41 Works

Data from: Livestock grazing regulates ecosystem multifunctionality in semi‐arid grassland

Haiyan Ren, Valerie T. Eviner, Weiyang Gui, Gail W.T. Wilson, Adam B. Cobb, Gaowen Yang, Yingjun Zhang, Shuijin Hu, Yongfei Bai & Gail W. T. Wilson
1. Ecological theories and experimental evidence indicate that human activity induced losses in biodiversity can have substantial impacts on multiple ecosystem functions. It remains unclear, however, how grazing affects grassland biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionallity (EMF). 2. Here, we assessed the grazing effects on different dimensions of biodiversity (i.e. plants and soil microbes) and EMF based on a 11-year field experiment in a semi-arid grassland. 3. We found that soil organic C, available nitrogen, and plant...

Data from: Male courtship preference during seasonal sympatry may maintain population divergence

Abigail A. Kimmitt, Samantha L. Dietz, Dustin G. Reichard & Ellen D. Ketterson
Animal migration can lead to a population distribution known as seasonal sympatry, in which closely related migrant and resident populations of the same species co-occur in sympatry during part of the year, but are otherwise allopatric. During seasonal sympatry in early spring, residents may initiate reproduction before migrants depart, presenting an opportunity for gene flow. Differences in reproductive timing between migrant and resident populations may favor residents that exhibit preferences for potential mates of similar...

Data from: Rare frost events reinforce tropical savanna-forest boundaries

William A. Hoffmann, Samuel W. Flake, Rodolfo C.R. Abreu, Natashi A.L. Pilon, Davi R. Rossatto, Giselda Durigan & Rodolfo C. R. Abreu
1) The ability of vegetation to ameliorate or exacerbate environmental extremes can generate feedbacks that mediate the distribution of biomes. It has been suggested that feedbacks between vegetation and frost damage may be important for maintaining savanna, particularly at the edge of the tropics. 2) We quantified frost damage and air temperature across a network of 30 permanent plots distributed across tropical savanna-forest boundaries in Brazil during an uncommonly hard frost. 3) Tree cover strongly...

Data from: Plasticity of plant defense and its evolutionary implications in wild populations of Boechera stricta

Maggie R. Wagner & Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Phenotypic plasticity is thought to impact evolutionary trajectories by shifting trait values in a direction that is either favored by natural selection (“adaptive plasticity”) or disfavored (“nonadaptive” plasticity). However, it is unclear how commonly each of these types of plasticity occurs in natural populations. To answer this question, we measured glucosinolate defensive chemistry and reproductive fitness in over 1,500 individuals of the wild perennial mustard Boechera stricta, planted in four common gardens across central Idaho,...

Data from: Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change.

Kaitlin C. Maguire, Douglas J. Shinneman, Kevin M. Potter & Valerie D. Hipkins
Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of...

Data from: Efficacy of Aedes aegypti control by indoor Ultra Low Volume (ULV) insecticide spraying in Iquitos, Peru

Christian E. Gunning, Kenichi Okamoto, Helvio Astete, Gissella M. Vasquez, Erik B. Erhardt, Clara Del Aguila, Raul Pinedo, Roldan Cardenas, Carlos Pacheco, Enrique Chalco, Hugo Rodriguez-Ferruci, Thomas W. Scott, Alun L. Lloyd, Fred Gould, Amy C. Morrison, Kenichi W. Okamoto & Erik Erhardt
Background: Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and urban yellow fever viruses. Indoor, ultra low volume (ULV) space spraying with pyrethroid insecticides is the main approach used for Ae. aegypti emergency control in many countries. Given the widespread use of this method, the lack of large-scale experiments or detailed evaluations of municipal spray programs is problematic. Methodology/Principal Findings: Two experimental evaluations of non-residual, indoor ULV pyrethroid spraying were conducted in Iquitos,...

Data from: Ecology of sleeping: the microbial and arthropod associates of chimpanzee beds

Megan S. Thoemmes, Fiona A. Stewart, R. Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Matthew A. Bertone, David A. Baltzegar, Russell J. Borski, Naomi Cohen, Kaitlin P. Coyle, Alexander K. Piel & Robert R. Dunn
The indoor environment created by the construction of homes and other buildings is often considered to be uniquely different from other environments. It is composed of organisms that are less diverse than those of the outdoors and strongly sourced by, or dependent upon, human bodies. Yet, no one has ever compared the composition of species found in contemporary human homes to that of other structures built by mammals, including those of non-human primates. Here we...

Data from: Winter coat color polymorphisms identify global hotspots for evolutionary rescue from climate change

L. Scott Mills, Eugenia V. Bragina, Alexander V. Kumar, Marketa Zimova, Diana J.R. Lafferty, Jennifer Feltner, Brandon M. Davis, Klaus Hacklander, Paulo C. Alves, Jeffrey M. Good, Jose Melo-Ferreira, Andreas Dietz, Alexei V. Abramov, Natalia Lopatina & Kairsten Fay
Maintenance of biodiversity in a rapidly changing climate will depend on the efficacy of evolutionary rescue, whereby population declines due to abrupt environmental change are reversed by shifts in genetically-driven adaptive traits. However, a lack of traits known to be under direct selection by anthropogenic climate change has limited the incorporation of evolutionary processes into global conservation efforts. In 22 vertebrate species, some individuals undergo a seasonal color molt from summer brown to winter white...

Data from: Thermal regime drives a latitudinal gradient in morphology and life history in a livebearing fish

Rüdiger Riesch, Ryan A. Martin, Sarah E. Diamond, Jonas Jourdan, Martin Plath & R. Brian Langerhans
Within-species diversity is often driven by changing selective regimes along environmental gradients. Here, we provide a direct test of the environmental factors underlying phenotypic diversity across the wide native distribution of eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). We investigated life-history and body-shape divergence (including multiple measures of body size) across more than 14 degrees of latitude in North America, and used Akaike’s information criterion-based model selection to determine the relative contributions of thermal regime, population densities and...

Data from: Rapid evolution and the genomic consequences of selection against interspecific mating

Martha O. Burford Reiskind, Paul Labadie, Irka Bargielowski, L. Philip Lounibos & Michael H. Reiskind
While few species introduced into a new environment become invasive, those that do provide critical information on ecological mechanisms that determine invasions success and the evolutionary responses that follow invasion. Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito) was introduced into the naturalized range of Aedes aegypti (the yellow fever mosquito) in the USA in the mid-1980s, resulting in the displacement of A. aegypti in much of the southeastern USA. The rapid displacement was likely due to...

Data from: Investigating behavioral drivers of seasonal Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia Coli (STEC) patterns in grazing cattle using an agent-based model

Daniel E. Dawson, Jocelyn H. Keung, Monica G. Napoles, Michael R. Vella, Shi Chen, Mike Sanderson, Cristina Lanzas & Michael W. Sanderson
The causes of seasonal variability in pathogen transmission are not well understood, and have not been comprehensively investigated. In an example for enteric pathogens, incidence of Escherichia coli O157 (STEC) colonization in cattle is consistently higher during warmer months compared to cooler months in various cattle production systems. However, actual mechanisms for this seasonality remain elusive. In addition, the influence of host (cattle) behavior on this pattern has not been thoroughly considered. To that end,...

Data from: Mammal communities are larger and more diverse in moderately developed areas

Arielle Waldstein Parsons, Tavis Forrester, Megan C. Baker-Whatton, William J. McShea, Christopher T. Rota, Stephanie G. Schuttler, Joshua J. Millspaugh & Roland Kays
Developed areas are thought to have low species diversity, low animal abundance, few native predators, and thus low resilience and ecological function. Working with citizen scientist volunteers to survey mammals at 1427 sites across two development gradients (wild-rural-exurban-suburban-urban) and four plot types (large forests, small forest fragments, open areas and residential yards) in the eastern US, we show that developed areas actually had significantly higher or statistically similar mammalian occupancy, relative abundance, richness and diversity...

Data from: Phenotypic selection on floral traits in an urban landscape

Rebecca E. Irwin, Paige S. Warren & Lynn S. Adler
Native species are increasingly living in urban landscapes associated with abiotic and biotic changes that may influence patterns of phenotypic selection. However, measures of selection in urban and non-urban environments, and exploration of the mechanisms associated with such changes, are uncommon. Plant-animal interactions have played a central role in the evolution of flowering plants and are sensitive to changes in the urban landscape, and thus provide opportunities to explore how urban environments modify selection. We...

Data from: Paleotropical diversification dominates the evolution of the hyperdiverse ant tribe Crematogastrini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Bonnie B. Blaimer, Philip S. Ward, Ted R. Schultz, Brian L. Fisher & Seán G. Brady
Levels of diversity vary strikingly among different phylogenetic lineages of ants. Rapid radiations in early ant evolution have often proven difficult to resolve with traditional Sanger-sequencing data sets of modest size. We provide a phylogenomic perspective on the evolution of the hyperdiverse ant tribe Crematogastrini by analyzing sequence data for nearly 1800 ultraconserved element (UCE) loci from 153 species comprising 56 genera. We reconstruct a next-to-complete genus-level phylogeny using concatenated maximum-likelihood and species-tree approaches, estimate...

Data from: Genome sequences of two diploid wild relatives of cultivated sweetpotato reveal targets for genetic improvement

Shan Wu, Kin H. Lau, Qinghe Cao, John P. Hamilton, Honghe Sun, Chenxi Zhou, Lauren Eserman, Dorcus Gemenet, Bode Olukolu, Haiyan Wang, Emily Crisovan, Grant T. Godden, Chen Jiao, Xin Wang, Mercy Kitavi, Norma Manrique-Carpintero, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Krystle Wiegert-Rininger, Xinsun Yang, Kan Bao, Yi Zheng, Jennifer Schaff, Jan Kreuze, Wolfgang Gruneberg, Awais Khan … & Zhangjun Fei
I_triloba_NSP323_stress_FPKM_expression_matrix_v3_anno.xlsxFPKM values of v3 high confidence gene models for 15 I. triloba abiotic and biotic stress RNA-seq libraries. The libraries are described in the 'Library Key' worksheet.I_triloba_NSP323_FPKM_expression_matrix_v3_anno.xlsxFPKM values of v3 high confidence gene models for 6 I. triloba RNA-seq libraries (flower, flowerbud, leaf, root1, root2, stem).NSP323_triloba_v3.hc.func_anno.txtPutative functional annotation of high confidence gene models.NSP323_triloba_v3.hc.gene_models.cdna.faNucleotide sequences of the high confidence gene model transcript sequences (cDNA).NSP323_triloba_v3.hc.gene_models.cds.faNucleotide sequences of the high confidence gene model coding sequences (CDS).NSP323_triloba_v3.hc.gene_models.gff3High confidence gene...

Data from: Direct detection of male quality can facilitate the evolution of female choosiness and indicators of good genes: evolution across a continuum of indicator mechanisms

Sumit Dhole, Caitlin A. Stern & Maria R. Servedio
The evolution of mating displays as indicators of male quality has been the subject of extensive theoretical and empirical research for over four decades. Research has also addressed the evolution of female mate choice favoring such indicators. Yet, much debate still exists about whether displays can evolve through the indirect benefits of female mate choice. Here, we use a population genetic model to investigate how the extent to which females can directly detect male quality...

Data from: Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments

Marlee A. Tucker, Olga Alexandrou, , Keith L. Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Chloe Bracis, John N. Brzorad, Evan R. Buechley, David Cabot, Justin M. Calabrese, Carlos Carrapato, André Chiaradia, Lisa C. Davenport, Sarah C. Davidson, Mark Desholm, Christopher R. DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Peter Enggist, William F. Fagan, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Christen H. Fleming, Alastair Franke, John M. Fryxell, Clara García-Ripollés … & João Paulo Silva
Aim: Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. Yet it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside of the migratory period, we examined how the distribution of resources affect the movement patterns of both large terrestrial birds (e.g., raptors, bustards, hornbills) and waterbirds (e.g., cranes, storks, ducks,...

Data from: Development and validation of a weather-based warning system to advise fungicide applications to control dollar spot on turfgrass

Damon L. Smith, James P. Kerns, Nathan R. Walker, Andrea F. Payne, Brandon Horvath, John C. Inguagiato, John E. Kaminski, Maria Tomaso-Peterson & Paul L. Koch
Dollar spot is one of the most common diseases of golf course turfgrass and numerous fungicide applications are often required to provide adequate control. Weather-based disease warning systems have been developed to more accurately time fungicide applications; however, they tend to be ineffective and are not currently in widespread use. The primary objective of this research was to develop a new weather-based disease warning system to more accurately advise fungicide applications to control dollar spot...

Data from: A spatial kernel density method to estimate diet composition of fish

Samantha M. Binion-Rock, Brian J. Reich & Jeffrey A. Buckel
We present a novel spatially-explicit kernel density approach to estimate the proportional contribution of a prey to a predator’s diet by weight. First, we compare the spatial estimator to a traditional cluster-based approach using a Monte Carlo simulation study. Next we compare the diet composition of three predators from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina to evaluate how ignoring spatial correlation affected diet estimates. The spatial estimator had lower MSE values compared to the traditional cluster-based estimator...

Data from: Mapping the expansion of coyotes (Canis latrans) across North and Central America

James W. Hody & Roland Kays
The geographic distribution of coyotes (Canis latrans) has dramatically expanded since 1900, spreading across much of North America in a period when most other mammal species have been declining. Although this considerable expansion has been well documented at the state/provincial scale, continent-wide descriptions of coyote spread have portrayed conflicting distributions for coyotes prior to the 1900s, with popularly referenced anecdotal accounts showing them restricted to the great plains, and more obscure, but data-rich accounts suggesting...

Data from: Nonlocal rheology of dense granular flow in annular shear experiments

Zhu Tang, Theodore A. Brzinski, Michael Shearer & Karen E. Daniels
The flow of dense granular materials at low inertial numbers cannot be fully characterized by local rheological models; several nonlocal rheologies have recently been developed to address these shortcomings. To test the efficacy of these models across different packing fractions and shear rates, we perform experiments in a quasi-2D annular shear cell with a fixed outer wall and a rotating inner wall, using photoelastic particles. The apparatus is designed to measure both the stress ratio...

Data from: Frequently mated males have higher protein preference in German cockroaches

Kim Jensen & Jules Silverman
Protein is an abundant nutrient in sperm, and males therefore expend protein every time they mate. In addition, many males provide the female with a nitrogen-rich nuptial gift during mating, which often increases female fertility by supplementing her pool of limiting nutrients. However, it is unknown whether males compensate for the nitrogen cost of mating by increasing their preference for protein, which would facilitate the production of new sperm and nuptial gift material. Using artificial...

Data from: Protocol dependence and state variables in the force-moment ensemble

Ephraim S. Bililign, Jonathan E. Kollmer & Karen E. Daniels
Stress-based ensembles incorporating temperature-like variables have been proposed as a route to an equation of state for granular materials. To test the efficacy of this approach, we perform experiments on a two-dimensional photoelastic granular system under three loading conditions: uniaxial compression, biaxial compression, and simple shear. From the interparticle forces, we find that the distributions of the normal component of the coarse-grained force-moment tensor are exponential-tailed, while the deviatoric component is Gaussian-distributed. This implies that...

Data from: Expression of additive genetic variance for fitness in a population of partridge pea in two field sites

Seema Nayan Sheth, Mason W. Kulbaba, Rachel E. Pain & Ruth G. Shaw
Despite the importance of adaptation in shaping biological diversity over many generations, little is known about populations’ capacities to adapt at any particular time. Theory predicts that a population's rate of ongoing adaptation is the ratio of its additive genetic variance for fitness, VA (W), to its mean absolute fitness, W̅. We conducted a transplant study to quantify W̅ and standing VA (W) for a population of the annual legume Chamaecrista fasciculata in one field...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    41

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    41

Affiliations

  • North Carolina State University
    41
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    3
  • University of Georgia
    3
  • University of North Carolina
    3
  • North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences
    3
  • University of Montana
    2
  • Duke University
    2
  • The Ohio State University
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • Smithsonian Institution
    2