387 Works

Data from: Balancing selection for aflatoxin in Aspergillus flavus is maintained through interference competition with, and fungivory by insects

Milton T. Drott, Brian P. Lazzaro, Dan L. Brown, Ignazio Carbone & Michael G. Milgroom
The role of microbial secondary metabolites in the ecology of the organisms that produce them remains poorly understood. Variation in aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus is maintained by balancing selection, but the ecological function and impact on fungal fitness of this compound are unknown. We hypothesize that balancing selection for aflatoxin production in A. flavus is driven by interaction with insects. To test this, we competed naturally occurring aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic fungal isolates against Drosophila...

Data from: Ecosystem function in predator-prey food webs - confronting dynamic models with empirical data

Alva Curtsdotter, H. Thomas Banks, John E Banks, Mattias Jonsson, Tomas Jonsson, Amanda N. Laubmeier, Michael Traugott & Riccardo Bommarco
1. Most ecosystem functions and related services involve species interactions across trophic levels, e.g. pollination and biological pest control. Despite this, our understanding of ecosystem function in multi-trophic communities is poor, and research has been limited to either manipulations in small communities or statistical descriptions in larger ones. 2. Recent advances in food web ecology may allow us to overcome the trade-off between mechanistic insight and ecological realism. Molecular tools now simplify the detection of...

Data from: Snap-jaw morphology is specialized for high-speed power amplification in the Dracula ant, Mystrium camillae

Fredrick J. Larabee, Adrian A. Smith & Andrew V. Suarez
What is the limit of animal speed and what mechanisms produce the fastest movements? More than natural history trivia, the answer provides key insight into the form-function relationship of musculoskeletal movement and can determine the outcome of predator-prey interactions. The fastest known animal movements belong to arthropods, including trap-jaw ants, mantis shrimp, and froghoppers, that have incorporated latches and springs into their appendage systems to overcome the limits of muscle power. In contrast to these...

Data from: A hierarchical distance sampling model to estimate abundance and covariate associations of species and communities

Rahel Sollmann, Beth Gardner, Kathryn A. Williams, Andrew T. Gilbert & Richard R. Veit
Distance sampling is a common survey method in wildlife studies, because it allows accounting for imperfect detection. The framework has been extended to hierarchical distance sampling (HDS), which accommodates the modelling of abundance as a function of covariates, but rare and elusive species may not yield enough observations to fit such a model. We integrate HDS into a community modelling framework that accommodates multi-species spatially replicated distance sampling data. The model allows species-specific parameters, but...

Data from: Macronutrient balance mediates the growth of sexually selected weapons but not genitalia in male broad-horned beetles

Clarissa M. House, Kim Jensen, James Rapkin, Sarah Lane, Kensuke Okada, David J. Hosken & John Hunt
Condition is defined as the pool of resources available to an individual that can be allocated to fitness-enhancing traits. Consequently, condition could influence developmental trade-offs if any occur. Although many studies have manipulated diet to demonstrate condition-dependent trait expression, few studies have determined the contribution of specific nutrients to condition or trade-offs. We used nutritional geometry to quantify the effects of dietary protein and carbohydrate content on larval performance and the development of adult morphology...

Data from: Disease where you dine: plant species and floral traits associated with pathogen transmission in bumble bees

Lynn S. Adler, Kristen M. Michaud, Stephen P. Ellner, Scott H. McArt, Phillip C. Stevenson, Rebecca E. Irwin & Philip C. Stevenson
Hotspots of disease transmission can strongly influence pathogen spread. Bee pathogens may be transmitted via shared floral use, but the role of plant species and floral trait variation in shaping transmission dynamics is almost entirely unexplored. Given the importance of pathogens for the decline of several bee species, understanding whether and how plant species and floral traits affect transmission could give us important tools for predicting which plant species may be hotspots for disease spread....

Data from: “Green incubation”: avian offspring benefit from aromatic nest herbs through improved parental incubation behaviour

Helga Gwinner, Pablo Capilla-Lasheras, Caren Cooper & Barbara Helm
Development of avian embryos requires thermal energy, usually from parents. Parents may however trades off catering for embryonic requirements against their own need to forage through intermittent incubation. This dynamically adjusted behaviour can be affected by properties of the nest. Here we experimentally show a novel mechanism by which parents, through incorporation of aromatic herbs into nests, effectively modify their incubation behaviour to the benefit of their offspring. Our study species, the European starling, includes...

Data from: Entire plastid phylogeny of the carrot genus (Daucus, Apiaceae): Concordance with nuclear data and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA insertions to the plastid

David M. Spooner, Holly Ruess, Massimo Iorizzo, Douglas Senalik & Philipp Simon
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We explored the phylogenetic utility of entire plastid DNA sequences in Daucus and compared the results with prior phylogenetic results using plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. METHODS: We used Illumina sequencing to obtain full plastid sequences of 37 accessions of 20 Daucus taxa and outgroups, analyzed the data with phylogenetic methods, and examined evidence for mitochondrial DNA transfer to the plastid (DcMP). KEY RESULTS: Our phylogenetic trees of the entire data...

Data from: Predation's role in life-history evolution of a livebearing fish and a test of the Trexler-DeAngelis model of maternal provisioning

Rüdiger Riesch, Ryan A. Martin & R. Brian Langerhans
Populations experiencing consistent differences in predation risk and resource availability are expected to follow divergent evolutionary trajectories. For example, live-history theory makes specific predictions for how predation should drive life-history evolution, and according to the Trexler-DeAngelis model for the evolution of matrotrophy, post-fertilization maternal provisioning is most likely to evolve in environments with consistent, high levels of resource availability. Using the model system of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabiting blue holes with and without the...

Data from: Taxon cycle predictions supported by model-based inference in Indo-Pacific trap-jaw ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Odontomachus)

Pável Matos-Maraví, Nicholas J. Matzke, Fredrick J. Larabee, Ronald M. Clouse, Ward C. Wheeler, Daniela Magdalena Sorger, Andrew V. Suarez & Milan Janda
Non-equilibrium dynamics and non-neutral processes, such as trait-dependent dispersal, are often missing from quantitative island biogeography models despite their potential explanatory value. One of the most influential non-equilibrium models is the taxon cycle, but it has been difficult to test its validity as a general biogeographical framework. Here, we test predictions of the taxon-cycle model using six expected phylogenetic patterns and a time-calibrated phylogeny of Indo-Pacific Odontomachus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae), one of the ant genera...

Data from: Evolution of male coloration during a post-pleistocene radiation of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi)

Ryan A. Martin, Rüdiger Riesch, Justa Lee Heinen-Kay & R. Brian Langerhans
Sexual signal evolution can be complex because multiple factors influence the production, transmission, and reception of sexual signals, as well as receivers’ responses to them. To grasp the relative importance of these factors in generating signal diversity, we must simultaneously investigate multiple selective agents and signaling traits within a natural system. We use the model system of the radiation of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabiting blue holes to test the effects of resource availability, male...

Data from: Stable isotopes reveal links between human food inputs and urban ant diets

Clint A. Penick, Amy M. Savage & Robert R. Dunn
The amount of energy consumed within an average city block is an order of magnitude higher than that consumed in any other ecosystem over a similar area. This is driven by human food inputs, but the consequence of these resources for urban animal populations is poorly understood. We investigated the role of human foods in ant diets across an urbanization gradient in Manhattan using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. We found that some—but not all—ant...

Data from: How shrub encroachment under climate change could threaten pollination services for alpine wildflowers: a case study using the alpine skypilot, Polemonium viscosum

Jessica A. Kettenbach, Nicole Miller-Struttmann, Zoë Moffett & Candace Galen
Under climate change, shrubs encroaching into high altitude plant communities disrupt ecosystem processes. Yet effects of encroachment on pollination mutualisms are poorly understood. Here, we probe potential fitness impacts of interference from encroaching Salix (willows) on pollination quality of the alpine skypilot, Polemonium viscosum. Overlap in flowering time of Salix and Polemonium is a precondition for interference and was surveyed in four extant and 25 historic contact zones. Pollinator sharing was ascertained from observations of...

Data from: Human-caused habitat fragmentation can drive rapid divergence of male genitalia

Justa L. Heinen-Kay, Holly G. Noel, Craig A. Layman & R. Brian Langerhans
The aim of this study rests on three premises: 1) humans are altering ecosystems worldwide, 2) environmental variation often influences the strength and nature of sexual selection, and 3) sexual selection is largely responsible for rapid and divergent evolution of male genitalia. While each of these assertions has strong empirical support, no study has yet investigated their logical conclusion that human impacts on the environment might commonly drive rapid diversification of male genital morphology. We...

Data from: Betweenness centrality as predictor for forces in granular packings

Jonathan E. Kollmer & Karen E. Daniels
A load applied to a jammed frictional granular system will be localized into a network of force chains making inter-particle connections throughout the system. Because such systems are typically under-constrained, the observed force network is not unique to a given particle configuration, but instead varies upon repeated formation. In this paper, we examine the ensemble of force chain configurations created under repeated assembly in order to develop tools to statistically forecast the observed force network....

Data from: The individual and combined effects of snowmelt timing and frost exposure on the reproductive success of montane forbs

Gabriella L. Pardee, Isaac O. Jensen, David W. Inouye & Rebecca E. Irwin
1. Changes from historic weather patterns have affected the phenology of many organisms worldwide. Altered phenology can introduce organisms to novel abiotic conditions during growth and modify species interactions, both of which could drive changes in reproduction. 2. We explored how climate change can alter plant reproduction using an experiment in which we manipulated the individual and combined effects of snowmelt timing and frost exposure, and measured subsequent effects on flowering phenology, peak flower density,...

Data from: Continuous corn and corn–soybean profits over a 45-year tillage and fertilizer experiment

Andrew Trlica, Maninder K. Walia, Ron Krausz, Silvia Secchi & Rachel L. Cook
Studies comparing profitability of tillage systems often examine narrow historic windows or exclude annual price fluctuations. This study uses a continuous corn (Zea mays L.) (CC; 1970–1990) and corn–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (CS; 1991–2014) Tillage × Fertilizer study in somewhat poorly drained soils in southern Illinois to reconstruct partial annual budgets with historical prices for crops, fertilizers, lime, herbicides, fuel, labor, and machinery. Combinations of tillage (moldboard plow [MP], chisel tillage [ChT], alternate tillage...

Data from: The use of functional data analysis to evaluate activity in a spontaneous model of degenerative joint disease associated pain in cats

Margaret E. Gruen, Marcela Alfaro-Córdoba, Andrea E. Thomson, Alicia Worth, Ana-Maria Staicu, B. Duncan X. Lascelles & Alicia C. Worth
Accelerometry is used as an objective measure of physical activity in humans and veterinary species. In cats, one important use of accelerometry is in the study of therapeutics designed to treat degenerative joint disease (DJD) associated pain, where it serves as the most widely applied objective outcome measure. These analyses have commonly used summary measures, calculating the mean activity per-minute over days and comparing between treatment periods. While this technique has been effective, information about...

Data from: Ecological effects on metabolic scaling amphipod responses to fish predators in freshwater springs

Douglas S. Glazier, Eric M. Butler, Sara A. Lombardi, Travis J. Deptola, Andrew J. Reese & Erin V. Satterthwaite
Metabolic rate is commonly thought to scale with body mass to the 3/4-power as a result of universal body-design constraints. However, recent comparative work has shown that the metabolic scaling slope may vary significantly among species and higher taxa, apparently in response to different lifestyles and ecological conditions, though the precise mechanisms involved are not well understood. To better understand these under-appreciated ecological effects and their causes, it is important to control for extraneous phylogenetic...

Data from: Environmental and historical imprints on beta diversity: insights from variation in rates of species turnover along gradients

Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, Nathan J. Sanders, Signe Normand, Jens-Christian Svenning, Simon Ferrier, Aaron D. Gove, Robert R. Dunn, N. J. Sanders, S. Normand, R. R. Dunn, J.-C. Svenning, A. D. Gove & S. Ferrier
A common approach for analysing geographical variation in biodiversity involves using linear models to determine the rate at which species similarity declines with geographical or environmental distance and comparing this rate among regions, taxa or communities. Implicit in this approach are weakly justified assumptions that the rate of species turnover remains constant along gradients and that this rate can therefore serve as a means to compare ecological systems. We use generalized dissimilarity modelling, a novel...

Data from: Tissue storage and primer selection influence pyrosequencing-based inferences of diversity and community composition of endolichenic and endophytic fungi

Jana M. U'Ren, Jakob M. Riddle, James T. Monacell, Ignazio Carbone, Jolanta Miadlikowska & A. Elizabeth Arnold
Next-generation sequencing technologies have provided unprecedented insights into fungal diversity and ecology. However, intrinsic biases and insufficient quality control in next-generation methods can lead to difficult-to-detect errors in estimating fungal community richness, distributions, and composition. The aim of this study was to examine how tissue storage prior to DNA extraction, primer design, and various quality-control approaches commonly used in 454 amplicon pyrosequencing might influence ecological inferences in studies of endophytic and endolichenic fungi. We first...

Data from: Extensive sex-specific nonadditivity of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster

Greg Gibson, Rebecca Riley-Berger, Larry Harshman, Artyom Kopp, Scott Vacha, Sergey Nuzhdin & Marta Wayne
Assessment of the degree to which gene expression is additive and heritable has important implications for understanding the maintenance of variation, adaptation, phenotypic divergence, and the mapping of genotype onto phenotype. We used whole-genome transcript profiling using Agilent long-oligonucleotide microarrays representing 12,017 genes to demonstrate that gene transcription is pervasively nonadditive in Drosophila melanogaster. Comparison of adults of two isogenic lines and their reciprocal F1 hybrids revealed 5820 genes as significantly different between at least...

Data from: Climate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structure

Heloise Gibb, Nathan J. Sanders, Robert R. Dunn, Simon Watson, Manoli Photakis, Silvia Abril, Alan N. Andersen, Elena Angulo, Inge Armbrecht, Xavier Arnan, Fabricio B. Baccaro, Tom R. Bishop, Raphael Boulay, Cristina Castracani, Israel Del Toro, Thibaut Delsinne, Mireia Diaz, David A. Donoso, Martha L. Enríquez, Tom M. Fayle, Donald H. Feener, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, Crisanto Gómez, Donato A. Grasso, Sarah Groc … & C. Gomez
Many studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on biological assemblages, yet little is known about how climate interacts with other major anthropogenic influences on biodiversity, such as habitat disturbance. Using a unique global database of 1128 local ant assemblages, we examined whether climate mediates the effects of habitat disturbance on assemblage structure at a global scale. Species richness and evenness were associated positively with temperature, and negatively with disturbance. However, the interaction...

Data from: Tethered homing gene drives: a new design for spatially restricted population replacement and suppression

Sumit Dhole, Alun L. Lloyd & Fred Gould
Optimism regarding potential epidemiological and conservation applications of modern gene drives is tempered by concern about the possibility of unintended spread of engineered organisms beyond the target population. In response, several novel gene drive approaches have been proposed that can, under certain conditions, locally alter characteristics of a population. One challenge for these gene drives is the difficulty of achieving high levels of localized population suppression without very large releases in the face of gene...

Data from: Inbreeding tolerance as a pre-adapted trait for invasion success in the invasive ant Brachyponera chinensis

Pierre-André Eyer, Kenji Matsuura, Edward Vargo, Kazuya Kobayashi, Toshihisa Yashiro, Wataru Suehiro, Chihiro Himuro, Tomoyuki Yokoi, Benoit Guénard, Robert R. Dunn, Kazuki Tsuji, Pierre‐André Eyer & Edward L. Vargo
Identifying traits that facilitate species introductions and successful invasions of ecosystems represents a key issue in ecology. Following their establishment into new environments, many non-native species exhibit phenotypic plasticity with post-introduction changes in behavior, morphology or life history traits that allow them to overcome the presumed loss of genetic diversity resulting in inbreeding and reduced adaptive potential. Here we present a unique strategy in the invasive ant Brachyponera chinensis (Emery), in which inbreeding tolerance is...

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