57 Works

Relative reproductive phenology and synchrony affect neonate survival in a nonprecocial ungulate

Eric Michel, Bronson Strickland, Stephen Demarais, Jerrold Belant, Todd Kautz, Jared Duquette, Dean Beyer, Michael Chamberlain, Karl Miller, Rebecca Shuman, John Kilgo, Duane Diefenbach, Bret Wallingford, Justin Vreeland, Steve Ditchkoff, Christopher DePerno, Christopher Moorman, Michael Chitwood & Marcus Lashley
1. Degree of reproductive synchronization in prey is hypothesized as a predator defense strategy reducing prey risk via predator satiation or predator avoidance. Species with precocial young, especially those exposed to specialist predators, should be highly synchronous to satiate predators (predator satiation hypothesis), while prey with nonprecocial (i.e., altricial) young, especially those exposed to generalist predators, should become relatively asynchronous to avoid predator detection (predator avoidance hypothesis). The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in North America...

Great smoky mountain ant community composition

Nathan J. Sanders, Jean-Philippe Lessard & Robert R. Dunn
Disentangling the drivers of diversity gradients can be challenging. The Measurement of Biodiversity (MoB) framework decomposes scale-dependent changes in species diversity into three components of community structure: the species abundance distribution (SAD), the total community abundance, and the within-species spatial aggregation. Here we extend MoB from categorical treatment comparisons to quantify variation along continuous geographic or environmental gradients. Our approach requires sites along a gradient, each consisting of georeferenced plots of abundance-based species composition data....

Compensatory growth and costs of molluscivory in Gambusia holbrooki

Brian Langerhans, Taylor Goins, Kenzi Stemp & Rüdiger Riesch
Some prey are exceptionally difficult to digest, and yet even non-specialized animals may consume them—why? Durophagy, the consumption of hard-shelled prey, is thought to require special adaptations for crushing or digesting the hard shells to avoid the many potential costs of this prey type. But many animals lacking specializations nevertheless include hard-bodied prey in their diets. We describe several non-mutually exclusive adaptive mechanisms that could explain such a pattern, and point to optimal foraging and...

Drought legacy affects microbial community trait distributions related to moisture along a savannah grassland precipitation gradient

Ainara Leizeaga, Lettice C. Hicks, Lokeshwaran Manoharan, Christine V. Hawkes & Johannes Rousk
Ecosystem models commonly use stable-state assumptions to predict responses of soil microbial functions to environmental change. However, past climatic conditions can shape microbial functional responses resulting in a “legacy effect”. For instance, exposure to drier conditions in the field may shape how soil microbial communities respond to subsequent drought and drying and rewetting events. We investigated microbial tolerance to low moisture levels (“resistance”) and ability to recover after a drying and rewetting (DRW) perturbation (“resilience”)...

Large losses of ammonium-nitrogen from a rice ecosystem under elevated CO2

Lei Cheng, Chenchao Xu, Kaihang Zhang, Wanying Zhu, Jing Xiao, Chen Zhu, Naifang Zhang, Fangjian Yu, Shuyao Li, Chunwu Zhu, Qichao Tu, Xin Chen, Jianguo Zhu, Shuijin Hu, Roger T Koide & Mary K Firestone
Inputs of nitrogen into terrestrial ecosystems, mainly via the use of ammonium-based fertilizers in agroecosystems, are enormous, but its fate under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is not well understood. We have taken advantage of a 15-year free air CO2 enrichment study to investigate the influence of elevated CO2 on the transformation of ammonium-nitrogen in a rice ecosystem in which ammonium is usually assumed to be stable under anaerobic conditions. We demonstrate that elevated CO2...

Outdoor activity participation improves adolescents’ mental health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic

Steven Jackson, Kathryn Stevenson, Lincoln Larson, Nils Peterson & Erin Seekamp
The COVID-19 pandemic is reshaping human interactions with the natural environment, generating profound consequences for health and well-being. To assess the effects of COVID-19 on the outdoor recreation participation and well-being of adolescents we conducted a nationally representative survey of youth ages 10-18 across the United States (n = 624) using a Qualtrics XM panel between April 30 and June 15, 2020. Survey questions focused on frequency of participation in several types of outdoor activities...

Data from: Bee phenology is predicted by climatic variation and functional traits

Michael Stemkovski, Will Pearse, Sean Griffin, Gabriella Pardee, Jason Gibbs, Terry Griswold, John Neff, Ryan Oram, Molly RightMyer, Cory Sheffield, Karen Wright, Brian Inouye, David Inouye & Rebecca Irwin
Climate change is shifting the environmental cues that determine the phenology of interacting species. Plant-pollinator systems may be susceptible to temporal mismatch if bees and flowering plants differ in their phenological responses to warming temperatures. While the cues that trigger flowering are well-understood, little is known about what determines bee phenology. Using Generalized Additive Models, we analyzed time-series data representing 67 bee species collected over nine years in the Colorado Rocky Mountains to perform the...

Recurrent mismatch binding by MutS mobile clamps on DNA localizes repair complexes nearby

Keith Weninger, Pengyu Hao, Sharonda J. LeBlanc, Brandon C. Case, Timothy C. Elston, Manju M. Hingorani & Dorothy A. Erie
DNA mismatch repair (MMR), the guardian of the genome, commences when MutS identifies a mismatch and recruits MutL to nick the error-containing strand, allowing excision and DNA resynthesis. Dominant MMR models posit that after mismatch recognition, ATP converts MutS to a hydrolysis-independent, diffusive mobile clamp that no longer recognizes the mismatch. Little is known about the postrecognition MutS mobile clamp and its interactions with MutL. Two disparate frameworks have been proposed: One in which MutS–MutL...

Legacy effect of grazing intensity mediates the bottom-up controls of resource addition on soil food webs

Dima Chen, Bing Wang, Ying Wu, Shuijin Hu & Yongfei Bai
1. Large-scale studies have demonstrated that nitrogen (N) and water (W) availability greatly affect terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, and this is especially true for the resource-poor semi-arid grasslands. Yet, experimental evidence is lacking for how N and W availability affect soil food webs across historical grazing intensity-altered environments at a local scale. 2. Here, we included N- and W-addition treatments in an 8-year grazing experiment (with four grazing intensities) to determine how the legacy effects of...

Environmental decomposition of olefinic cuticular hydrocarbons of Periplaneta americana generates a volatile pheromone that guides social behaviour

Eduardo Hatano, Ayako Wada-Katsumata & Coby Schal
Once emitted, semiochemicals are exposed to reactive environmental factors that may alter them, thus disrupting chemical communication. Some species, however, might have adapted to detect environmentally mediated breakdown products of their natural chemicals as semiochemicals. We demonstrate that air, water vapour and ultraviolet (UV) radiation break down unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) of Periplaneta americana (American cockroach), resulting in the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In behavioural assays, nymphs strongly avoided aggregating in shelters exposed...

Development and testing of a novel Killer-Rescue self-limiting gene drive system in Drosophila melanogaster

Maxwell Scott, Sophia Webster & Michael Vella
Here we report the development and testing of a novel self-limiting gene drive system, Killer-Rescue, in Drosophila melanogaster. This system is composed of an auto-regulated Gal4 Killer (K) and a Gal4-activated Gal80 Rescue (R). Overexpression of Gal4 is lethal, but in the presence of R activation of Gal80 leads to much lower levels of Gal4 and rescue of lethality. We demonstrate that with a single 2:1 engineered to wildtype release, K drives R through the...

Data for: Tunable self-cleaving ribozymes for modulating gene expression in eukaryotic systems

Thomas Jacobsen, Gloria Yi, Hadel Al Asafen, Ashley Jermusyk, Chase Beisel & Gregory Reeves
Advancements in the field of synthetic biology have been possible due to the development of genetic tools that are able to regulate gene expression. However, the current toolbox of gene regulatory tools for eukaryotic systems have been outpaced by those developed for simple, single-celled systems. Here, we engineered a set of gene regulatory tools by combining self-cleaving ribozymes with various upstream competing sequences that were designed to disrupt ribozyme self-cleavage. As a proof-of-concept, we were...

Genomic population structure of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Cape Fear River

Nathalie LeBlanc, Benjamin Gahagan, Samuel Andrews, Trevor Avery, Gregory Puncher, Benjamin Reading, Colin Buhariwalla, R Allen Curry, Andrew Whitely & Scott Pavey
Striped Bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum, 1792), is an anadromous fish species that supports fisheries throughout North America and is native to the North American Atlantic Coast. Due to long coastal migrations that span multiple jurisdictions, a detailed understanding of population genomics is required to untangle demographic patterns, understand local adaptation, and characterize population movements. This study used 1256 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci to investigate genetic structure of 477 Striped Bass sampled from 15 locations...

Autonomous Vehicles and the Ethical Tension Between Occupant and Non-Occupant Safety

Jason Borenstein, Joseph Herkert & Keith Miller
Given that the creation and deployment of autonomous vehicles is likely to continue, it is important to explore the ethical responsibilities of designers, manufacturers, operators, and regulators of the technology. We specifically focus on the ethical responsibilities surrounding autonomous vehicles that these stakeholders have to protect the safety of non-occupants, meaning individuals who are around the vehicles while they are operating. The term “non-occupants” includes, but is not limited to, pedestrians and cyclists. We are...

Spine and dine: A key defensive trait promotes ecological success in spiny ants

Benjamin Blanchard, Akihiro Nakamura, Min Cao, Stephanie Chen & Corrie Moreau
A key focus of ecologists is explaining the origin and maintenance of morphological diversity and its association with ecological success. We investigate potential benefits and costs of a common and varied morphological trait, cuticular spines, for foraging behavior, interspecific competition, and predator-prey interactions in naturally co-occurring spiny ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Polyrhachis) in an experimental setting. We expect that a defensive trait like spines might be associated with more conspicuous foraging, a greater number of workers...

Gestational Cd exposure in the CD-1 mouse induces sex-specific hepatic insulin insensitivity, obesity and metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring

Thomas Jackson, Garret Ryherd, Chris Scheibly, Aubrey Sasser, T. C. Guillette & Scott Belcher
There is compelling evidence that developmental exposure to some toxic metals increases risk for obesity and obesity-related morbidity including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in adults. To explore the hypothesis that developmental Cd exposure increased risk of obesity later in life, male and female CD-1 mice were maternally exposed to 500 ppb CdCl2 in drinking water during a human gestational equivalent period (GD0 - PND10). Hallmark indicators of metabolic disruption, hepatic steatosis, and metabolic...

Supplementary information for: Using networks to identify structure in phylogenetic tree sets

Jeremy Brown, Melissa Marchand, Wen Huang, Guifang Zhou, Genevieve Mount, Jeremy Ash, Kyle Gallivan & James Wilgenbusch
Modern phylogenomic studies produce large sets of trees that can represent variation in inferred phylogenies across genes, uncertainty in estimated phylogenies for a given gene, or both. Standard practice is to condense this variation down to a small set of point estimates or consensus trees in order to facilitate display and interpretation. However, doing so results in the loss of enormous amounts of information about the structure of the underlying tree set. Here, we propose...

The magnitude of large-scale tree mortality caused by the invasive pathogen Phytophthora ramorum

Richard Cobb, Sarah Haas, Nicholas Kruskamp, Whalen Dillon, Tedmund Swiecki, David Rizzo, Susan Frankel & Ross Meentemeyer
Forest pathogens are important drivers of tree mortality across the globe but it is exceptionally challenging to gather and build unbiased quantitative models of their impacts, which has resulted in few estimates matching the scale of disease. Here we harness the rare dataset matching the spatial scale of pathogen invasion, host, and disease heterogeneity to estimate infection and mortality for the four most susceptible host species of Phytophthora ramorum, an invasive pathogen that drives the...

Data from: A resurrection study reveals limited evolution of thermal performance in response to recent climate change across the geographic range of the scarlet monkeyflower

Rachel Wooliver & Seema Sheth
Evolutionary rescue can prevent populations from declining under climate change, and should be more likely at high-latitude, “leading” edges of species’ ranges due to greater temperature anomalies and gene flow from warm-adapted populations. Using a resurrection study with seeds collected before and after a seven-year period of record warming, we tested for thermal adaptation in the scarlet monkeyflower Mimulus cardinalis. We grew ancestors and descendants from northern-edge, central, and southern-edge populations across eight temperatures. Despite...

Copper and zinc generated by the Aquascape IonGen pond clarifier system can be detrimental to koi (Cyprinus carpio) health

Emily Tucker, Jamie Gerlach, Azais Curtean, Kent Passingham, Lisa Murphy & Gregory Lewbart
BackgroundCopper is frequently used as an algicide, and copper ion generators such as the Aquascape IonGen claim to be safe for use in systems containing fish. In 2012, a die-off of koi (Cyprinus carpio) in a pond in Raleigh, North Carolina, occurred after the IonGen was added to the system.MethodsPhysical and postmortem examinations suggested that heavy metal toxicity was the likely cause of morbidity and mortality. This was supported by a heavy metal screening of...

Collaborative Research: Ocean Acidification and Coral Reefs: Scale Dependence and Adaptive Capacity

Robert Carpenter
Title: Collaborative Research: Ocean Acidification and Coral Reefs - Scale Dependence and Adaptive Capacity This project focuses on the most serious threat to marine ecosystems, Ocean Acidification (OA), and addresses the problem in the most diverse and beautiful ecosystem on the planet, coral reefs. The research utilizes Moorea, French Polynesia as a model system, and builds from the NSF investment in the Moorea Coral Reef Long Term Ecological Research Site (LTER) to exploit physical and...

Data from: Flowering plant composition shapes pathogen infection intensity and reproduction in bumble bee colonies

Nicholas Barber, Lynn Adler, Olivia Biller & Rebecca Irwin
Pathogens pose significant threats to pollinator health and food security. Pollinators can transmit diseases during foraging, but the consequences of plant species composition for infection is unknown. In agroecosystems, flowering strips or hedgerows are often used to augment pollinator habitat. We used canola as a focal crop in tents, and manipulated flowering strip composition using plant species we had previously shown to result in higher or lower bee infection in short-term trials. We also manipulated...

Data from: Plant biomass, not plant economics traits, determines responses of soil CO2 efflux to precipitation in the C4 grass Panicum virgatum

Robert Heckman, Albina Khasanova, Nicholas Johnson, Sören Weber, Jason Bonnette, Mike Aspinwall, Lara Reichman, Thomas Juenger, Philip Fay & Christine Hawkes
1. Plant responses to major environmental drivers like precipitation can influence important aspects of carbon (C) cycling like soil CO2 efflux (JCO2). These responses may be predicted by two independent classes of drivers: plant size—larger plants respire more and produce a larger quantity of labile C, and plant economics—plants possessing more acquisitive plant economics strategies (i.e., high metabolic rate and tissue nutrient content) produce higher-quality tissue that respires rapidly and decomposes quickly. 2. At two...

Egg-size plasticity in Apis mellifera: honey bee queens alter egg size in response to both genetic and environmental factors

Esmaeil Amiri, Kevin Le, Carlos Vega Melendez, Micheline K. Strand, David R. Tarpy & Olav Rueppell
Social evolution has led to distinct life-history patterns in social insects, but many colony-level and individual traits, such as egg size, are not sufficiently understood. Thus, a series of experiments was performed to study the effects of genotypes, colony size, and colony nutrition on variation in egg size produced by honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens. Queens from different genetic stocks produced significantly different egg sizes under similar environmental conditions, indicating standing genetic variation for egg...

Data from: Crop production in the USA is frequently limited by a lack of pollinators

James Reilly, Derek Artz, David Biddinger, Kyle Bobiwash, Natalie Boyle, Claire Brittain, Julia Brokaw, Josh Campbell, Jaret Daniels, Elizabeth Elle, Jamie Ellis, Shelby Fleischer, Jason Gibbs, Robert Gillespie, Knute Gundersen, Larry Gut, George Hoffman, Neelendra Joshi, Ola Lundin, Keith Mason, Carley McGrady, Steve Peterson, Theresa Pitts-Singer, Sujaya Rao, Nikki Rothwell … & Rachael Winfree
Most of the world’s crops depend on pollinators, so declines in both managed and wild bees raise concerns about food security. However, the degree to which insect pollination is actually limiting current crop production is poorly understood, as is the role of wild species (as opposed to managed honey bees) in pollinating crops, particularly in intensive production areas. We established a nation-wide study to assess the extent of pollinator limitation in seven crops at 131...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    57

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    53
  • Output Management Plan
    2
  • Text
    2

Affiliations

  • North Carolina State University
    57
  • University of Florida
    5
  • Duke University
    4
  • University of Montana
    3
  • United States Department of Agriculture
    3
  • Northwestern University
    2
  • John Carroll University
    2
  • California Polytechnic State University
    2
  • Zhejiang University
    2
  • The University of Texas at Austin
    2