12 Works

Data from: Comparing traditional and Bayesian approaches to ecological meta-analysis

Paula Pappalardo, Kiona Ogle, Elizabeth Hamman, James Bence, Bruce Hungate & Craig Osenberg
1. Despite the wide application of meta-analysis in ecology, some of the traditional methods used for meta-analysis may not perform well given the type of data characteristic of ecological meta-analyses. 2. We reviewed published meta-analyses on the ecological impacts of global climate change, evaluating the number of replicates used in the primary studies (ni) and the number of studies or records (k) that were aggregated to calculate a mean effect size. We used the results...

Analysis of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) titers of recovered COVID-19 patients

Jeffrey Gold, William Baumgartl, Ramazan Okyay, Warren Licht, Paul Fidel, Mairi Noverr, Larry Tilley, David Hurley, Balázs Rada & John Ashford
The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine has been theorized to provide protection against COVID-19. Our aim was to determine whether any MMR IgG titers are inversely correlated with severity in recovered COVID-19 patients previously vaccinated with MMR II. We divided 80 subjects into two groups, comparing MMR titers to recent COVID-19 severity. The MMR II group consisted of 50 subjects who would primarily have MMR antibodies from the MMR II vaccine, and a comparison group of 30...

Infant cannibalism in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys

Mari Nishikawa, Nuria Ferrero, Saul Cheves, Ronald Lopez, Shoji Kawamura, Linda Fedigan, Amanda Melin & Katharine Jack
Cannibalism has been observed in a variety of animal taxa, however, it is relatively uncommon in primates. Thus we rely heavily on case reports of this behavior to advance our understanding of the contexts under which it occurs. Here we report the first observation of cannibalism in a group of wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus imitator). The subject was a dead infant, estimated to be 10 days old, and the probable victim of infanticide. Consumption...

Data from: Evaluating community effects of a keystone ant, Azteca sericeasur, on Inga micheliana leaf litter decomposition in a shaded coffee agro-ecosystem

Lauren Schmitt & Bolivar Aponte-Rolon
Our research examined the effect of Azteca sericeasur, a keystone arboreal ant, on the decomposition of leaf litter of the shade tree, Inga micheliana, in coffee agro-ecosystems. This interaction is important in understanding the spatial heterogeneity in decomposition. We hypothesized that A. sericeasur could affect leaf litter decomposition by excluding other ants, which could release decomposers, like collembolans, from predation pressure. Determining the relative strengths of these interactions can illuminate the importance of A. sericeasur...

Morphological traits influence food choice by coexisting New World warbler (Parulidae) species

Kristen M. Rosamond, Thomas Sherry & Cody M. Kent
New World wood warblers (Parulidae) represent one of the most dramatic adaptive radiations in North America. However, the ecological bases for these species’ evolved morphological differences remain poorly understood, especially considering how many foraging and habitat studies the family has inspired. We hypothesized relationships between morphology and diet in parulids. We combined a principal component analysis (PCA) of 18 external morphological traits from 11 species with stomach content data from coexisting species in one breeding...

Data from: Testosterone regulates CYP2J19-linked carotenoid signal expression in male red-backed fairywrens (Malurus melanocephalus)

Sarah Khalil, Joseph Welklin, Kevin McGraw, Jordan Boersma, Hubert Schwabl, Michael Webster & Jordan Karubian
Carotenoid pigments produce most red, orange, and yellow colours in vertebrates. This coloration can serve as an honest signal of quality that mediates social and mating interactions, but our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that control carotenoid signal production, including how different physiological pathways interact to shape and maintain these signals, remains incomplete. We investigated the role of testosterone in mediating gene expression associated with a red plumage sexual signal in red-backed fairywrens (Malurus melanocephalus)....

Resource-related variables drive individual variation in flowering phenology and mediate population-level flowering responses to climate in an asynchronously reproducing palm

Tadeo Ramirez-Parada, Jordan Karubian, Luke Browne & Zoe Diaz-Martin
Many tropical plant species show wide intra-population variation in reproductive timing, resulting in the protracted presence of flowering and fruiting individuals. Various eco-evolutionary drivers have been proposed as ultimate causes for asynchronous phenology, yet little is known about the proximate factors that control reproductive onset among individuals, or that influence the proportion of trees producing new inflorescences within a population. We employed a nine-year phenological record from 178 individuals of the hyperdominant, asynchronously flowering canopy...

Altered cerebellar white matter in sensory processing dysfunction is associated with impaired multisensory integration and attention

Anisha Narayan, Mikaela Rowe, Eva Palacios, Jamie Wren-Jarvis, Ioanna Bourla, Molly Gerdes, Annie Brandes-Aitken, Shivani Desai, Elysa Marco & Pratik Mukherjee
Sensory processing dysfunction (SPD) is characterized by a behaviorally observed difference in the response to sensory information from the environment. While the cerebellum is involved in normal sensory processing, it has not yet been examined in SPD. Diffusion tensor imaging scans of children with SPD (n=42) and typically developing controls (TDC; n=39) were compared for fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) across the following cerebellar tracts: the middle...

Darwin’s vexing contrivance: A new hypothesis for why some flowers have two kinds of anther

Kathleen Kay, Tania Jogesh, Diana Tataru & Sami Akiba
Heteranthery, the presence of two or more anther types in the same flower, is taxonomically widespread among bee-pollinated angiosperms, yet has puzzled botanists since Darwin. We test two competing hypotheses for its evolution: the longstanding “division of labour” hypothesis, which posits that some anthers are specialized as food rewards for bees whereas other are specialized for surreptitious pollination, and our new hypothesis that heteranthery is a way to gradually release pollen that maximizes pollen delivery....

Data from: Hurricane effects on Neotropical lizards span geographic and phylogenetic scales

Colin Donihue, Alex Kowaleski, Jonathan Losos, Adam Algar, Simon Baeckens, Robert Buchkowski, Anne-Claire Fabre, Hannah Frank, Anthony Geneva, Graham Reynolds, James Stroud, Julián Velasco, Jason Kolbe, Luke Mahler & Anthony Herrel
Extreme climate events such as droughts, cold snaps, and hurricanes can be powerful agents of natural selection, producing acute selective pressures very different from the everyday pressures acting on organisms. However, it remains unknown whether these infrequent but severe disruptions are quickly erased by quotidian selective forces, or whether they have the potential to durably shape biodiversity patterns across regions and clades. Here, we show that hurricanes have enduring evolutionary impacts on the morphology of...

Data from: Differential impact of severe drought on infant mortality in two sympatric neotropical primates

Fernando Campos, Urs Kalbitzer, Amanda Melin, Jeremy Hogan, Saul Cheves, Evin Murillo-Chacon, Adrián Guadamuz, Monica Myers, Colleen Schaffner, Katharine Jack, Filippo Aureli & Linda Fedigan
Extreme climate events can have important consequences for the dynamics of natural populations, and severe droughts are predicted to become more common and intense due to climate change. We analysed infant mortality in relation to drought in two primate species (white-faced capuchins, Cebus capucinus imitator, and Geoffroy's spider monkeys, Ateles geoffroyi) in a tropical dry forest in north-western Costa Rica. Our survival analyses combine several rare and valuable long-term data sets, including long-term primate life-history,...

Relaxed random walks at scale

Alexander Fisher, Xiang Ji, Zhenyu Zhang, Philippe Lemey & Marc Suchard
Relaxed random walk (RRW) models of trait evolution introduce branch-specific rate multipliers to modulate the variance of a standard Brownian diffusion process along a phylogeny and more accurately model overdispersed biological data. Increased taxonomic sampling challenges inference under RRWs as the number of unknown parameters grows with the number of taxa. To solve this problem, we present a scalable method to efficiently fit RRWs and infer this branch-specific variation in a Bayesian framework. We develop...

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