48 Works

Important lessons from stakeholder engagement

Khara Grieger

Data from: Salivary digestion extends the range of sugar-aversions in the German cockroach

Ayako Wada-Katsumata
Saliva has diverse functions in feeding behavior of animals. However, the impact of salivary digestion of food on insect gustatory information processing is poorly documented. Glucose-aversion (GA) in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is a highly adaptive heritable behavioral resistance trait that protects the cockroach from ingesting glucose-containing-insecticide-baits. In this study, we confirmed that GA cockroaches rejected glucose, but they accepted oligosaccharides. However, whereas wild-type cockroaches that accepted glucose also satiated on oligosaccharides, GA cockroaches...

Avian Response to Hurricane Maria in Coffee Plantations

Jaime Collazo, Amarilys Irizarry, Ivette Perfecto & John Vandermeer
Insights on impacts and resiliency of avian species with respect to hurricanes in the Caribbean have largely focused on responses measured in protected habitats. We assessed avian responses in non-protected habitat, specifically shade-restored coffee plantations, because their structural complexity retains many attributes of secondary forests, and may contribute to landscape scale species resiliency. We tallied species richness and estimated occupancy probability of 12 resident avian species, after adjusting for imperfect detection, to assess the impact...

Data for Predation and resource availability interact to drive life-history evolution in an adaptive radiation of livebearing fish

Randall Brian Langerhans & Kaj Hulthén
Predation risk and resource availability are two primary factors predicted by theory to drive the evolution of life histories. Yet, disentangling their roles in life-history evolution in the wild is challenging because (1) the two factors often co-vary across environments and (2) environmental effects on phenotypes can mask patterns of genotypic evolution. Here, we use the model system of the Post-Pleistocene radiation of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabiting blue holes to provide a strong test...

Predation shapes behavioral lateralization: insights from an adaptive radiation of livebearing fish

Kaj Hulthén, Heinen-Kay Justa Lee, Danielle Schmidt & R. Brian Langerhans
Hemispheric brain lateralization can drive the expression of behavioral asymmetry, or laterality, which varies notably both within and among species. To explain these left–right behavioral asymmetries in animals, predator-mediated selection is often invoked. Recent studies have revealed that a relatively high degree of lateralization correlates positively with traits known to confer survival benefits against predators, including escape performance, multitasking abilities, and group coordination. Yet, we still know comparatively little about 1) how consistently predators shape...

Olfactory Learning Supports an Adaptive Sugar-Aversion Gustatory Phenotype in the German Cockroach

Ayako Wada-Katsumata & Coby Schal
An association of food sources with odors prominently guides foraging behavior in animals. To understand the interaction of olfactory memory and food preferences, we used glucose-averse (GA) German cockroaches. Multiple populations of cockroaches evolved a gustatory polymor-phism where glucose is perceived as a deterrent and enables GA cockroaches to avoid eating glucose-containing toxic baits. Comparative behavioral analysis using an operant conditioning paradigm revealed that learning and memory guide foraging decisions. Cockroaches learned to associate specific...

Limited plasticity in thermally tolerant ectotherm populations: evidence for a trade-off

Jordanna Barley, Brian S. Cheng, Matthew Sasaki, Sarah Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Cynthia G. Hays, Alysha B. Putnam, Seema Sheth, Andrew Villeneuve, Morgan Kelly, Jordanna M. Barley & Andrew R. Villeneuve
Many species face extinction risks owing to climate change, and there is an urgent need to identify which species' populations will be most vulnerable. Plasticity in heat tolerance, which includes acclimation or hardening, occurs when prior exposure to a warmer temperature changes an organism's upper thermal limit. The capacity for thermal acclimation could provide protection against warming, but prior work has found few generalizable patterns to explain variation in this trait. Here, we report the...

A Hopf Adaptive Oscillator Analog Circuit as a musical instrument

Edmon Perkins, XiaoFu Li &
The utilization of a Hopf adaptive frequency oscillator as a musical instrument is explored. The analog circuit design of this nonlinear oscillator are presented, and the procedure to use it as a musical instrument is described. Although similar to other analog electronics instruments such as the theremin, the authors believe this is the first time that an adaptive oscillator has been implemented as a musical instrument. Ave Maria, D. 839-Bradley Chapman (https://musopen.org/music/1673-ave-ma...​), is used here...

Savannas are not old fields: functional trajectories of forest expansion in a fire-suppressed Brazilian savanna are driven by habitat generalists

Samuel Flake, Rodolfo Abreu, Giselda Durigan & William Hoffmann
Under fire suppression, many tropical savannas transform into forests. Forest expansion entails changes in environmental variables and plant community structure. We hypothesized that forest expansion into savanna results in a shift in community-weighted mean functional traits from stress tolerance to competitiveness, with generalist species having trait values intermediate between those of specialists of savanna and forest habitats. We studied 30 plots distributed over three savanna-forest boundaries undergoing forest expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado, capturing a...

Sponge-like rigid structures in frictional granular packings

Kuang Liu, Jonathan E. Kollmer, Karen E. Daniels, J.M. Schwarz & Silke Henkes
We show how rigidity emerges in experiments of sheared two-dimensional frictional granular materials by using generalizations of two methods for identifying rigid structures. Both approaches, the force-based dynamical matrix and the topology-based rigidity percolation, agree with each other and identify similar rigid structures. As the system becomes jammed, at a critical contact number z = 2.4±0.1, a rigid backbone interspersed with floppy, particle-filled holes of a broad range of sizes emerges, creating a sponge-like morphology....

Island area, not isolation, drives taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of ants on land-bridge islands

Yuhao Zhao, Robert Dunn, Haonan Zhou, Xingfeng Si & Ping Ding
Aim: To explore the impact of island area and isolation on multiple dimensions of ant biodiversity (taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity) and the underlying processes of community assembly on islands. Location: Thousand Island Lake, Zhejiang, China, created by dam construction in 1959. Taxon: Ants. Methods: We sampled ants on 33 islands, built a species-level phylogenetic tree and measured five morphological traits of all species collected to estimate taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity. We used multiple...

Deconstructing incubation behaviour in response to ambient temperature over different timescales

David Diez-Méndez, Caren Cooper, Juan José Sanz, Jose Verdejo & Emilio Barba
Avian embryos need a stable thermal environment to develop optimally, while incubating females need to allocate time to self-maintenance off the nest. In species with female-only incubation, eggs are exposed to ambient temperatures that usually cool them down during female absences. The lower the ambient temperature the sooner females should return to re-warm the eggs. When incubation constraints ease at increasing ambient temperatures, females respond by increasing either incubation effort or self-maintenance time. These responses...

National survey of college students' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to hunting, fishing, and wildlife conservation

Lincoln Larson
This dataset contains responses from an online survey of diverse undergraduate students (ages 18-34 years) attending 22 different universities across 22 U.S. states (total n = 17,203). Survey questions focused on students' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to hunting, fishing, and wildlife conservation. The survey was conducted from 2018-2020.

Data for: Many-body thermodynamics on quantum computers via partition function zeros

Akhil Francis, Daiwei Zhu, Cinthia Huerta Alderete, Sonika Johri, Xiao Xiao, James K. Freericks, Christopher Monroe, Norbert M. Linke & Alexander F. Kemper
Partition functions are ubiquitous in physics: they are important in determining the thermodynamic properties of many-body systems, and in understanding their phase transitions. As shown by Lee and Yang, analytically continuing the partition function to the complex plane allows us to obtain its zeros and thus the entire function. Moreover, the scaling and nature of these zeros can elucidate phase transitions. Here we show how to find partition function zeros on noisy intermediate-scale trapped ion...

Schizophrenia and Bartonella spp. infection: A pilot case–control study

Erin Lashnits, Ricardo Maggi, Fredrik Jarskog, Julie Bradley, Edward Breitschwerdt & Flavio Frohlich
Recently, infections with emerging zoonotic bacteria of the genus Bartonella have been reported in association with a range of CNS symptoms. Currently, it remains unknown if Bartonella spp. infection is associated with symptoms of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SCZ/SAD). The objective of this study was to determine if there is an association between Bartonella species infection and SCZ/SAD. A secondary objective was to determine if SCZ/SAD symptoms were more severe among participants with documented Bartonella spp. infection....

Data from: Mammal-bearing gastric pellets potentially attributable to Troodon formosus at the Cretaceous Egg Mountain locality, Two Medicine Formation, Montana, U.S.A.

William Freimuth, David Varricchio, Alexandria Brannick, Lucas Weaver & Gregory Wilson Mantilla
Fossil gastric pellets (regurgitalites) have distinct taphonomic characteristics that facilitate inferences of behavioural ecology in deep time, despite their rarity in the fossil record. Using the taphonomic patterns of both extant and fossil small mammals from more recent geologic deposits as a guide, we assess the taphonomy of three unusual multi-individual aggregates of mammal skeletons from paleosols at Egg Mountain, a dinosaur nesting locality from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation, Montana, USA. One aggregate...

A greenhouse experiment partially supports inferences of ecogeographic isolation from niche models of Clarkia sister species

Kathleen Kay, Kaleb Goff & Cormac Martinez Del Rio
Premise: Ecogeographic isolation, or geographic isolation caused by ecological divergence, is thought to be of primary importance in speciation, yet is difficult to demonstrate and quantify. To determine whether distributions are limited by divergent adaptation or historical contingency, the gold standard is to reciprocally transplant taxa between their geographic ranges. Alternatively, ecogeographic isolation is inferred from species distribution models and niche divergence tests based on widely available environmental and occurrence data. Methods: We test for...

Resonance Raman confirms partial hemoglobin preservation in dinosaur remains

Brandon Long
Still-soft, hollow, and flexible structures that are morphologically consistent with blood vessels were recovered from demineralized dinosaur bone and studied with resonance Raman techniques to test the hypothesis that these vessel-like structures are original to the dinosaur, and that they maintain endogenous molecular characteristics. We probed these ancient samples using resonance Raman at two different wavelengths, and the existence of a stronger resonance Raman signal level in the green compared to blue excitation is consistent...

R/QTL datasets for fusiform rust resistance QTL mapping

Fikret Isik & Edwin Lauer
Fusiform rust disease, caused by the endemic fungus Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme, is the most damaging disease affecting economically important pine species in the southeast United States. In this report, we detail the genomic localization and sequence-level discovery of candidate race-nonspecific broad-spectrum fusiform rust resistance genes in Pinus taeda L. Two full-sib families, each with ~1000 progeny, were challenged with a complex inoculum consisting of over 150 pathogen isolates. High-density linkage mapping revealed three...

Searching for deep-seated thrust faults on the moon

Matthew Collins
The lunar maria are large expanses of basalt that infill antecedent impact basins and show evidence for post-emplacement deformation. Landforms within many of these basins suggest a period of compressive tectonics, although the mechanism for their formation remains an open question. Previous work for Mare Crisium demonstrated that basin-circumferential wrinkle ridges, which typically demarcate the inner edge of an annulus of elevated terrain, are the result of deep-seated thrust faults that preferentially form along the...

Data for: Predation risk and the evolution of a vertebrate stress response: parallel evolution of stress reactivity and sexual dimorphism

Jerker Vinterstare, Gustaf MO Ekelund Ugge, Kaj Hulthén, Alexander Hegg, Christer Brönmark, P Anders Nilsson, U Ronja Zellmer, Marcus Lee, Varpu Pärssinen, Yongcui Sha, Caroline Björnerås, Huan Zhang, Raphael Gollnisch, Simon David Herzog, Lars-Anders Hansson, Martin Škerlep, Nan Hu, Emma Johansson & R Brian Langerhans
Predation risk is often invoked to explain variation in stress responses. Yet, the answers to several key questions remain elusive, including: 1) how predation risk influences the evolution of stress phenotypes, 2) the relative importance of environmental versus genetic factors in stress reactivity, and 3) sexual dimorphism in stress physiology. To address these questions, we explored variation in stress reactivity (ventilation frequency) in a post-Pleistocene radiation of live-bearing fish, where Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabit...

Microevolutionary change in mimicry? Erosion of rattling behaviour among nonvenomous snakes on islands lacking rattlesnakes

Bradley Allf, Amanda Sparkman & David Pfennig
Batesian mimics––harmless species that converge on the warning signals of a dangerous species––are spectacular examples of adaptation, but few documented cases involve acoustic signals. Even fewer studies have documented microevolutionary change in mimicry of any kind. Here, we describe potential evolutionary change in acoustic mimicry. Many nonvenomous snakes vibrate their tail tip when threatened, making a sound resembling a venomous rattlesnake. When we compared this behaviour between gopher snakes from mainland California where rattlesnakes are...

Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Open Educational Resources

Meredith Jacob, Peter Jaszi, Prudence S. Adler & William Cross

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text
  • Audiovisual


  • North Carolina State University
  • Lund University
  • Duke University
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • Pennsylvania State University
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro
  • University of North Carolina
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Copenhagen