58 Works

Autonomous Vehicles and the Ethical Tension Between Occupant and Non-Occupant Safety

Jason Borenstein, Joseph Herkert & Keith Miller
Given that the creation and deployment of autonomous vehicles is likely to continue, it is important to explore the ethical responsibilities of designers, manufacturers, operators, and regulators of the technology. We specifically focus on the ethical responsibilities surrounding autonomous vehicles that these stakeholders have to protect the safety of non-occupants, meaning individuals who are around the vehicles while they are operating. The term “non-occupants” includes, but is not limited to, pedestrians and cyclists. We are...

Copper and zinc generated by the Aquascape IonGen pond clarifier system can be detrimental to koi (Cyprinus carpio) health

Emily Tucker, Jamie Gerlach, Azais Curtean, Kent Passingham, Lisa Murphy & Gregory Lewbart
BackgroundCopper is frequently used as an algicide, and copper ion generators such as the Aquascape IonGen claim to be safe for use in systems containing fish. In 2012, a die-off of koi (Cyprinus carpio) in a pond in Raleigh, North Carolina, occurred after the IonGen was added to the system.MethodsPhysical and postmortem examinations suggested that heavy metal toxicity was the likely cause of morbidity and mortality. This was supported by a heavy metal screening of...

The magnitude of large-scale tree mortality caused by the invasive pathogen Phytophthora ramorum

Richard Cobb, Sarah Haas, Nicholas Kruskamp, Whalen Dillon, Tedmund Swiecki, David Rizzo, Susan Frankel & Ross Meentemeyer
Forest pathogens are important drivers of tree mortality across the globe but it is exceptionally challenging to gather and build unbiased quantitative models of their impacts, which has resulted in few estimates matching the scale of disease. Here we harness the rare dataset matching the spatial scale of pathogen invasion, host, and disease heterogeneity to estimate infection and mortality for the four most susceptible host species of Phytophthora ramorum, an invasive pathogen that drives the...

Spine and dine: A key defensive trait promotes ecological success in spiny ants

Benjamin Blanchard, Akihiro Nakamura, Min Cao, Stephanie Chen & Corrie Moreau
A key focus of ecologists is explaining the origin and maintenance of morphological diversity and its association with ecological success. We investigate potential benefits and costs of a common and varied morphological trait, cuticular spines, for foraging behavior, interspecific competition, and predator-prey interactions in naturally co-occurring spiny ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Polyrhachis) in an experimental setting. We expect that a defensive trait like spines might be associated with more conspicuous foraging, a greater number of workers...

Gestational Cd exposure in the CD-1 mouse induces sex-specific hepatic insulin insensitivity, obesity and metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring

Thomas Jackson, Garret Ryherd, Chris Scheibly, Aubrey Sasser, T. C. Guillette & Scott Belcher
There is compelling evidence that developmental exposure to some toxic metals increases risk for obesity and obesity-related morbidity including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in adults. To explore the hypothesis that developmental Cd exposure increased risk of obesity later in life, male and female CD-1 mice were maternally exposed to 500 ppb CdCl2 in drinking water during a human gestational equivalent period (GD0 - PND10). Hallmark indicators of metabolic disruption, hepatic steatosis, and metabolic...

Collaborative Research: Ocean Acidification and Coral Reefs: Scale Dependence and Adaptive Capacity

Robert Carpenter
Title: Collaborative Research: Ocean Acidification and Coral Reefs - Scale Dependence and Adaptive Capacity This project focuses on the most serious threat to marine ecosystems, Ocean Acidification (OA), and addresses the problem in the most diverse and beautiful ecosystem on the planet, coral reefs. The research utilizes Moorea, French Polynesia as a model system, and builds from the NSF investment in the Moorea Coral Reef Long Term Ecological Research Site (LTER) to exploit physical and...

Data from: A resurrection study reveals limited evolution of thermal performance in response to recent climate change across the geographic range of the scarlet monkeyflower

Rachel Wooliver & Seema Sheth
Evolutionary rescue can prevent populations from declining under climate change, and should be more likely at high-latitude, “leading” edges of species’ ranges due to greater temperature anomalies and gene flow from warm-adapted populations. Using a resurrection study with seeds collected before and after a seven-year period of record warming, we tested for thermal adaptation in the scarlet monkeyflower Mimulus cardinalis. We grew ancestors and descendants from northern-edge, central, and southern-edge populations across eight temperatures. Despite...

Supplementary information for: Using networks to identify structure in phylogenetic tree sets

Jeremy Brown, Melissa Marchand, Wen Huang, Guifang Zhou, Genevieve Mount, Jeremy Ash, Kyle Gallivan & James Wilgenbusch
Modern phylogenomic studies produce large sets of trees that can represent variation in inferred phylogenies across genes, uncertainty in estimated phylogenies for a given gene, or both. Standard practice is to condense this variation down to a small set of point estimates or consensus trees in order to facilitate display and interpretation. However, doing so results in the loss of enormous amounts of information about the structure of the underlying tree set. Here, we propose...

Plant census and microenvironment dataset from Mt. Baldy, Colorado, USA, 2014-2017

B. Blonder, R.E. Kapas, R.M. Dalton, B.J. Graae, J.M. Heiling & Ø.H. Opedal
The data comprise a long-term study of alpine plant community dynamics in the Gunnison National Forest of Colorado. The data comprise annual census data for all plants (including seedlings) in each of 50 2x2m plots, including information on size, reproduction, life stage, and mortality, with all plants identified and geo-located. These data are also made available transformed to provide individual-level estimates of growth, survival, fecundity, and recruitment. The dataset covers several thousand individuals of approximately...

Spend to save: investigating the property acquisition process for risk reduction in Aotearoa New Zealand

Wendy S. A. Saunders & G. Smith
Limiting development in known high-hazard areas is among one of the most effective tools available to local governments to reduce future hazard risk and increase resilience, and yet, the widespread practice of acquiring hazard-prone properties and converting the land to open space in New Zealand remains highly varied. This report outlines Aotearoa New Zealand examples of hazard-prone housing acquisition (or buyout) processes, based on four legislative mechanisms: special legislation (Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Act 2011), the...

Dityrosine formation via reactive oxygen consumption yields increasingly recalcitrant humic-like fluorescent organic matter in the ocean

Ryan Paerl, Iliana Claudio, Michael Shields, Thomas Bianchi & Christopher Osburn
Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a massive elemental pool on Earth and is thought to consist of a chemically complex mixture of molecules. Part of marine DOM is fluorescent (FDOM) and includes humic-like compounds. The chemical composition of, and biochemical pathways that yield, autochthonous humic-like FDOM in the ocean is largely unknown. Inspired by medical and biochemical research detailing the formation of colored and fluorescent dityrosine via peroxidase mediated reactions, we used fluorometry and...

Genomic evidence of introgression and adaptation in a model subtropical tree species, Eucalyptus grandis

Marja Mostert-O'Neill, Sharon Reynolds, Juan Acosta, David Lee, Justin Borevitz & Alexander Myburg
The genetic consequences of adaptation to changing environments can be deciphered using landscape genomics, which may help predict species’ responses to global climate change. Towards this, we used genome-wide SNP marker analysis to determine population structure and patterns of genetic differentiation in terms of neutral and adaptive genetic variation in the natural range of Eucalyptus grandis, a widely cultivated subtropical and temperate species, serving as genomic reference for the genus. We analysed introgression patterns at...

Experimental N and P additions relieve stoichiometric constraints on organic-matter flows through five stream food webs

Lee Demi, Jonathan Benstead, Amy Rosemond & John Maerz
1. Human activities have dramatically altered global patterns of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability. This pervasive nutrient pollution is changing basal resource quality in food webs, thereby affecting rates of biological productivity and the pathways of energy and material flow to higher trophic levels. 2. Here, we investigate how the stoichiometric quality of basal resources modulates patterns of material flow through food webs by characterizing the effects of experimental N and P enrichment on...

Do dog breeds differ in pain sensitivity? Veterinarians and the public believe they do

Margaret Gruen, Brian Hare & Philip White
Humans do not respond to the pain of all humans equally; physical appearance and associated group identity affect how people respond to the pain of others. Here we ask if a similar differential response occurs when humans evaluate different individuals of another species. Beliefs about pain in pet dogs (Canis familiaris) provide a powerful test, since dogs vary so much in size, shape, and color, and are often associated with behavioral stereotypes. Using an on-line...

Robustness of the Dorsal morphogen gradient with respect to morphogen dosage

Gregory Reeves, Hadel Al Asafen, Sophia Carrell-Noel, Allison Schloop, Jeramey Friedman & Prasad Bandodkar
In multicellular organisms, the timing and placement of gene expression in a developing tissue assigns the fate of each cell in the embryo in order for a uniform field of cells to differentiate into a reproducible pattern of organs and tissues. This positional information is often achieved through the action of spatial gradients of morphogens. Spatial patterns of gene expression are paradoxically robust to variations in morphogen dosage, given that, by definition, gene expression must...

Supplemental materials for: Peri- and post-pubertal estrogen exposures of female mice optimize uterine responses later in life

Sylvia Hewitt, Marleny Carmona, Grace Foley, Lauren Donoghue, Sydney Lierz, Wipawee Winuthayanon & Kenneth Korach
At birth, all female mice, including those that either lack estrogen receptor α (ERα-knockout) or that express mutated forms of ERα (AF2ERKI), have a hypoplastic uterus. However, uterine growth and development that normally accompanies pubertal maturation does not occur in ERα-knockout or AF2ERKI mice, indicating ERα mediated estrogen signaling is essential for this process. Mice that lack Cyp19 (aromatase, ArKO mice), an enzyme critical for estrogen (E2) synthesis, are unable to make E2, and lack...

MVCNN++: CAD model shape classification and retrieval using multi-view convolutional neural networks

Binil Starly, Akshay Bharadwaj & Atin Angrish
Deep neural networks have shown promising success towards the classification and retrieval tasks for images and text data. While there have been several implementations of deep networks in the area of computer graphics, these algorithms do not translate easily across different datasets, especially for shapes used in product design and manufacturing domain. Unlike datasets used in the 3D shape classification and retrieval in the computer graphics domain, engineering level description of 3D models do not...

Amino acids (AA) all genes for: Beyond Drosophila: resolving the rapid radiation of schizophoran flies with phylotranscriptomics

Keith Bayless, Michelle Trautwein, Karen Meusemann, David Yeates & Brian Wiegmann
Background: The largest radiation of animal life since the end Cretaceous extinction event 66 million years ago is that of schizophoran flies: a third of fly diversity including Drosophila lab fruit flies, house flies, and many other well and poorly known true flies. Rapid diversification has hindered previous attempts to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among major schizophoran clades. A robust phylogenetic hypothesis for the major lineages containing these 55,000 described species would be critical to...

Phylogenomics, biogeography, and evolution of morphology and ecological niche of the eastern Asian‐ eastern North American Nyssa (Nyssaceae)

Wenbin Zhou, Jun Wen & Qiuyun Xiang
Nyssa (Nyssaceae, Cornales) represents a classical example of the well‐known eastern Asian‐eastern North American floristic disjunction. The genus consists of three species in eastern Asia, four species in eastern North America, and one species in Central America. Species of the genus are ecologically important trees in eastern North American and eastern Asian forests. The distribution of living species and a rich fossil record of the genus make it an excellent model for understanding the origin...

Global gradients in intraspecific variation in vegetative and floral traits are partially associated with climate and species richness

Jonas Kuppler, Cécile H. Albert, Gregory M. Ames, W. Scott Armbruster, Gerhard Boenisch, Florian C. Boucher, Diane R. Campbell, Liedson T. Carneiro, Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal, Brian J. Enquist, Carlos R. Fonseca, José M. Gómez, Antoine Guisan, Pedro Higuchi, Dirk N. Karger, Jens Kattge, Michael Kleyer, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Anne-Amélie C. Larue-Kontić, Amparo Lázaro, Martin Lechleitner, Deirdre Loughnan, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Gerhard E. Overbeck … & Robert R. Junker
Aim Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) within natural plant communities can be large, influencing local ecological processes and dynamics. Here, we shed light on how ITV in vegetative and floral traits responds to large-scale abiotic and biotic gradients (i.e. climate and species richness). Specifically, we tested if associations of ITV with temperature, precipitation and species richness were consistent with any of from four hypotheses relating to stress-tolerance and competition. Furthermore, we estimated the degree of correlation...

An empirical evaluation of camera trap study design: how many, how long, and when?

Roland Kays, Brian Arbogast, Megan Baker-Whatton, Chris Beirne, Hailey Boone, Mark Bowler, Santiago Burneo, Michael Cove, Ping Ding, Santiago Espinosa, André Gonçalves, Christopher Hansen, Patrick Jansen, Joseph Kolowski, Travis Knowles, Marcela Lima, Joshua Millspaugh, William McShea, Krishna Pacifici, Arielle Parsons, Brent Pease, Francesco Rovero, Fernanda Santos, Stephanie Schuttler, Douglas Sheil … & Wilson Spironello
1. Camera traps deployed in grids or stratified random designs are a well-established survey tool for wildlife but there has been little evaluation of study design parameters. 2. We used an empirical subsampling approach involving 2225 camera deployments run at 41 study areas around the world to evaluate three aspects of camera trap study design (number of sites, duration and season of sampling) and their influence on the estimation of three ecological metrics (species richness,...

Data from: The impact of prescribed burning on native bee communities (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in longleaf pine savannas in the North Carolina sandhills

Heather Moylett, Elsa Youngsteadt & Clyde Sorenson
Prescribed burning is a common silvicultural practice used in the management of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savannas to reduce hardwood encroachment and ground cover and to maintain biodiversity. We investigated the response of the native bee community (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in the Sandhills of North Carolina to prescribed burning on a three-year rotation over two consecutive years (2012 and 2013). We deployed bee bowl traps in sites that had been burned the year of...

Data from: In vivo assessment of respiratory burst inhibition by xenobiotic exposure using larval zebrafish

Jeffrey Yoder, Drake Phelps, Ashley Fletcher, Dori Germolec, Ivan Rodriguez-Nunez, Michele Balik-Meisner, Debra Tokarz & David Reif
Currently assessment of the potential immunotoxicity of a given agent involves a tiered approach for hazard identification and mechanistic studies, including observational studies, evaluation of immune function, and measurement of susceptibility to infectious and neoplastic diseases. These studies generally use costly low-throughput mammalian models. Zebrafish, however, offer an excellent alternative due to their rapid development, ease of maintenance, and homology to mammalian immune system function and development. Larval zebrafish also are a convenient model to...

Least-cost habitat linkages for American black bear, Rafinesque's big-eared bat, and timber rattlesnake.

Jennifer Costanza, James Watling, Ron Sutherland, Curtis Belyea, Bistra Dilkina, Heather Cayton, David Bucklin, Stephanie Romañach & Nicholas Haddad
This data set contains 3 shapefiles and associated files that map linkages, which are least-cost paths between adjacent habitat cores for three wildlife species in the Southeastern U.S. The species are: the American black bear (Ursus americanus), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), and Timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus). We mapped habitat cores based on c. 2006 land cover, then used LinkageMapper software to identify least-cost paths between them, and buffered the least-cost paths by 2.5 km...

Population structure, landscape genomics, and genetic signatures of adaptation to exotic disease pressure in Cornus florida L. – insights from GWAS and GBS data

Andrew Pais, Ross Whetten &
Understanding the consequences of exotic diseases on native forests is important to evolutionary ecology and conservation biology because exotic pathogens have drastically altered US eastern deciduous forests. Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood tree) is one such species facing heavy mortality. Characterizing the genetic structure of C. florida populations and identifying the genetic signature of adaptation to dogwood anthracnose (an exotic pathogen responsible for high mortality) remains vital for conservation efforts. By integrating genetic data from...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    58

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    54
  • Output Management Plan
    2
  • Text
    2

Affiliations

  • North Carolina State University
    58
  • University of Florida
    5
  • Duke University
    4
  • University of Montana
    3
  • United States Department of Agriculture
    3
  • Northwestern University
    2
  • John Carroll University
    2
  • California Polytechnic State University
    2
  • Zhejiang University
    2
  • The University of Texas at Austin
    2