4,143 Works

Selecting and Ranking Individualized Treatment Rules with Unmeasured Confounding

Bo Zhang, Jordan Weiss, Dylan S. Small & Qingyuan Zhao
It is common to compare individualized treatment rules based on the value function, which is the expected potential outcome under the treatment rule. Although the value function is not point-identified when there is unmeasured confounding, it still defines a partial order among the treatment rules under Rosenbaum’s sensitivity analysis model. We first consider how to compare two treatment rules with unmeasured confounding in the single-decision setting and then use this pairwise test to rank multiple...

Data from: Plant-microbial interactions facilitate grassland species coexistence at the community level

Kun Wang
Interspecific competition and plant-soil feedbacks are powerful drivers of plant community structure. However, across a range of edaphic conditions the interactive effects of these drivers on complex plant communities remain unclear. For example, plant-soil feedback studies focus on soil trained by a single plant species. We developed a method to assess effects of plant-microbial interactions (PMI) on a complex plant community. We established mesocosms with 13 grassland species, grown individually or together, in overgrazed or...

Fabrication of doxorubicin-gated mesoporous polydopamine nanoplatforms for multimode imaging-guided synergistic chemophotothermal therapy of tumors

Min Yang, Ningnan Zhang, Tao Zhang, Xian Yin & Jie Shen
A versatile theranostic agent that integrated with therapeutic and diagnostic functions is extremely essential for cancer theranostic. Herein, a multifunctional theranostic nanoplatform (PFP@MPDA-DOX) based on perfluoropentane (PFP) encapsulated mesoporous polydopamine (MPDA) is elaborately designed, followed by gating of drug doxorubicin (DOX) for preventing cargo leaking. The MPDA with pH-responsive biodegradation behavior was served as nanocarrier, which also endows the nanoplatform with a large cavity for PFP filling. The nanoparticles were then gated with DOX molecule...

Data from: Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths

Akito Y. Kawahara, David Plotkin, Marianne Espeland, Karen Meusemann, Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint, Alexander Donath, France Gimnich, Paul B. Frandsen, Andreas Zwick, Mario Dos Reis, Jesse R. Barber, Ralph S. Peters, Shanlin Liu, Xin Zhou, Christoph Mayer, Lars Podsiadlowski, Caroline Storer, Jayne E. Yack, Bernhard Misof & Jesse W. Breinholt
Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are one of the major super-radiations of insects, comprising nearly 160,000 described extant species. As herbivores, pollinators, and prey, Lepidoptera play a fundamental role in almost every terrestrial ecosystem. Lepidoptera are also indicators of environmental change and serve as model organisms for research on mimicry and genetics. They have been central to the development of co-evolutionary hypotheses, such as butterflies with flowering plants, and moths' evolutionary arms race with echolocating bats....

Cholesterol depletion sensitizes gallbladder cancer to cisplatin by impairing DNA damage response

Yonglong Zhang, Yanfeng Liu, Jinlin Duan, Hui Wang, Yuchen Zhang, Ke Qiao & Jian Wang
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the common malignancy of the bile tract system with extremely poor clinical outcomes, owing to its metastatic property and intrinsic resistance to the first-line drugs. Although it is well-established that cholesterol abnormity contributes to gallstone formation, a leading risk factor for GBC, the link of cholesterol homeostasis with GBC has not been investigated. The present study systematically examined the genes implicated in cholesterol homeostasis, and revealed altered gene expressions of de...

Layer-by-layer pH-sensitive nanoparticles for drug delivery and controlled release with improved therapeutic efficacy in vivo

Wanfu Men, Peiyao Zhu, Siyuan Dong, Wenke Liu, Kun Zhou, Yu Bai, Xiangli Liu, Shulei Gong & Shuguang Zhang
In this work, a pH-sensitive liposome–polymer nanoparticle (NP) composed of lipid, hyaluronic acid (HA) and poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) was prepared using layer-by-layer (LbL) method for doxorubicin (DOX) targeted delivery and controlled release to enhance the cancer treatment efficacy. The NP with pH-sensitivity and targeting effect was successfully prepared by validation of charge reversal and increase of hydrodynamic diameter after each deposition of functional layer. We further showed the DOX-loaded NP had higher drug loading capacity,...

Era of molecular diagnosis for pathogen identification of unexplained pneumonia, lessons to be learned

Jing-Wen Ai, Yi Zhang, Hao-Cheng Zhang, Teng Xu & Wen-Hong Zhang
Unexplained pneumonia (UP) caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) emerged in China in late December 2019 and has infected more than 9000 cases by 31 January 2020. Shanghai reported the first imported case of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) in 20 January 2020. A combinative approach of real-time RT–PCR, CRISPR-based assay and metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) were used to diagnose this unexplained pneumonia patient. Real-time RT–PCR and CRISPR-based assay both...

Era of molecular diagnosis for pathogen identification of unexplained pneumonia, lessons to be learned

Jing-Wen Ai, Yi Zhang, Hao-Cheng Zhang, Teng Xu & Wen-Hong Zhang
Unexplained pneumonia (UP) caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) emerged in China in late December 2019 and has infected more than 9000 cases by 31 January 2020. Shanghai reported the first imported case of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) in 20 January 2020. A combinative approach of real-time RT–PCR, CRISPR-based assay and metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) were used to diagnose this unexplained pneumonia patient. Real-time RT–PCR and CRISPR-based assay both...

Data from: Cumulative and partially recoverable impacts of nitrogen addition on a temperate steppe

Tianxiang Hao, Ling Song, Keith Goulding, Fusuo Zhang & Xuejun Liu
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been shown to decrease biodiversity and change nutrient cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. However, our understanding of ecological responses to chronic N addition and ecological recovery from N enrichment to grassland is limited. Here we present evidence from an 11-year grassland experiment with a range of N addition rates (0, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 480 kg N ha−1 yr−1) in Inner Mongolia, China. Chronic N addition led to a reduction...

Data from: High genetic diversity in the offshore island populations of the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis

Chunyan Yi, Chunyan Zheng, Ling Zeng & Yijuan Xu
Background: Geographic isolation is an important factor that limit species dispersal and thereby affects genetic diversity. Because islands are often small and surrounded by a natural water barrier to dispersal, they generally form discrete isolated habitats. Therefore, islands may play a key role in the distribution of the genetic diversity of insects, including flies. Results: To characterize the genetic structure of island populations of Bactrocera dorsalis, we analyzed a dataset containing both microsatellite and mtDNA...

Data from: Arabidopsis MKK10-MPK6 mediates red-light-regulated opening of seedling cotyledons through phosphorylation of PIF3

Xiaoyun Xin, Wenhao Chen, Bo Wang, Fan Zhu, Yuan Li, Hailian Yang, Jigang Li & Dongtao Ren
Photomorphogenesis is an important process in which seedlings emerge from soil and begin autotrophic growth. Photomorphogenesis mechanisms include light signal perception, signal transduction, and the modulation of light-responsive genes expression, ultimately leading to cellular and developmental changes. Phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) play pivotal roles in negatively regulating photomorphogenesis. Light-induced activation of phytochromes triggers the rapid phosphorylation and degradation of PIFs, but the kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of PIFs are largely unknown. Here, we show that...

Selecting and Ranking Individualized Treatment Rules With Unmeasured Confounding

Bo Zhang, Jordan Weiss, Dylan S. Small & Qingyuan Zhao
It is common to compare individualized treatment rules based on the value function, which is the expected potential outcome under the treatment rule. Although the value function is not point-identified when there is unmeasured confounding, it still defines a partial order among the treatment rules under Rosenbaum’s sensitivity analysis model. We first consider how to compare two treatment rules with unmeasured confounding in the single-decision setting and then use this pairwise test to rank multiple...

Proscillaridin A slows the prostate cancer progression through triggering the activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress

Fan Wang, Lin Liu, Yu Tong, Linfeng Li, Yanfeng Liu & Wei-Qiang Gao
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second commonly diagnosed malignancy in men over the world. Although androgen deprivation therapy for advanced PCa patients has significantly improved their survival, the majority of these patients eventually develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Proscillaridin A (Pro A), a cardiac glycoside that is clinically used to treat various heart failure diseases, has been reported to have anticancer activity in several cancers. However, whether Pro A exerts an inhibitory effect on PCa...

Base promoted synthesis of 3-benzyl-2,5-diarylpyrazines from arylaldehydes and α-amino ketones

Chao Wang
A novel approach to 3-benzyl-2,5-diarylpyrazine derivatives from α-amino ketones hydrochloride and arylaldehydes in the presence of Na2CO3 has been developed. In contrast with the classic synthetic methods of pyrazines, this protocol does not need additional oxidants and is more friendly to environment.

Iodine mediated synthesis of diaryl diselenides using SeO2 as a selenium source

Dileep Kommula, Qing Li, Siyang Ning, Wujun Liu, Qian Wang & Zongbao K. Zhao
A simple, eco-friendly and convenient procedure has been developed for the synthesis of diphenyl diselinides from readily available aryl boronic acids by reaction with SeO2 in the presence of iodine under simple conditions. The methodology is reported about 19 examples and applicable to a broad scope of aryl boronic acids containing electron-rich and electron-poor substituents. Apart from being milder and environmentally benign conditions, this synthetic protocol comprises a novel, reliable methodology to give good to...

Phylogenomic analysis sheds light on the evolutionary pathways towards acoustic communication in Orthoptera

Hojun Song, Olivier Béthoux, Seunggwan Shin, Alexander Donath, Harald Letsch, Shanlin Liu, Duane D. McKenna, Guanliang Meng, Bernhard Misof, Lars Podsiadlowski, Xin Zhou, Benjamin Wipfler & Sabrina Simon
Acoustic communication is enabled by the evolution of specialised hearing and sound producing organs. In this study, we performed a large-scale macroevolutionary study to understand how both hearing and sound production evolved and affected diversification in the insect order Orthoptera, which includes many familiar singing insects, such as crickets, katydids, and grasshoppers. Using phylogenomic data, we firmly establish phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages and divergence time estimates within Orthoptera, as well as the lineage-specific...

Data from: Light sensing by opsins and fungal ecology: NOP-1 modulates entry into sexual reproduction in response to environmental cues

Zheng Wang, Junrui Wang, Ning Li, Jigang Li, Frances Trail, Jay C. Dunlap & Jeffrey P. Townsend
Understanding the genetic basis of the switch from asexual to sexual lifestyles in response to sometimes rapid environmental changes is one of the major challenges in fungal ecology. Light appears to play a critical role in the asexual–sexual switch—but fungal genomes harbour diverse light sensors. Fungal opsins are homologous to bacterial green-light-sensory rhodopsins, and their organismal functions in fungi have not been well understood. Three of these opsin-like proteins were widely distributed across fungal genomes,...

Data from: Mitochondrial phylogenomics of Hemiptera reveals adaptive innovations driving the diversification of true bugs

Hu Li, , Eric G. Chapman, Daniel Burkhardt, Fan Song, Pei Jiang, Jinpeng Liu, Xuguo Zhou, Wanzhi Cai & John M. Leavengood
Hemiptera, the largest non-holometabolous order of insects, represents ~7% of metazoan diversity. With extraordinary life histories and highly specialized morphological adaptations, hemipterans have exploited diverse habitats and food sources through ~300 million years of evolution. To elucidate the phylogeny and evolutionary history of Hemiptera, we carried out the most comprehensive mitogenomics analysis on the richest taxon sampling to date covering all the suborders and infraorders, including 34 newly sequenced and 94 published mitogenomes. With optimized...

Data from: Phylogenetic conservatism and biogeographic affinity influence woody plant species richness-climate relationships in eastern Eurasia

Xiangyan Su, Nawal Shrestha, Xiaoting Xu, Denis Sandanov, Qinggang Wang, Siyang Wang, Dimitar Dimitrov & Zhiheng Wang
Mechanisms underlying species richness patterns remain a central yet controversial issue in biology. Climate has been regarded as a major determinant of species richness. However, the relative influences of different evolutionary processes, (i.e. niche conservatism, diversification rate, and time for speciation) on species richness-climate relationships remain to be tested. Here, using newly compiled distribution maps for 11,422 woody plant species in eastern Eurasia, we estimated species richness patterns for all species and for families with...

Help-seeking preferences among Chinese college students exposed to a natural disaster: a person-centered approach

Wei Shi & Brian J. Hall
Direct exposure to natural disasters is associated with increased mental disorders. Help-seeking behaviour among Chinese adults is low and the barriers and facilitators of help-seeking among Chinese adults exposed to natural disasters is understudied. Using a person-centred approach, this study describes help-seeking preferences and their correlates in a sample of Chinese college students after experiencing Typhoon Hato, the strongest storm to affect Macao, China in the past 50 years. The baseline sample was collected one...

MicroRNA-409-5p promotes retinal neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy

Ying Wang, Wenwen Lin & Jianghua Ju
Background: Retinal neovascularization, which is characterized by the increased proliferation, migration, and tube formation of retinal microvascular endothelial cells (RMECs), contributes to the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). MiR-409-5p has been reported to be upregulated in peripheral blood of DR patients and in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced RMECs. However, the role of miR-409-5p in retinal neovascularization of DR remains unelucidated. Method: The expression of miR-409-5p was measured in retinal tissues of streptozocin-induced and db/db...

Soil microbial legacy drives crop diversity advantage: linking ecological plant-soil feedback with agricultural intercropping

Guangzhou Wang, Shuikuan Bei, Jianpeng Li, Xingguo Bao, Jiudong Zhang, Peggy Schultz, Haigang Li, Long Li, Fusuo Zhang, James Bever & Junling Zhang
Although the importance of the soil microbiome in mediating plant community structures and functions has been increasingly emphasized in ecological studies, the biological processes driving crop diversity overyielding remain unexplained in agriculture. Based on the plant-soil feedback (PSF) theory and method, we quantified how much soil microbes contributed to intercropping overyielding and detected which microbial groups mediated this effect. Soils were collected as inocula and sequenced from a unique 10-year field experiment, consisting of monoculture,...

Kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM and IgG responses in COVID-19 patients

Baoqing Sun, Ying Feng, Xiaoneng Mo, Peiyan Zheng, Qian Wang, Pingchao Li, Ping Peng, Xiaoqing Liu, Zhilong Chen, Huimin Huang, Fan Zhang, Wenting Luo, Xuefeng Niu, Peiyu Hu, Longyu Wang, Hui Peng, Zhifeng Huang, Liqiang Feng, Feng Li, Fuchun Zhang, Fang Li, Nanshan Zhong & Ling Chen
The emerging COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection poses severe challenges to global public health. Serum antibody testing is becoming one of the critical methods for the diagnosis of COVID-19 patients. We investigated IgM and IgG responses against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) protein after symptom onset in the intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients. 130 blood samples from 38 COVID-19 patients were collected. The levels of IgM and IgG specific to N and...

Risks and features of secondary infections in severe and critical ill COVID-19 patients

Haocheng Zhang, Yi Zhang, Jing Wu, Yang Li, Xian Zhou, Xin Li, Haili Chen, Mingquan Guo, Shu Chen, Feng Sun, Richeng Mao, Chao Qiu, Zhaoqin Zhu, Jingwen Ai & Wenhong Zhang
Objectives Severe or critical COVID-19 is associated with intensive care unit admission, increased secondary infection rate, and would lead to significant worsened prognosis. Risks and characteristics relating to secondary infections in severe COVID-19 have not been described. Methods Severe and critical COVID-19 patients from Shanghai were included. We collected lower respiratory, urine, catheters, and blood samples according to clinical necessity and culture and mNGS were performed. Clinical and laboratory data were archived. Results We found...

GIT1 overexpression promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

Guifu Wang, Xuesong Bai, Guoqing Jiang, Shengjie Jin, Qian Wang, Aoqing Wang, Rui Peng, Aiwu Ke & Dousheng Bai
Globally, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-associated mortalities. It has a high rate of metastasis and recurrence, which predict a poor prognosis. G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-kinase interacting protein-1 (GIT1) is a multifunctional scaffold protein that mediates the progression of various tumors. Studies have correlated GIT1 with HCC, however, these correlations have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the expression of GIT1 in HCC tissues and cells, and...

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