32 Works

Data from: Identifying multiple coral reef regimes and their drivers across the Hawaiian archipelago

Jean-Baptiste Jouffray, Magnus Nyström, Albert V. Norström, Ivor D. Williams, Lisa M. Wedding, John N. Kittinger & Gareth J. Williams
Loss of coral reef resilience can lead to dramatic changes in benthic structure, often called regime shifts, which significantly alter ecosystem processes and functioning. In the face of global change and increasing direct human impacts, there is an urgent need to anticipate and prevent undesirable regime shifts and, conversely, to reverse shifts in already degraded reef systems. Such challenges require a better understanding of the human and natural drivers that support or undermine different reef...

Facultative chemosynthesis in a deep-sea anemone from hydrothermal vents in the Pescadero Basin, Gulf of California

Shana Goffredi, Cambrie Motooka, David Fike, Luciana Gusmão, Ekin Tilic, Greg Rouse & Estefanía Rodríguez
Background Numerous deep-sea invertebrates have formed symbiotic associations with internal chemosynthetic bacteria in order to harness inorganic energy sources typically unavailable to most animals. Despite success in nearly all marine habitats and their well-known associations with photosynthetic symbionts, Cnidaria remain without a clear dependence on hydrothermal vents and chemosynthetic bacterial symbionts specifically. Results A new chemosynthetic symbiosis between the sea anemone Ostiactis pearseae (Daly & Gusmão, 2007) and intracellular bacteria was discovered at ~3700 m...

Climate, snow, and soil moisture data set for the Tuolumne and Merced River watersheds, California, USA

James Roche, Robert Rice, Xiande Meng, Daniel Cayan, Mike Dettinger, Douglas Alden, Sarina Patel, Megan Mason, Martha Conklin & Roger Bales
UCM sites. Snow depth, soil moisture and soil temperature are measured near the Merced Grove, Gin Flat, Smoky Jack Creek, and Olmsted Quarry with a distributed array of 6-7 sensor nodes at each location. Snow depth is measured in the open, at the drip edge and under canopies, as well as 3-4 other sites representative of an area of 1-2 hectares. Soil moisture and temperature are measured at 10, 30, 60 and 90 cm depths...

Data from: Resolving the evolutionary relationships of molluscs with phylogenomic tools

Stephen A. Smith, Casey W. Dunn, Nerida G. Wilson, Freya E. Goetz, Caitlin Feehery, Sónia C. S. Andrade, Greg W. Rouse & Gonzalo Giribet
Molluscs (snails, octopuses, clams, and relatives) have great body plan disparity, and among animals only arthropods surpass them in species number. This diversity has made Mollusca one of the best-studied groups of animals, yet their evolutionary relationships remain poorly resolved. Open questions have important implications for the origin of Mollusca and morphological evolution within the group. These include whether the shell-less vermiform aplacophoran molluscs diverged prior to the origin of the shelled molluscs (Conchifera), or...

Millennial-scale change in Caribbean coral reef ecosystem structure and the role of human and natural disturbance

Katie Cramer, Aaron O'Dea, Jill Leonard-Pingel & Richard Norris
Caribbean coral reefs have transformed into algal-dominated habitats over the past half-century, but the role of specific anthropogenic drivers is unresolved due to the lack of ecosystem-level data predating human disturbance. To better understand the extent and causes of long-term Caribbean reef declines, we produced a continuous 3,000-year record of the ecosystem state of three reefs in Bocas del Toro, Caribbean Panama. From fossils and sediments obtained from reef matrix cores, we tracked changes in...

Data from: Familial social structure and socially-driven genetic differentiation in Hawaiian short-finned pilot whales

Amy M. Van Cise, Karen. K. Martien, Sabre D. Mahaffy, Robin W. Baird, Daniel L. Webster, James H. Fowler, Erin M. Oleson & Phillip A. Morin
Social structure can have a significant impact on divergence and evolution within species, especially in the marine environment, which has few environmental boundaries to dispersal. On the other hand, genetic structure can affect social structure in many species, through an individual preference toward associating with relatives. One social species, the short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), has been shown to live in stable social groups for periods of at least a decade. Using mitochondrial control sequences...

Data from: Biodiversity response to natural gradients of multiple stressors on continental margins

Erik A. Sperling, Christina A. Frieder & Lisa A. Levin
Sharp increases in atmospheric CO2 are resulting in ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation that threaten marine organisms on continental margins and their ecological functions and resulting ecosystem services. The relative influence of these stressors on biodiversity remains unclear though, as well as the threshold levels for change and when secondary stressors become important. One strategy to interpret adaptation potential and predict future faunal change is to examine ecological shifts along natural gradients in the modern...

Sea surface temperature from multiple in situ sensors on MISO-BOB 2019 research cruise

Simon de Szoeke
Sea surface temperature (SST) was measured by several instruments deployed from the research vessel Sally Ride in the Bay of Bengal for the Monsoon Intraseasonal Oscillations in the Bay of Bengal (MISO-BOB) 2019 field experiment. This data set presents 1 minute averages of 3 m SST from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Fast Current-Temperature-Depth sounder (FCTD), 0.2 m SST from the Oregon State University SurfOtter, and 0.1 m SST from a sensor attached to a...

Project Report NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai, Project HA-18-01 (Legs 1, 2, and 3)

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PIFSC project report ; Project HA-18-01 (Legs 1, 2, and 3)

Data from: Sierra Nevada mountain lake microbial communities are structured by temperature, resources, and geographic location

Marika Schulhof, Andrew Allen, Eric Allen, Natalie Mladenov, John McCrow, Natalie Jones, Jessica Blanton, Hamanda Badona Cavalheri, Drishti Kaul, Celia Symons & Jonathan Shurin
Warming, eutrophication (nutrient fertilization) and brownification (increased loading of allochthonous organic matter) are three global trends impacting lake ecosystems. However, the independent and synergistic effects of resource addition and warming on autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms are largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the independent and interactive effects of temperature, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, both allochthonous and autochthonous), and nitrogen (N) supply, in addition to the effect of spatial variables, on the composition, richness, and...

Data from: Before platelets: the production of platelet activating factor during growth and stress in a basal marine organism

Ines Galtier D’Auriac, Robert A. Quinn, Heather Maughan, Louis-Felix Nothias, Mark Little, Clifford A. Kapono, Ana Cobian Guemes, Brandon T. Reyes, Kevin Green, Steven D. Quistad, Matthieu Leray, Jennifer E. Smith, Pieter C. Dorrestein, Forest Rohwer, Dimitri D. Deheyn, Aaron C. Hartmann, Ana Cobian & Ines Galtier D'Auriac
Corals and humans represent two extremely disparate metazoan lineages and are therefore useful for comparative evolutionary studies. Two lipid-based molecules that are central to human immunity, platelet activating factor (PAF) and Lyso-PAF were recently identified in scleractinian corals. To identify processes in corals that involve these molecules, PAF and Lyso-PAF biosynthesis was quantified in conditions known to stimulate PAF production in mammals (tissue growth and exposure to elevated levels of ultraviolet light) and in conditions...

Data from: Genomic scans reveal multiple mito‐nuclear incompatibilities in population crosses of the copepod Tigriopus californicus

Thiago G. Lima, Ronald S. Burton & Christopher Scott Willett
The evolution of intrinsic postzygotic isolation can be explained by the accumulation of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities (DMI). Asymmetries in the levels of hybrid inviability and hybrid sterility are commonly observed between reciprocal crosses, a pattern that can result from the involvement of uniparentally inherited factors. The mitochondrial genome is one such factor that appears to participate in DMI in some crosses but the frequency of its involvement versus biparentally inherited factors is unclear. Here we assess...

Data from: Adaptation to a latitudinal thermal gradient within a widespread copepod species: the contributions of genetic divergence and phenotypic plasticity

Ricardo J. Pereira, Matthew C. Sasaki & Ronald S. Burton
Understanding how populations adapt to heterogeneous thermal regimes is essential for comprehending how latitudinal gradients in species diversification are formed, and how taxa will respond to ongoing climate change. Adaptation can occur by innate genetic factors, by phenotypic plasticity, or by a combination of both mechanisms. Yet, the relative contribution of such mechanisms to large-scale latitudinal gradients of thermal tolerance across conspecific populations remains unclear. We examine thermal performance in 11 populations of the intertidal...

Emperor penguin air sac oxygen

Paul Ponganis, Cassondra Williams, Max Czapanskiy, Jason John, Judy St. Leger & Miriam Scadeng
Some marine birds and mammals can perform dives of extraordinary duration and depth. Such dive performance is dependent on many factors, including total body oxygen (O2) stores. For diving penguins, the respiratory system (air sacs and lungs) constitutes 30-50% of the total body O2 store. To better understand the role and mechanism of parabronchial ventilation and O2 utilization in penguins both on the surface and during the dive, we examined air sac partial pressures of...

Data from: Food web heterogeneity and succession in created saltmarshes

Marie C. Nordström, Amanda W. J. Demopoulos, Christine R. Whitcraft, Andrea Rismondo, Patricia McMillan, Jennifer P. Gonzalez & Lisa A. Levin
Ecological restoration must achieve functional as well as structural recovery. Functional metrics for re-establishment of trophic interactions can be used to complement traditional monitoring of structural attributes. In addition, topographic effects on food web structure provide added information within a restoration context; often, created sites may require spatial heterogeneity to effectively match structure and function of natural habitats. We addressed both of these issues in our study of successional development of benthic food web structure,...

Data from: New deep-sea species of Xenoturbella and the position of Xenacoelomorpha

Greg W. Rouse, Nerida G. Wilson, Jose I. Carvajal & Robert C. Vrijenhoek
The discovery of four new Xenoturbella species from deep waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean is reported here. The genus and two nominal species were described from the west coast of Sweden1, 2, but their taxonomic placement remains unstable3, 4. Limited evidence placed Xenoturbella with molluscs5, 6, but the tissues can be contaminated with prey7, 8. They were then considered deuterostomes9, 10, 11, 12, 13. Further taxon sampling and analysis have grouped Xenoturbella with acoelomorphs...

Data from: Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage

Paula Ezcurra, Exequiel Ezcurra, Pedro P. Garcillán, Matthew T. Costa & Octavio Aburto-Oropeza
Given their relatively small area, mangroves and their organic sediments are of disproportionate importance to global carbon sequestration and carbon storage. Peat deposition and preservation allows some mangroves to accrete vertically and keep pace with sea-level rise by growing on their own root remains. In this study we show that mangroves in desert inlets in the coasts of the Baja California have been accumulating root peat for nearly 2,000 y and harbor a belowground carbon...

Data from: Pollution-tolerant invertebrates enhance greenhouse gas flux in urban wetlands

Andrew S. Mehring, Perran L.M. Cook, Victor Evrard, Stanley B. Grant, Lisa A. Levin & Perran L. M. Cook
One of the goals of urban ecology is to link community structure to ecosystem function in urban habitats. Pollution-tolerant wetland invertebrates have been shown to enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in controlled laboratory experiments, suggesting that they may influence urban wetland roles as sources or sinks of GHG. However, it is unclear if their effects can be detected in highly variable conditions in a field setting. Here we use an extensive dataset on carbon dioxide...

Data from: A metadata approach to evaluate the state of ocean knowledge: strengths, limitations, and application to Mexico

Juliano Palacios-Abrantes, Andrés M. Cisneros-Montemayor, Miguel A. Cisneros-Mata, Laura Rodríguez, Francisco Arreguín-Sánchez, Veronica Aguilar, Santiago Domínguez-Sánchez, Stuart Fulton, Raquel López-Sagástegui, Hector Reyes-Bonilla, Rocio Rivera-Campos, Silvia Salas, Nuno Simoes & William W. L. Cheung
Climate change, mismanaged resource extraction, and pollution are reshaping global marine ecosystems with direct consequences on human societies. Sustainable ocean development requires knowledge and data across disciplines, scales and knowledge types. Although several disciplines are generating large amounts of data on marine socio-ecological systems, such information is often underutilized due to fragmentation across institutions or stakeholders, limited standardization across scale, time or disciplines, and the fact that information is often not searchable within existing databases....

Data from: Eighty-five million years of Pacific Ocean gyre ecosystem structure: long-term stability marked by punctuated change

Elizabeth Sibert, Richard Norris, Jose M. Cuevas, Lana G. Graves & Jose Cuevas
While the history of taxonomic diversification in open ocean lineages of ray-finned fish and elasmobranchs is increasingly known, the evolution of their roles within the open ocean ecosystem remains poorly understood. To assess the relative importance of these groups through time, we measured the accumulation rate of microfossil fish teeth and elasmobranch dermal denticles (ichthyoliths) in deep-sea sediment cores from the North and South Pacific gyres over the past 85 million years (Myr). We find...

Data from: Nutrient pollution disrupts key ecosystem functions on coral reefs

Nyssa J. Silbiger, Craig E. Nelson, Kristina Remple, Jessica K. Sevilla, Zachary A. Quinlan, Hollie M. Putnam, Michael D. Fox & Megan J. Donahue
There is a long history of examining the impacts of nutrient pollution and pH on coral reefs. However, little is known about how these two stressors interact and influence coral reef ecosystem functioning. Using a six-week nutrient addition experiment, we measured the impact of elevated nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO43) on net community calcification (NCC) and net community production (NCP) rates of individual taxa and combined reef communities. Our study had four major outcomes: 1)...

Data from: Bone-eating Osedax females and their 'harems' of dwarf males are recruited from a common larval pool

Robert C Vrijenhoek, Shannon B Johnson & Greg W Rouse
Extreme male dwarfism occurs in Osedax (Annelida: Siboglinidae), marine worms with sessile females that bore into submerged bones. Osedax are hypothesized to use environmental sex-determination (ESD), in which undifferentiated larvae that settle on bones develop as females, and subsequent larvae that settle on females transform into dwarf males. This study addresses several hypotheses regarding possible recruitment sources for the males: (1) common larval pool — males and females are sampled from a common pool of...

New Age of Fishes initiated by the Cretaceous−Paleogene mass extinction

Elizabeth C. Sibert & Richard D. Norris
Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise nearly half of all modern vertebrate diversity, and are an ecologically and numerically dominant megafauna in most aquatic environments. Crown teleost fishes diversified relatively recently, during the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene, although the exact timing and cause of their radiation and rise to ecological dominance is poorly constrained. Here we use microfossil teeth and shark dermal scales (ichthyoliths) preserved in deep-sea sediments to study the changes in the pelagic fish...

Data from: Dermal denticle assemblages in coral reef sediments correlate with conventional shark surveys

Erin Dillon, Kevin Lafferty, Douglas McCauley, Darcy Bradley, Richard Norris, Jennifer Caselle, Graziella DiRenzo, Jonathan Gardner & Aaron O'Dea
It is challenging to assess long-term trends in mobile, long-lived, and relatively rare species such as sharks. Despite ongoing declines in many coastal shark populations, conventional surveys might be too fleeting and too recent to describe population trends over decades to millennia. Placing recent shark declines into historical context should improve management efforts as well as our understanding of past ecosystem dynamics. A new paleoecological approach for surveying shark abundance on coral reefs is to...

Data from: Community-wide scan identifies fish species associated with coral reef services across the Indo-Pacific

Eva Maire, Sébastien Villéger, Nicholas A.J. Graham, Andrew S. Hoey, Joshua Cinner, Sebastian C.A. Ferse, Catherine Aliaume, David J. Booth, David A. Feary, Michel Kulbicki, Stuart A. Sandin, Laurent Vigliola, David Mouillot & Sebastian C. A. Ferse
Determining whether many functionally complementary species or only a subset of key species are necessary to maintain ecosystem functioning and services is a critical question in community ecology and biodiversity conservation. Identifying such key species remains challenging, especially in the tropics where many species co-occur and can potentially support the same or different processes. Here, we developed a new community-wide scan (CWS) approach, analogous to the genome-wide scan, to identify fish species that significantly contribute,...

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