313 Works

Data from: Impacts of nest predators and weather on reproductive success and population limitation in a long-distance migratory songbird

Thomas W. Sherry, Scott Wilson, Sarah Hunter & Richard T. Holmes
Although avian nesting success is much studied, little is known about the relative importance of the factors that contribute to annual reproductive success and population limitation, especially for long-distance migratory songbird species. We combined a field experiment limiting access to nests by mammalian predators with modeling of long-term field data of American redstarts (Parulidae: Setophaga ruticilla) to assess the effects of multiple environmental variables on breeding success and population limitation. Experimental treatment (baffles placed around...

Data from: Assessing costs of carrying geolocators using feather corticosterone in two species of aerial insectivore

Graham D. Fairhurst, Lisha L. Berzins, David W. Bradley, Andrew J. Laughlin, Andrea Romano, Maria Romano, Chiara Scandolara, Roberto Ambrosini, Russell D. Dawson, Peter O. Dunn, Keith A. Hobson, Felix Liechti, Tracy A. Marchant, D. Ryan Norris, Diego Rubolini, Nicola Saino, Caz M. Taylor, Linda A. Whittingham & Robert G. Clark
Despite benefits of using light-sensitive geolocators to track animal movements and describe patterns of migratory connectivity, concerns have been raised about negative effects of these devices, particularly in small species of aerial insectivore. Geolocators may act as handicaps that increase energetic expenditure, which could explain reported effects of geolocators on survival. We tested this ‘Energetic Expenditure Hypothesis’ in 12 populations of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from North America and Europe,...

Data from: Local adaptation despite high gene flow in the waterfall-climbing Hawaiian goby, Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

Kristine N. Moody, Sabrina N. Hunter, Michael J. Childress, Richard W. Blob, Heiko L. Schoenfuss, Michael J. Blum & M. B. Ptacek
Environmental heterogeneity can promote the emergence of locally adapted phenotypes among subpopulations of a species, whereas gene flow can result in phenotypic and genotypic homogenization. For organisms like amphidromous fishes that change habitats during their life history, the balance between selection and migration can shift through ontogeny, making the likelihood of local adaptation difficult to predict. In Hawaiian waterfall-climbing gobies, it has been hypothesized that larval mixing during oceanic dispersal counters local adaptation to contrasting...

Data from: Effects of a multidisciplinary approach to improve volume of diagnostic material in CT-guided lung biopsies

Philip E. Ferguson, Catherine M. Sales, Dalton C. Hodges & Elizabeth W. Sales
Background: Recent publications have emphasized the importance of a multidisciplinary strategy for maximum conservation and utilization of lung biopsy material for advanced testing, which may determine therapy. This paper quantifies the effect of a multidisciplinary strategy implemented to optimize and increase tissue volume in CT-guided transthoracic needle core lung biopsies. The strategy was three-pronged: (1) once there was confidence diagnostic tissue had been obtained and if safe for the patient, additional biopsy passes were performed...

Data from: Nectar robbing impacts pollinator behavior but not plant reproduction

Jenny A. Hazlehurst & Jordan O. Karubian
Trait-mediated indirect effects (TMIEs) refer to interactions in which the effect of one species on another is mediated by the behavior of a third species. A mechanistic approach that identifies the direction and impact of TMIEs can shed light on why different net outcomes are observed in the same general phenomena across systems. Nectar robbing has variable net effects through TMIEs on animal-pollinated plants across systems, but the mechanistic steps underlying this range of outcomes...

Data from: Poison frog color morphs express assortative mate preferences in allopatry but not sympatry

Yusan Yang, Corinne L. Richards-Zawacki, Anisha Devar & Matthew B. Dugas
The concurrent divergence of mating traits and preferences is necessary for the evolution of reproductive isolation via sexual selection, and such coevolution has been demonstrated in diverse lineages. However, the extent to which assortative mate preferences are sufficient to drive reproductive isolation in nature is less clear. Natural contact zones between lineages divergent in traits and preferences provide exceptional opportunities for testing the predicted evolutionary consequences of such divergence. The strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio)...

Data from: Elevated mitochondrial genome variation after 50 generations of radiation exposure in a wild rodent

Robert J. Baker, Benjamin Dickins, Jeffrey K. Wickliffe, Faisal Anwarali Khan, Sergey Gaschak, Kateryna Makova & Caleb D. Phillips
Currently, the effects of chronic, continuous low dose environmental irradiation on the mitochondrial genome of resident small mammals are unknown. Using the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) as a model system, we tested the hypothesis that approximately 50 generations of exposure to the Chernobyl environment has significantly altered genetic diversity of the mitochondrial genome. Using deep sequencing, we compared mitochondrial genomes from 131 individuals from reference sites with radioactive contamination comparable to that present in Northern...

Data from: Invasion of the Hawaiian Islands by a parasite infecting imperiled stream fishes

Roderick B. Gagne, C. Grace Sprehn, Fernando Alda, Peter B. McIntyre, James F. Gilliam & Michael J. Blum
Points of origin and pathways of spread are often poorly understood for introduced parasites that drive disease emergence in imperiled native species. Co-introduction of parasites with non-native hosts is of particular concern in remote areas like the Hawaiian Islands, where the introduced nematode Camallanus cotti has become the most prevalent parasite of at-risk native stream fishes. In this study, we evaluated the prevailing hypothesis that C. cotti entered the Hawaiian Islands with poeciliid fishes from...

Data from: Male-male aggression is unlikely to stabilize a poison frog polymorphism

Yusan Yang, Matthew B. Dugas, Houston J. Sudekum, Sean N. Murphy & Corinne L. Richards-Zawacki
Phenotypic polymorphism is common in animals, and the maintenance of multiple phenotypes in a population requires forces that act against homogenizing drift and selection. Male-male competition can contribute to the stability of a polymorphism when males compete primarily with males of the same phenotype. In and around a contact zone between red and blue lineages of the poison frog Oophaga pumilio, we used simulated territorial intrusions to test the non-exclusive predictions that males would direct...

Data from: Soil erodibility differs according to heritable trait variation and nutrient-induced plasticity in the salt marsh engineer Spartina alterniflora

Brittany M. Bernik, John H. Pardue, Michael J. Blum, BM Bernik, MJ Blum & JH Pardue
Use of landform engineers for habitat restoration has often resulted in unanticipated outcomes. It is possible that departures from expectation arise because applications do not adequately account for the influence of heritable and non-heritable phenotypic variation on ecosystem attributes. In this study, we performed a common garden greenhouse experiment to determine whether soil shear strength—a characteristic linked to erosion resistance—varies according to heritable and plastic trait expression in Spartina alterniflora grown under contrasting nutrient regimes....

Analysis of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) titers of recovered COVID-19 patients

Jeffrey Gold, William Baumgartl, Ramazan Okyay, Warren Licht, Paul Fidel, Mairi Noverr, Larry Tilley, David Hurley, Balázs Rada & John Ashford
The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine has been theorized to provide protection against COVID-19. Our aim was to determine whether any MMR IgG titers are inversely correlated with severity in recovered COVID-19 patients previously vaccinated with MMR II. We divided 80 subjects into two groups, comparing MMR titers to recent COVID-19 severity. The MMR II group consisted of 50 subjects who would primarily have MMR antibodies from the MMR II vaccine, and a comparison group of 30...

Infant cannibalism in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys

Mari Nishikawa, Nuria Ferrero, Saul Cheves, Ronald Lopez, Shoji Kawamura, Linda Fedigan, Amanda Melin & Katharine Jack
Cannibalism has been observed in a variety of animal taxa, however, it is relatively uncommon in primates. Thus we rely heavily on case reports of this behavior to advance our understanding of the contexts under which it occurs. Here we report the first observation of cannibalism in a group of wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus imitator). The subject was a dead infant, estimated to be 10 days old, and the probable victim of infanticide. Consumption...

Asymmetrical effects of temperature on stage-structured predator-prey interactions

Andrew Davidson, Elizabeth Hamman, Michael McCoy & James Vonesh
Warming can impact consumer-resource interactions through multiple mechanisms. For example, warming can both alter the rate at which predators consume prey and the rate prey develop through vulnerable life stages. Thus, the overall effect of warming on consumer-resource interactions will depend upon the strength and asymmetry of warming effects on predator and prey performance. Here, we quantified the temperature dependence of both 1) density-dependent predation rates for two dragonfly nymph predators on a shared mosquito...

Phenotype data, genotype input files, and scripts related to adaptation in wild house mice from Western North America

Kathleen Ferris, Andreas Chavez, Taichi Suzuki, Megan Phifer-Rixey, Ke Bi, Michael Nachman & Elizabeth Beckman
Parallel changes in genotype and phenotype in response to similar selection pressures in different populations provide compelling evidence of adaptation. House mice (Mus musculus domesticus) have recently colonized North America and are found in a wide range of environments. Here we measure phenotypic and genotypic differentiation among house mice from five populations sampled across 21° of latitude in western North America, and we compare our results to a parallel latitudinal cline in eastern North America....

Data from: Comparing traditional and Bayesian approaches to ecological meta-analysis

Paula Pappalardo, Kiona Ogle, Elizabeth Hamman, James Bence, Bruce Hungate & Craig Osenberg
1. Despite the wide application of meta-analysis in ecology, some of the traditional methods used for meta-analysis may not perform well given the type of data characteristic of ecological meta-analyses. 2. We reviewed published meta-analyses on the ecological impacts of global climate change, evaluating the number of replicates used in the primary studies (ni) and the number of studies or records (k) that were aggregated to calculate a mean effect size. We used the results...

Maternal reproductive output and F1 hybrid fitness may influence contact zone dynamics

Caroline Dong
The outcome of secondary contact between divergent lineages or species may be influenced by both the reproductive traits of parental species and the fitness of offspring; however, their relative contributions have rarely been evaluated, particularly in longer lived vertebrate species. We performed pure and reciprocal laboratory crosses between Ctenophorus decresii (tawny dragon) and C. modestus (swift dragon) to examine how parental reproductive traits and ecologically-relevant offspring fitness traits may explain contact zone dynamics in the...

High resource overlap and small dietary differences are widespread in food-limited warbler communities

Cody Kent, Kyu Huh, Sarah Hunter, Kathryn Judson, Luke Powell & Thomas Sherry
Although both interspecific competition and coexistence mechanisms are central to ecological and evolutionary theory, past empirical studies have generally focused on simple (two-species) communities over short time periods. Experimental tests of these species interactions are challenging in complex study systems. Moreover, a number of studies of ‘imperfect generalists’, consistent with Liem’s Paradox, raise questions about the ability of evolved species differences to effectively partition niche space when resources vary considerably across the annual cycle. Here...

Gender differences in health protective behaviours and its implications for COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan: a population-based study

Jasmine Tan, Yilin Yoshida, Kevin Sheng-Kai Ma, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis & Chien-Chang Lee
Abstract Introduction Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection produces more severe symptoms and a higher mortality in men than in women. The role of biological sex in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is believed to explain this sex disparity. However, the contribution of gender factors that influence health protective behaviors and therefore health outcomes, remains poorly explored. Methods We assessed the contributions of gender in attitudes towards the COVID-19 pandemic, using a hypothetical...

Additional file 1 of Gender differences in health protective behaviours and its implications for COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan: a population-based study

Jasmine Tan, Yilin Yoshida, Kevin Sheng-Kai Ma, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis & Chien-Chang Lee
Supplementary Material 1

Gender differences in health protective behaviours and its implications for COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan: a population-based study

Jasmine Tan, Yilin Yoshida, Kevin Sheng-Kai Ma, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis & Chien-Chang Lee
Abstract Introduction Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection produces more severe symptoms and a higher mortality in men than in women. The role of biological sex in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is believed to explain this sex disparity. However, the contribution of gender factors that influence health protective behaviors and therefore health outcomes, remains poorly explored. Methods We assessed the contributions of gender in attitudes towards the COVID-19 pandemic, using a hypothetical...

Transcriptomic profiling of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease patients

Andrew B. Caldwell, Balaji G. Anantharaman, Srinivasan Ramachandran, Phuong Nguyen, Qing Liu, Ivy Trinh, Douglas R. Galasko, Paula A. Desplats, Steven L. Wagner & Shankar Subramaniam
Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD) manifested before age 65 is commonly referred to as early-onset AD (EOAD) (Reitz et al. Neurol Genet. 2020;6:e512). While the majority (> 90%) of EOAD cases are not caused by autosomal-dominant mutations in PSEN1, PSEN2, and APP, they do have a higher heritability (92–100%) than sporadic late-onset AD (LOAD, 70%) (Wingo et al. Arch Neurol. 2012;69:59–64, Fulton-Howard et al. Neurobiol Aging. 2021;99:101.e1–101.e9). Although the endpoint clinicopathological changes, i.e., Aβ plaques, tau...

Sex differences in determinants of COVID-19 severe outcomes – findings from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C)

Yilin Yoshida, San Chu, Sarah Fox, Yuanhao Zu, Dragana Lovre, Joshua L. Denson, Lucio Miele & Franck Mauvais-Jarvis
Abstract Objective The impact of comorbidities and biomarkers on COVID-19 severity vary by sex but have not yet been verified in population-based studies. We examined the association of comorbidities, inflammatory biomarkers, and severe outcomes in men and women hospitalized for COVID-19. Design This is a retrospective cohort analysis based on the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C). We included 574,391 adult patients admitted for COVID-19 at hospitals or emergency rooms between 01/01/2020 and 12/31/2021. Methods We...

Additional file 1 of Dietary supplementation of Macleaya cordata extract and Bacillus in combination improve laying performance by regulating reproductive hormones, intestinal microbiota and barrier function of laying hens

Fei Wang, Peng Zou, Shujie Xu, Qi Wang, Yuanhao Zhou, Xiang Li, Li Tang, Baikui Wang, Qian Jin, Dongyou Yu & Weifen Li
Additional file 1: Table S1. Sequences of oligonucleotide primers used for RT-qPCR. Table S2. Organs indices of laying hens fed different biological feed additives1.

Additional file 5 of Discovery of an autophagy inducer J3 to lower mutant huntingtin and alleviate Huntington’s disease-related phenotype

Jiahui Long, Xia Luo, Dongmei Fang, Haikun Song, Weibin Fang, Hao Shan, Peiqing Liu, Boxun Lu, Xiao-Ming Yin, Liang Hong & Min Li
Additional file 5: Figure S5. (A) The flow diagram of the mice generation, genotype identification, and the administration methods (HdhQ140/Q140 and WT mice are not littermates in our study). (B) Dissection of the mice striatum were shown in the picture, the red line indicates the outline for a piece of striatum. (C) The immunostaining of T-HTT (anti-HTT, MAB2166) in the striatum of WT and homozygous mice was analyzed at 12-month-old. (D) The expression of total...

Additional file 5 of Discovery of an autophagy inducer J3 to lower mutant huntingtin and alleviate Huntington’s disease-related phenotype

Jiahui Long, Xia Luo, Dongmei Fang, Haikun Song, Weibin Fang, Hao Shan, Peiqing Liu, Boxun Lu, Xiao-Ming Yin, Liang Hong & Min Li
Additional file 5: Figure S5. (A) The flow diagram of the mice generation, genotype identification, and the administration methods (HdhQ140/Q140 and WT mice are not littermates in our study). (B) Dissection of the mice striatum were shown in the picture, the red line indicates the outline for a piece of striatum. (C) The immunostaining of T-HTT (anti-HTT, MAB2166) in the striatum of WT and homozygous mice was analyzed at 12-month-old. (D) The expression of total...

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