25 Works

Data from: Muscle–spring dynamics in time-limited, elastic movements

Michael V. Rosario, Gregory P. Sutton, Sheila N. Patek & Gregory S. Sawicki
Muscle contractions that load in-series springs with slow speed over a long duration do maximal work and store the most elastic energy. However, time constraints, such as those experienced during escape and predation behaviours, may prevent animals from achieving maximal force capacity from their muscles during spring-loading. Here, we ask whether animals that have limited time for elastic energy storage operate with springs that are tuned to submaximal force production. To answer this question, we...

Data from: Tracking transcription factor mobility and interaction in Arabidopsis roots with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

Natalie M Clark, Elizabeth Hinde, Cara M Winter, Adam P Fisher, Giuseppe Crosti, Ikram Blilou, Enrico Gratton, Philip N Benfey & Rosangela Sozzani
To understand complex regulatory processes in multicellular organisms, it is critical to be able to quantitatively analyze protein movement and protein-protein interactions in time and space. During Arabidopsis development, the intercellular movement of SHORTROOT (SHR) and subsequent interaction with its downstream target SCARECROW (SCR) control root patterning and cell fate specification. However, quantitative information about the spatio-temporal dynamics of SHR movement and SHR-SCR interaction is currently unavailable. Here, we quantify parameters including SHR mobility, oligomeric...

Data from: Describing a developing hybrid zone between red wolves and coyotes in eastern North Carolina, USA

Justin H. Bohling, Justin Dellinger, Justin N. McVey, David T. Cobb, Christopher E. Moorman, Lisette P. Waits & Justin M. McVey
When hybridizing species come into contact, understanding the processes that regulate their interactions can help predict the future outcome of the system. This is especially relevant in conservation situations where human activities can influence hybridization dynamics. We investigated a developing hybrid zone between red wolves and coyotes in North Carolina, USA to elucidate patterns of hybridization in a system heavily managed for preservation of the red wolf genome. Using noninvasive genetic sampling of scat, we...

Data from: Genetic diversity confers colony-level benefits due to individual immunity

Megan Walz, David R. Tarpy & Michael Simone-Finstrom
Several costs and benefits arise as a consequence of eusociality and group-living. With increasing group size, spread of disease among nest-mates poses selective pressure on both individual immunity and group-level mechanisms of disease resistance (social immunity). Another factor known to influence colony-level expression of disease is intracolony genetic diversity, which in honeybees (Apis mellifera) is a direct function of the number of mates of the queen. Colonies headed by queens with higher mating numbers have...

Data from: Peptide sequences from the first Castoroides ohioensis skull and the utility of old museum collections for paleoproteomics

Timothy Cleland, Elena Schroeter, Robert Feranec, Deepak Vashishth, Elena R. Schroeter, Timothy P. Cleland & Robert S. Feranec
Vertebrate fossils have been collected for hundreds years and are stored in museum collections around the world. These remains provide a readily available resource to search for preserved proteins; however, the vast majority of paleoproteomic studies have focused on relatively recently collected bones with a well-known handling history. Here, we characterize proteins from the nasal turbinates of the first Castoroides ohioensis skull ever discovered. Collected in 1845, this is the oldest museum curated specimen characterized...

Data from: Experimental evidence does not support the Habitat Amount Hypothesis

Nick M. Haddad, Andrew Gonzalez, Lars A. Brudvig, Melissa A. Burt, Douglas J. Levey & Ellen I. Damschen
For a half century, habitat configuration – the arrangement of habitat patches within a landscape – has been central to theories of landscape ecology, population dynamics, and community assembly, in addition to conservation strategies. A recent hypothesis advanced by Fahrig (2013) would, if supported, greatly diminish the relevance of habitat configuration as a predictor of diversity. The Habitat Amount Hypothesis posits that the sample area effect overrides patch size and patch isolation effects of habitat...

Data from: Does hunting or hiking affect wildlife communities in protected areas?

Roland Kays, Arielle W. Parsons, Megan C. Baker, Ellizabeth L. Kalies, Tavis Forrester, Robert Costello, Christopher T. Rota, Joshua J. Millspaugh & William J. McShea
Managed public wild areas have dual mandates to protect biodiversity and provide recreational opportunities for people. These goals could be at odds if recreation, ranging from hiking to legal hunting, disrupts wildlife enough to alter their space use or community structure. We evaluated the effect of managed hunting and recreation on 12 terrestrial wildlife species by employing a large citizen science camera trapping survey at 1947 sites stratified across different levels of human activities in...

Data from: Effects of plant functional group loss on soil biota and net ecosystem exchange: a plant removal experiment in the Mongolian grassland

Dima Chen, Qingmin Pan, Yongfei Bai, Shuijin Hu, Jianhui Huang, Qibing Wang, Shahid Naeem, James J. Elser, Jianguo Wu & Xingguo Han
1. The rapid loss of global biodiversity can greatly affect the functioning of above-ground components of ecosystems. However, how such biodiversity losses affect below-ground communities and linkages to soil carbon (C) sequestration is unclear. Here we describe how losses in plant functional groups (PFGs) affect soil microbial and nematode communities and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in a 4-year removal experiment conducted on the Mongolian plateau, the world's largest remaining natural grassland. 2. Our results demonstrated...

Data from: Reduced cellular immune response in social insect lineages

Margarita M. López-Uribe, Warren B. Sconiers, Steven D. Frank, Robert R. Dunn & David R. Tarpy
Social living poses challenges for individual fitness because of the increased risk of disease transmission among conspecifics. Despite this challenge, sociality is an evolutionarily successful lifestyle, occurring in the most abundant and diverse group of organisms on earth—the social insects. Two contrasting hypotheses predict the evolutionary consequences of sociality on immune systems. The social group hypothesis posits that sociality leads to stronger individual immune systems because of the higher risk of disease transmission in social...

Data from: Taxonomic resolution is a determinant of biodiversity effects in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities

Haishui Yang, Qian Zhang, Roger T. Koide, Jason D. Hoeksema, Jianjun Tang, Xinmin Bian, Shuijin Hu & Xin Chen
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are key regulators of ecosystem processes, yet how their biodiversity works in ecosystems remains poorly understood. We documented the extent to which taxonomic resolution influenced the effect of biodiversity of AMF taxa on plant performance (growth, nutrient uptake and stress tolerance) in a meta-analysis of 902 articles. We found that the effect of biodiversity of AMF taxa depended on taxonomic resolution. Plant performance was positively promoted by AMF family richness, while...

Data from: Adaptive divergence despite strong genetic drift: genomic analysis of the evolutionary mechanisms causing genetic differentiation in the island fox (Urocyon littoralis)

W. Chris Funk, Robert E. Lovich, Paul A. Hohenlohe, Courtney A. Hofman, Scott A. Morrison, T. Scott Sillett, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesús E. Maldonado, Torben C. Rick, Mitch D. Day, Nicholas R. Polato, Sarah W. Fizpatrick, Timothy J. Coonan, Kevin R. Crooks, Adam Dillon, David K. Garcelon, Julie L. King, Christina L. Boser, Nicholas Gould, William F. Andelt & Sarah W. Fitzpatrick
The evolutionary mechanisms generating the tremendous biodiversity of islands have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. Genetic drift and divergent selection are predicted to be strong on islands and both could drive population divergence and speciation. Alternatively, strong genetic drift may preclude adaptation. We conducted a genomic analysis to test the roles of genetic drift and divergent selection in causing genetic differentiation among populations of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis). This species consists of six subspecies, each...

Data from: Importance of deep water uptake in tropical eucalypt forest

Mathias Christina, Yann Nouvellon, Jean-Paul Laclau, Jose L. Stape, Jean-Pierre Bouillet, George R. Lambais & Guerric Le Maire
Climate models predict that the frequency, intensity and duration of drought events will increase in tropical regions. Although water withdrawal from deep soil layers is generally considered to be an efficient adaptation to drought, there is little information on the role played by deep roots in tropical forests. Tropical Eucalyptus plantations managed in short rotation cycles are simple forest ecosystems that may provide an insight into the water use by trees in tropical forests. The...

Data from: Grouping substitution types into different relaxed molecular clocks

Hui-Jie Lee, Hirohisa Kishino, Nicolas Rodrigue & Jeffrey L. Thorne
Different types of nucleotide substitutions experience different patterns of rate change over time. We propose clustering context-dependent (or context-independent) nucleotide substitution types according to how their rates change and then using the grouping for divergence time estimation. With our models, relative rates among types that are in the same group are fixed, whereas absolute rates of the types within a group change over time according to a shared relaxed molecular clock. We illustrate our procedure...

Data from: Extremophile Poeciliidae: multivariate insights into the complexity of speciation along replicated ecological gradients

Rüdiger Riesch, Michael Tobler, Hannes Lerp, Jonas Jourdan, Tess Doumas, Patrik Nosil, R. Brian Langerhans & Martin Plath
Background: Replicate population pairs that diverge in response to similar selective regimes allow for an investigation of (a) whether phenotypic traits diverge in a similar and predictable fashion, (b) whether there is gradual variation in phenotypic divergence reflecting variation in the strength of natural selection among populations, (c) whether the extent of this divergence is correlated between multiple character suites (i.e., concerted evolution), and (d) whether gradual variation in phenotypic divergence predicts the degree of...

Data from: Point of impact: the effect of size and speed on puncture mechanics

Philip S. L. Anderson, Jeff LaCosse & Mark Pankow
The use of high-speed puncture mechanics for prey capture has been documented across a wide range of organisms, including vertebrates, arthropods, molluscs and cnidarians. These examples span four phyla and seven orders of magnitude difference in size. The commonality of these puncture systems offers an opportunity to explore how organisms at different scales and with differentmaterials,morphologies and kinematics performthe same basic function. However, there is currently no framework for combining kinematic performance with cutting mechanics...

Data from: Application of a dense genetic map for assessment of genomic responses to selection and inbreeding in Heliothis virescens

Megan L. Fritz, Sandra Paa, Jennifer Baltzegar & Fred Gould
Adaptation of pest species to laboratory conditions and selection for resistance to toxins in the laboratory are expected to cause inbreeding and genetic bottlenecks that reduce genetic variation. Heliothis virescens, a major cotton pest, has been colonized in the laboratory many times, and a few laboratory colonies have been selected for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) resistance. We developed 350-bp double-digest restriction-site associated DNA-sequencing (ddRAD-seq) molecular markers to examine and compare changes in genetic variation associated with...

Data from: Super-resolution ribosome profiling reveals unannotated translation events in Arabidopsis

Polly Y. Hsu, Lorenzo Calviello, Hsin-Yen Larry Wu, Fay-Wei Li, Carl J. Rothfels, Uwe Ohler & Philip N. Benfey
Deep sequencing of ribosome footprints (ribosome profiling) maps and quantifies mRNA translation. Because ribosomes decode mRNA every 3 nt, the periodic property of ribosome footprints could be used to identify novel translated ORFs. However, due to the limited resolution of existing methods, the 3-nt periodicity is observed mostly in a global analysis, but not in individual transcripts. Here, we report a protocol applied to Arabidopsis that maps over 90% of the footprints to the main...

Data from: Urban warming reduces aboveground carbon storage

Emily Meineke, Elsa Youngsteadt, Robert R. Dunn & Steven D. Frank
A substantial amount of global carbon is stored in mature trees. However, no experiments to date test how warming affects mature tree carbon storage. Using a unique, citywide, factorial experiment, we investigated how warming and insect herbivory affected physiological function and carbon sequestration (carbon stored per year) of mature trees. Urban warming increased herbivorous arthropod abundance on trees, but these herbivores had negligible effects on tree carbon sequestration. Instead, urban warming was associated with an...

Data from: Crop domestication facilitated rapid geographical expansion of a specialist pollinator, the squash bee Peponapis pruinosa

Margarita M. López-Uribe, James H. Cane, Robert L. Minckley & Bryan N. Danforth
Squash was first domesticated in Mexico and is now found throughout North America (NA) along with Peponapis pruinosa, a pollen specialist bee species of the squash genus Cucurbita. The origin and spread of squash cultivation is well-studied archaeologically and phylogenetically; however, no study has documented how cultivation of this or any other crop has influenced species in mutualistic interactions. We used molecular markers to reconstruct the demographic range expansion and colonization routes of P. pruinosa...

Data from: Colonization and demographic expansion of freshwater fauna across the Hawaiian Archipelago

Fernando Alda, Roderick B. Gagne, Ryan P. Walter, J. Derek Hogan, Kristine N. Moody, Frida Zink, Peter B. McIntyre, James F. Gilliam & Michael J. Blum
It is widely accepted that insular terrestrial biodiversity progresses with island age because colonization and diversification proceed over time. Here we assess whether this principle extends to oceanic island streams. We examined range-wide mtDNA sequence variation in four stream-dwelling species across the Hawaiian archipelago to characterize the relationship between colonization and demographic expansion, and to determine whether either factor reflects island age. We found that colonization and demographic expansion are not related and that neither...

Data from: A multispecies occupancy model for two or more interacting species

Christopher T. Rota, Marco A. R. Ferreira, Roland W. Kays, Tavis D. Forrester, Elizabeth L. Kalies, William J. McShea, Arielle W. Parsons & Joshua J. Millspaugh
Species occurrence is influenced by environmental conditions and the presence of other species. Current approaches for multispecies occupancy modelling are practically limited to two interacting species and often require the assumption of asymmetric interactions. We propose a multispecies occupancy model that can accommodate two or more interacting species. We generalize the single-species occupancy model to two or more interacting species by assuming the latent occupancy state is a multivariate Bernoulli random variable. We propose modelling...

Data from: Continuous corn and corn–soybean profits over a 45-year tillage and fertilizer experiment

Andrew Trlica, Maninder K. Walia, Ron Krausz, Silvia Secchi & Rachel L. Cook
Studies comparing profitability of tillage systems often examine narrow historic windows or exclude annual price fluctuations. This study uses a continuous corn (Zea mays L.) (CC; 1970–1990) and corn–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (CS; 1991–2014) Tillage × Fertilizer study in somewhat poorly drained soils in southern Illinois to reconstruct partial annual budgets with historical prices for crops, fertilizers, lime, herbicides, fuel, labor, and machinery. Combinations of tillage (moldboard plow [MP], chisel tillage [ChT], alternate tillage...

Data from: Beyond thermal limits: comprehensive metrics of performance identify key axes of thermal adaptation in ants

Clint A. Penick, Sarah E. Diamond, Nathan J. Sanders & Robert R. Dunn
How species respond to temperature change depends in large part on their physiology. Physiological traits, such as critical thermal limits (CTmax and CTmin), provide estimates of thermal performance but may not capture the full impacts of temperature on fitness. Rather, thermal performance likely depends on a combination of traits—including thermal limits—that vary among species. Here we examine how thermal limits correlate with the main components that influence fitness in ants. First, we compare how temperature...

Data from: Analyzing negative feedback using a synthetic gene network expressed in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo

Ashley Jermusyk, Nicholas P. Murphy & Gregory Reeves
Background: A complex network of gene interactions controls gene regulation throughout development and the life of the organisms. Insights can be made into these processes by studying the functional interactions (or “motifs”) which make up these networks. Results: We sought to understand the functionality of one of these network motifs, negative feedback, in a multi-cellular system. This was accomplished using a synthetic network expressed in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo using the yeast proteins Gal4 (a...

Data from: Molecular mapping and candidate gene analysis for numerous spines on the fruit of cucumber

Shengping Zhang, Shulin Liu, Han Miao, Min Wang, Panna Liu, Todd C. Wehner & Xingfang Gu
Number of spines on the fruit is an important quality trait in cucumber. The inheritance and identification of molecular markers for fruit spine density gene can provide a basis for breeding and lay the foundation for gene cloning. Cucumber inbred lines NCG-122 with numerous spines and NCG-121 with few spines were used for genetic analysis and gene mapping in this study. Genetic analysis showed that the numerous spines trait in NCG-122 was qualitative, and a...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • North Carolina State University
  • Duke University
  • North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences
  • Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute
  • West Virginia University
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • University of Missouri
  • University of Idaho
  • Michigan State University
  • National Museum