70 Works

Cellular bicarbonate accumulation and vesicular proton transport promote calcification in the sea urchin larva

Marian Hu, Marian Hu, Inga Petersen, William Chang, Christine Blurton & Meike Stumpp
The sea urchin embryo develops a calcitic endoskeleton through intracellular formation of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). Intracellular precipitation of ACC, requires HCO3-/CO32- concentrating as well as proton export mechanisms to promote calcification. These processes are of fundamental importance in biological mineralization, but remain largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate that the calcifying primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) utilize Na+/H+- exchange (NHE) mechanisms to control cellular pH homeostasis during maintenance of the skeleton. During skeleton re-calcification, pHi of...

Data from: Temporal variation in antibiotic environments slows down resistance evolution in pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Roderich Roemhild, Camilo Barbosa, Robert E. Beardmore, Gunther Jansen & Hinrich Schulenburg
Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern to public health. New treatment strategies may alleviate the situation by slowing down the evolution of resistance. Here, we evaluated sequential treatment protocols using two fully independent laboratory-controlled evolution experiments with the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 and two pairs of clinically relevant antibiotics (doripenem/ciprofloxacin and cefsulodin/gentamicin). Our results consistently show that the sequential application of two antibiotics decelerates resistance evolution relative to monotherapy. Sequential treatment enhanced population extinction...

Data from: Conservation genetics of the pond bat (Myotis dasycneme) with special focus on the populations in northwestern Germany and Jutland, Denmark

Liselotte Wesley Andersen, Ronja Dirksen, Elena A. Nikulina, Hans J. Baagøe, Gunars Petersons, Péter Estók, Oleg L. Orlov, Maria V. Orlova, Florian Gloza-Rausch, Matthias Göttsche, Esben Fjederholt, Frauke Krüger & Morten Elmeros
Conservation genetics is important in the management of endangered species, helping to understand their connectivity and long-term viability, thus identifying populations of importance for conservation. The pond bat (Myotis dasycneme) is a rare species classified as ‘Near threatened’ with a wide but patchy Palearctic distribution. A total of 277 samples representing populations in Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Hungary and Russia were used in the genetic analyses; 224 samples representing Denmark, Germany and Russia were analysed at...

Data from: Association mapping of morphological traits in wild and captive zebra finches: reliable within but not between populations

Ulrich Knief, Holger Schielzeth, Niclas Backstrom, Georg Hemmrich-Stanisak, Michael Wittig, Andre Franke, Simon C. Griffith, Hans Ellegren, Bart Kempenaers & Wolfgang Forstmeier
Identifying causal genetic variants underlying heritable phenotypic variation is a longstanding goal in evolutionary genetics. We previously identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for five morphological traits in a captive population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by whole-genome linkage mapping. We here follow up on these studies with the aim to narrow down on the quantitative trait variants (QTN) in one wild and three captive populations. First, we performed an association study using 672 single...

Data from: Multiple sequence alignment averaging improves phylogeny reconstruction

Haim Ashkenazy, Itamar Sela, Eli Levy Karin, Giddy Landan & Tal Pupko
The classic methodology of inferring a phylogenetic tree from sequence data is composed of two steps. First, a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is computed. Then, a tree is reconstructed assuming the MSA is correct. Yet, inferred MSAs were shown to be inaccurate and alignment errors reduce tree inference accuracy. It was previously proposed that filtering unreliable alignment regions can increase the accuracy of tree inference. However, it was also demonstrated that the benefit of this...

Riesen in der Literatur des Mittelalters

Lena van Beek
1000 Worte Forschung: Germanistisch-mediävistische Dissertation in der Älteren deutschen Literatur, Institut für Germanistik, Universität Hamburg, verteidigt im Februar 2020, publiziert im März 2021 im Archivum Medii Aevi Digitale (AMAD) unter DOI: 10.25716/amad-85226 in der Reihe Archivum Medii Aevi Digitale – Studies: Theses.

Genome-wide association study in quinoa reveals selection pattern typical for crops with a short breeding history

Dilan Sarange Rajapaksha Patiranage, Elodie Rey, Nazgol Emrani, Gordon Wellman, Karl Schmid, Sandra Schmöckel, Mark Tester & Christian Jung
Quinoa germplasm preserves useful and substantial genetic variation, yet it remains untapped due to a lack of implementation of modern breeding tools. We have integrated field and sequence data to characterize a large diversity panel of quinoa. Whole-genome sequencing of 310 accessions revealed 2.9 million polymorphic high confidence SNP loci. Highland and Lowland quinoa were clustered into two main groups, with FST divergence of 0.36 and fast LD decay of 6.5 and 49.8 Kb, respectively....

Uwagi o plenerowych rekonstrukcjach pradziejowych i średniowiecznych przepraw mostowych w Europie Środkowej. Mosty drewniane

Gerard Wilke
The article presents remarks on outdoor reconstructions of primeval and medieval bridge crossings in Central Europe on the example of the selected constructions with a wooden structure. The presented bridges were the subject of archaeological research on terrestrialised lake and river reservoirs or the subject of underwater prospection. Firstly the article presents the construction of primeval bridges, by showing the bridge of the defensive settlement of the Lusatian culture from the 8th century BC in...

Experimental data for Pseudomonas aeruginosa from experimental evolution under different bottleneck sizes and antibiotic selection pressures

Hinrich Schulenburg
We here combined evolution experiments with genomic and genetic analyses to assess whether bottleneck size and antibiotic-induced selection influences the evolutionary path to resistance in pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the most problematic opportunistic human pathogens. Two sets of evolution experiments were performed across 16 transfers, in which either the aminoglycoside gentamicin or the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin were used as antibiotic. The evolutionary response was studied using counts of bacterial cells at the end of each...

Bodyweight, body condition and anatomy

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Martin Weisbjerg, Alex Bach, Jennifer Salau, Jan Henning Haas, Wolfgang Junge, Georg Thaller & Björn Kuhla
Measuring bodyweight (BW) in cattle is essential for many research and management activities such as calculating dietary energy requirements for maintenance, calculating average daily gain and evaluating breeding values which include BW as a trait. Frequent monitoring of BW in dairy cows is necessary as changes in BW can help assess the energy balance of an animal. Precise understanding of BW gain of growing and fattening cattle or body mass changes during lactation is crucial...

COOL (Crust of the Oman Ophiolite and its Lithosphere) seismic network

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The primary objective of the deployment is to acquire a dataset capable of illuminating the three-dimensional properties of the world's reference ophiolite, located in northern Oman. The temporary network consisted of 40 broadband seismometers (30x CMG-3ESP, 6x Trillium120QA, 6x STS-2), supplied from the Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam (GIPP, Germany). The network was operable from November 2013 to February 2016 and continuously recording at 100sps.

Mapping the Topics and Intellectual Structure of Web Science

Clare Hooper, Isabella Peters & Cécile Robin
This paper describes a mixed methods analysis of papers published at the ACM Web Science Conference series from 2009 to 2016, using co-citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, natural language processing, topic modelling and network visualisation techniques. The knowledge base of the Web Science community and the knowledge transfer from the ACM Web Science Conference series are studied, revealing major themes and key authors as a map of Web Science. In particular, the foundations of the Web...

Von der Nekropole zum Siedlungsplatz. Bericht über die Grabungskampagnen 2018 und 2019 in der Petosiris-Nekropole von Tuna el-Gebel

Katja Lembke, Clementina Caputo, Ercan Erkul, Rex Haberland, Rebekka Mecking, Wolfgang Rabbel, Jenny H. Schlehofer, Harald Stümpel & Katharina Westphalen
Ausgrabungen und Georadarmessungen in der Nekropole Tuna el-Gebel haben 2018 und 2019 neue Erkenntnisse über das Areal ergeben. Teilweise freigelegt wurden ein Steinbau (GB 73) und ein Gebäude aus ungebrannten Lehmziegeln (GB 72). Der Steinbau wurde in der Kaiserzeit als Grabbau genutzt, darüber hinaus verweist die Keramik auf eine Nachnutzung in der Spätantike. Die Anzahl und die Typen der Gefäße sprechen für die Ansiedlung einer größeren Gruppe von Menschen. GB 72 war zweistöckig und verfügte...

Der Rundbau am Theater in Kaunos. Eine σκοπή/ein Beobachtungsplatz?

Bernhard Schmaltz
Die Publikation des kaunischen Rundbaues und die Diskussion seines Befundes konnten seinerzeit seine Funktion nicht eindeutig klären. Die Deutung als Krepis einer Tholos lag nahe. Dem steht entgegen, dass die oberste Stufe keinerlei Hinweise für aufgehende Marmorarchitektur aufweist, dass sie keine stabile Grundlage bietet, dass ihre Oberfläche mit einem komplexen Liniennetz versehen ist, das mit einer Tholos nicht zu verbinden ist, und dass die Stufenhöhe eher zum Sitzen einlädt als zum Besteigen. Die Annahme, das...

Biodiversity citizen science: outcomes for the participating citizens

Maria Peter, Tim Diekötter, Tim Höffler & Kerstin Kremer
1. Citizen science (CS) is regarded a promising format in environmental and sustainability education as well as in science education. CS projects often assume that participation in the project influences, for example, participants' knowledge or behaviour. 2. We investigated whether and to what extent biodiversity citizen science (BDCS) projects, from the participants' self-reported perspective, achieve the following six participant outcomes: (1) content, process, and nature of science knowledge, (2) skills of science inquiry, (3) self-efficacy...

Data from: Tree species richness increases ecosystem carbon storage in subtropical forests

Xiaojuan Liu, Stefan Trogisch, Jin-Sheng He, Pascal A. Niklaus, Helge Bruelheide, Zhiyao Tang, Alexandra Erfmeier, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Katherina A. Pietsch, Bo Yang, Peter Kühn, Thomas Scholten, Yuanyuan Huang, Chao Wang, Michael Staab, Katrin N. Leppert, Christian Wirth, Bernhard Schmid & Keping Ma
Forest ecosystems are an integral component of the global carbon cycle as they take up and release large amounts of C in short time (C flux) or accumulate it over longer time (C stock). However, there remains uncertainty about whether and in which direction C fluxes and in particular C stocks may differ between forests of high vs. low species richness. Based on a comprehensive dataset derived from field-based measurements, we tested the effect of...

Data from: Clinical spectrum of STX1B-related epileptic disorders

Stefan Wolking, Patrick May, Davide Mei, Rikke S. Møller, Simona Balestrini, Katherine L. Helbig, Cecilia Desmettre Altuzarra, Nicolas Chatron, Charu Kaiwar, Katharina Stoehr, Peter Widdess-Walsh, Bryce A. Mendelsohn, Adam Numis, Maria R. Cilio, Wim Van Paesschen, Lene L. Svendsen, Stephanie Oates, Elaine Hughes, Sushma Goyal, Kathleen Brown, Margarita Sifuentes Saenz, Thomas Dorn, Hiltrud Muhle, Alistair T. Pagnamenta, Dimitris V. Vavoulis … & Julian Schubert
Objective: The aim of this study was to expand the spectrum of epilepsy syndromes related to STX1B, encoding the presynaptic protein syntaxin-1B, and establish genotype-phenotype correlations by identifying further disease-related variants. Methods: We used next generation sequencing in the framework of research projects and diagnostic testing. Clinical data and EEGs were reviewed, including already published cases. To estimate the pathogenicity of the variants, we used established and newly developed in silico prediction tools. Results: We...

Data from: Diet of the insectivorous bat Pipistrellus nathusii during autumn migration and summer residence

Frauke Krüger, Elizabeth L. Clare, William O. C. Symondson, Oskars Keišs & Gunārs Pētersons
Migration is widespread among vertebrates. Yet bat migration has received little attention and only in the recent decades knowledge of it has been gained. Migration can cause significant changes in behaviour and physiology, due to increasing energy demands and aerodynamic constraints. Dietary shifts, for examples, have been shown to occur in birds before onset of migration. For bats it is not known if a change in diet occurs during migration, although especially breeding season related...

Data from: Experimental evolution of external immune defenses in the red flour beetle

Gerrit Joop, Olivia Roth, Paul Schmid-Hempel & Joachim Kurtz
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, secretes quinones that control the microbial flora in the surrounding environment. These secretions act as an external immune defence that provides protection against pathogens. At high concentrations, however, these secretions are harmful to the host itself, and selection may thus have optimized the level of expression under natural conditions. Here, we show that the expression of external immunity responded to selection during experimental evolution within a few generations. At...

Data from: Quantifying realized inbreeding in wild and captive animal populations

Ulrich Knief, Georg Hemmrich-Stanisak, Michael Wittig, Andre Franke, Simon C. Griffith, Bart Kempenaers & Wolfgang Forstmeier
Most molecular measures of inbreeding do not measure inbreeding at the scale that is most relevant for understanding inbreeding depression—namely the proportion of the genome that is identical-by-descent (IBD). The inbreeding coefficient FPed obtained from pedigrees is a valuable estimator of IBD, but pedigrees are not always available, and cannot capture inbreeding loops that reach back in time further than the pedigree. We here propose a molecular approach to quantify the realized proportion of the...

Data from: The dominant detritus-feeding invertebrate in arctic peat soils derives its essential amino acids from gut symbionts

Thomas Larsen, Marc Ventura, Kristine Maraldo, Xavier Triadó-Margarit, Emilio O. Casamayor, Yiming V. Wang, Nils Andersen & Diane M. O'Brien
Supplementation of nutrients by symbionts enables consumers to thrive on resources that might otherwise be insufficient to meet nutritional demands. Such nutritional subsidies by intracellular symbionts has been well studied; however, supplementation of de novo synthesized nutrients to hosts by extracellular gut symbionts is poorly documented, especially for generalists with relatively undifferentiated intestinal tracts. Although gut symbionts facilitate degradation of resources that would otherwise remain inaccessible to the host, such digestive actions alone cannot make...

Data from: Olive oil bioactives protect pigs against experimentally-induced chronic inflammation independently of alterations in gut microbiota

Martin Liehr, Alessandro Mereu, Jose Javier Pastor, Jose Carlos Quintela, Stefanie Staats, Gerald Rimbach & Ignacio Rodolfo Ipharraguerre
Subclinical chronic inflammation (SCI) is associated with impaired animal growth. Previous work has demonstrated that olive-derived plant bioactives exhibit anti-inflammatory properties that could possibly counteract the growth-depressing effects of SCI. To test this hypothesis and define the underlying mechanism, we conducted a 30-day study in which piglets fed an olive-oil bioactive extract (OBE) and their control counterparts (C+) were injected repeatedly during the last 10 days of the study with increasing doses of Escherichia coli...

Data from: The glue produced by Drosophila melanogaster for pupa adhesion is universal

Virginie Courtier-Orgogozo, Flora Borne, Alexander Kovalev & Stanislav Gorb
Insects produce a variety of adhesives for diverse functions such as locomotion, mating, egg or pupal anchorage to substrates. Although they are important for the biology of organisms and potentially represent a great resource for developing new materials, insect adhesives have been little studied so far. Here, we examined the adhesive properties of the larval glue of D. melanogaster. This glue is made of glycosylated proteins and allows the animal to adhere to a substrate...

Data from: Transcriptomic alterations during ageing reflect the shift from cancer to degenerative diseases in the elderly

Peer Aramillo Irizar, Sascha Schäuble, Daniela Esser, Marco Groth, Christiane Frahm, Steffen Priebe, Mario Baumgart, Nils Hartmann, Shiva Marthandan, Uwe Menzel, Jule Müller, Silvio Schmidt, Volker Ast, Amke Caliebe, Rainer König, Michael Krawczak, Michael Ristow, Stefan Schuster, Alessandro Cellerino, Stephan Diekmann, Christoph Englert, Peter Hemmerich, Jürgen Sühnel, Reinhard Guthke, Otto W. Witte … & Christoph Kaleta
Disease epidemiology during ageing shows a transition from cancer to degenerative chronic disorders as dominant contributors to mortality in the old. Nevertheless, it has remained unclear to what extent molecular signatures of ageing reflect this phenomenon. Here we report on the identification of a conserved transcriptomic signature of ageing based on gene expression data from four vertebrate species across four tissues. We find that ageing-associated transcriptomic changes follow trajectories similar to the transcriptional alterations observed...

Data from: Patterns of size variation in bees at a continental scale: does Bergmann’s rule apply?

Maxence Gérard, Maryse Vanderplanck, Markus Franzen, Michael Kuhlmann, Simon G. Potts, Pierre Rasmont, Oliver Schweiger & Denis Michez
Body size latitudinal clines have been widley explained by the Bergmann’s rule in homeothermic vertebrates. However, there is no general consensus in poikilotherms organisms in particular in insects that represent the large majority of wildlife. Among them, bees are a highly diverse pollinators group with high economic and ecological value. Nevertheless, no comprehensive studies of species assemblages at a phylogenetically larger scale have been carried out even if they could identify the traits and the...

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