolin & John Harper
Increasingly, individual variation in personality has become a focus of behavioral research in animal systems. Boldness and shyness, often quantified as the tendency to explore novel situations, are seen as personality traits important to the fitness landscape of individuals. Here we tested for individual differences within and across contexts in behavioral responses of captive mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) to novel objects, novel foods, and handling. We report consistent differences in behavioral responses for objects and...

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