249 Works

Interpreting Verbal Irony: Linguistic Strategies and the Connection to the Type of Semantic Incongruity

Debanjan Ghosh, Elena Musi, Kartikeya Upasani & Smaranda Muresan

Invertebrate activity data from an experiment in Malaysian Borneo, 2014-16 [HMTF]

H.M. Griffiths, L.A. Ashton, A.E. Walker, R. Hasan, T. Evans, P. Eggleton & C.L. Parr
This resource comprises a time series dataset of ant and other invertebrate abundance measured fortnightly at bait monitoring cards on an experimental plot in the Maliau Basin Conservation Area, Malaysian Borneo. The resource includes data regarding the amount of food resource removed from experimental plots when either ants or vertebrates were excluded from the resource. The data were collected to assess the roles that the different groups (ants, invertebrates, vertebrates) play in ecosystem function, and...

Personality predicts foraging site fidelity and trip repeatability in a marine predator

Stephanie M. Harris, Sébastien Descamps, Lynne U. Sneddon, Philip Bertrand, Olivier Chastel & Samantha C. Patrick
1. Animal populations are often comprised of both foraging specialists and generalists. For instance, some individuals show higher foraging site fidelity (spatial specialisation) than others. Such individual differences in degree of specialisation can persist over timescales of months or even years in long-lived animals, but the mechanisms leading to these different individual strategies are not fully understood. 2. There is accumulating evidence that individual variation in foraging behaviour is shaped by animal personality traits, such...

A framework for mapping the distribution of seabirds by integrating tracking, demography and phenology

Ana P. B. Carneiro, Elizabeth J. Pearmain, Steffen Oppel, Thomas A. Clay, Richard A. Phillips, Anne-Sophie Bonnet-Lebrun, Ross M. Wanless, Edward Abraham, Yvan Richard, Joel Rice, Jonathan Handley, Tammy E. Davies, Ben J. Dilley, Peter G. Ryan, Cleo Small, Javier Arata, John P. Y. Arnould, Elizabeth Bell, Leandro Bugoni, Letizia Campioni, Paulo Catry, Jaimie Cleeland, Lorna Deppe, Graeme Elliott, Amanda Freeman … & Maria P. Dias
1. The identification of geographic areas where the densities of animals are highest across their annual cycles is a crucial step in conservation planning. In marine environments, however, it can be particularly difficult to map the distribution of species, and the methods used are usually biased towards adults, neglecting the distribution of other life-history stages even though they can represent a substantial proportion of the total population. 2. Here we develop a methodological framework for...

Selection for increased male size predicts variation in sexual size dimorphism among fish species

Curtis Horne, Andrew Hirst & David Atkinson
Variation in the degree of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) among taxa is generally considered to arise from differences in the relative intensity of male-male competition and fecundity selection. One might predict, therefore, that SSD will vary systematically with: 1) the intensity of sexual selection for increased male size, and 2) the intensity of fecundity selection for increased female size. To test these two fundamental hypotheses, we conducted a phylogenetic comparative analysis of SSD in fish....

Increased sperm production linked to competition in the maternal social environment

Liane Hobson, Jane Hurst & Paula Stockley
Maternal or early life effects may prepare offspring for similar social conditions to those experienced by their mothers. For males, the ability to achieve mating and fertilisation success is a key social challenge. Competitive conditions may therefore favour increased body size or ejaculate production in male offspring. We tested this experimentally by comparing reproductive traits of adult male bank voles (Myodes glareolus), whose mothers had experienced contrasting encounter regimes with female conspecifics while breeding. We...

Prey density affects predator foraging strategy in an Antarctic ecosystem

Karl Busdieker, Samantha Patrick, Alice Trevail & Sébastien Descamps
Studying the effects of prey distribution on predator behaviour is complex in systems where there are multiple prey species. The role of prey density in predator behaviour is rarely studied in closed ecosystems of one predator species and one prey species, despite these being an ideal opportunity to test these hypotheses. In this study, we investigate the effect of prey density on the foraging behaviour of a predatory species in an isolated Antarctic ecosystem of...

Termite diversity is resilient to land-use change

Gabriel Quansah, Gabriel Quansah, Stephen Adu-Bredu, Vincent Logah, Yadvinder Malhi, Paul Eggleton & Catherine Parr
Cocoa is an important crop for Ghana’s economy, contributing 25% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The crop, however, is mainly cultivated on forest-derived soils and is a major cause of land-use change. Termites are an important biological component of tropical ecosystems providing numerous ecosystem services. Previous studies have indicated that termites are sensitive to forest disturbance and decrease in richness and abundance across land-use intensification gradients, with consequences for the essential services that they provide....

Data from: Continent-level drivers of African pyrodiversity

Gareth P. Hempson, Catherine L. Parr, Sally Archibald, T. Michael Anderson, Colin J. Courtney Mustaphi, Andrew P. Dobson, Jason E. Donaldson, Thomas A. Morrison, James Probert & Colin M. Beale
Pyrodiversity, which describes fire variability over space and time, is believed to increase habitat heterogeneity and thereby promote biodiversity. However, to date there is no standardised metric for quantifying pyrodiversity, and so broad geographic patterns and drivers of pyrodiversity remain unexplored. We present the first generalizable method to quantify pyrodiversity, and use it to address the fundamental questions of what drives pyrodiversity, which fire attributes constrain pyrodiversity under different conditions, and whether pyrodiversity is spatial...

Data from: Contrasting patterns of local richness of seedlings, saplings and trees may have implications for regeneration in rainforest remnants

Gail Stride, Chris D. Thomas, Suzan Benedick, Jenny A. Hodgson, Ahmad Jelling, Michael J.M. Senior & Jane K. Hill
Remnants of lowland rainforest remain following deforestation, but the longer-term effects of fragmentation remain poorly understood, partly due to the long generation times of trees. We study rainforest trees in three size classes: seedlings (<1 cm dbh), saplings (1-5 cm dbh) and trees (>5 cm), that broadly reflect pre- and post-fragmentation communities, and we examine the impacts of fragmentation on forest regeneration in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We found that seedling richness (measured as the number...

Data from: Insect temperature-body size trends common to laboratory, latitudinal and seasonal gradients are not found across altitudes

Curtis R. Horne, Andrew G. Hirst & David Atkinson
1. Body size affects rates of most biological and ecological processes, from individual performance to ecosystem function, and is fundamentally linked to organism fitness. Within species, size at maturity can vary systematically with environmental temperature in the laboratory and across seasons, as well as over latitudinal gradients. Recent meta-analyses have revealed a close match in the magnitude and direction of these size gradients in various arthropod orders, suggesting that these size responses share common drivers....

Data from: Superparasitism drives heritable symbiont epidemiology and host sex ratio in a wasp

Steven R. Parratt, Crystal L. Frost, Martijn A. Schenkel, Annabel Rice, Gregory D. D. Hurst & Kayla C. King
Heritable microbial symbionts have profound impacts upon the biology of their arthropod hosts. Whilst our current understanding of the dynamics of these symbionts is typically cast within a framework of vertical transmission only, horizontal transmission has been observed in a number of cases. For instance, several symbionts can transmit horizontally when their parasitoid hosts share oviposition patches with uninfected conspecifics, a phenomenon called superparasitism. Despite this, horizontal transmission, and the host contact structures that facilitates...

Data from: Burning for biodiversity: highly resilient ant communities respond only to strongly contrasting fire regimes in Australia’s seasonal tropics

Alan N. Andersen, Relena R. Ribbons, Magen Pettit & Catherine L. Parr
1. According to the pyrodiversity paradigm, a wide range of fire regimes is required to maintain biodiversity in fire-prone landscapes. However, the requisite level of pyrodiversity has seldom been tested and may actually be very low. 2. Here, we examine the sensitivity of tropical savanna ants to variation in fire regimes using results from a long-term fire experiment near Darwin, Australia. Six experimental fire regimes, with varying fire frequency and seasonality, have been applied to...

Data from: Multiple adaptive and non-adaptive processes determine responsiveness to heterospecific alarm calls in African savannah herbivores

Kristine Meise, Daniel W. Franks & Jakob Bro-Jorgensen
Heterospecific alarm calls may provide crucial survival benefits shaping animal behaviour. Multispecies studies can disentangle the relative importance of the various processes determining these benefits, but previous studies have included too few species for alternative hypotheses to be tested quantitatively in a comprehensive analysis. In a community-wide study of African savannah herbivores, we here, for the first time to our knowledge, partition alarm responses according to distinct aspects of the signaller–receiver relationship and thereby uncover...

Data from: Perceptions of research bronchoscopy in Malawian adults with pulmonary tuberculosis: a cross-sectional study.

Andrew D. McCallum, Deborah Nyirenda, Wezzie Lora, Saye H. Khoo, Derek J. Sloan, Henry C. Mwandumba, Nicola Desmond & Geraint R. Davies
Bronchoscopy is an established research tool in Malawi, enabling collection of pulmonary samples for immunological, pharmacological, and microbiological studies. It is, however, an invasive clinical procedure that offers no direct benefit to volunteering participants when used in a research capacity alone, and thus informed consent is essential. This study aimed to explore TB patients’ understanding of research bronchoscopy, what would motivate them to participate in research bronchoscopy, and their concerns, in order to inform consenting...

Data from: Population genomics of the killer whale indicates ecotype evolution in sympatry involving both selection and drift

Andre E. Moura, John G. Kenny, Roy Chaudhuri, Margaret A. Hughes, Andreanna Welch, Ryan R. Reisinger, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Marilyn E. Dahlheim, Neil Hall, A. Rus Hoelzel & Andreanna J. Welch
The evolution of diversity in the marine ecosystem is poorly understood, given the relatively high potential for connectivity, especially for highly mobile species such as whales and dolphins. The killer whale (Orcinus orca) has a worldwide distribution, and individual social groups travel over a wide geographic range. Even so, regional populations have been shown to be genetically differentiated, including among different foraging specialists (ecotypes) in sympatry. Given the strong matrifocal social structure of this species...

Data from: Evolutionary potential of thermal preference and heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura

Luis E. Castañeda, Valèria Romero-Soriano, Andres Mesas, Derek A. Roff & Mauro Santos
Evolutionary change of thermal traits (i.e. heat tolerance and behavioral thermoregulation) is one of the most important mechanisms exhibited by organisms to respond to global warming. However, the evolutionary potential of heat tolerance, estimated as narrow-sense heritability, depends on the methodology employed. An alternative adaptive mechanism to buffer extreme temperatures is behavioral thermoregulation, although the association between heat tolerance and thermal preference is not clearly understood. We suspect that methodological effects associated with the duration...

Data from: Geographical variation in ant foraging activity and resource use is driven by climate and net primary productivity

Chaim J. Lasmar, Tom R. Bishop, Catherine L. Parr, Antônio C.M. Queiroz, Fernando A. Schmidt & Carla R. Ribas
Aim: Foraging activity is critical for animal survival. Comprehending how ecological drivers influence foraging behavior would benefit our understanding of the link between animals and ecological processes. Here, we evaluated the influence of ecological drivers on ant foraging activity and relative resource use. Location: Six Brazilian biomes: Amazon, Atlantic rainforest, Caatinga, Cerrado, Pampa and Pantanal. Taxon: Formicidae. Methods: We assessed ant foraging activity and resource use by sampling across 60 sites. We placed baited tubes...

Spatiotemporal variation in drivers of parasitism in a wild wood mouse population

Amy Sweeny, Gregory Albery, Saudamini Venkatesan, Andy Fenton & Amy Pedersen
Host-parasite interactions in nature are driven by a range of factors across several ecological scales, so observed relationships are often context-dependent. Importantly, if these factors vary across space and time, practical sampling limitations can limit or bias inferences, and the relative importance of different drivers can be hard to discern. Here we ask to what degree environmental, host, and within-host influences on parasitism are shaped by spatiotemporal variation. We use a replicated, longitudinal dataset of...

European soil seed bank communities across a climate and land-cover gradient

Jan Plue, Hans Van Calster, Inger Auestad, Sofia Basto, Reneé M. Bekker, Hans Henrik Bruun, Richard Chevalier, Guillaume Decocq, Ulf Grandin, Martin Hermy, Hans Jacquemyn, Anna Jakobsson, Rein Kalamees, Rob H. Marrs, Bryndis Marteinsdóttir, Per Milberg, Robin J. Pakeman, Gareth Phoenix, Ken Thompson, Vigdis Vandvik, Markus Wagner, Sara A.O. Cousins, Ove Eriksson, Jamshid Ghorbani, Małgorzata Jankowska-Błaszczuk … & Alistair G. Auffret
This is the data set used for the publication Buffering effects of soil seed banks on plant community composition in response to land use and climate, published in the journal Global Ecology and Biogeography. Aim. Climate and land use are key determinants of biodiversity, with past and ongoing changes posing serious threats to global ecosystems. Unlike most other organism groups, plant species can possess dormant life-history stages such as soil seed banks, which may help...

Data from: Investigating cat predation as the cause of bat wing tears using forensic DNA analysis

Kirsty Shaw, Rana Khayat, Robyn Grant, Hazel Ryan, Gary Dougill & David Killick
Cat predation upon bat species has been reported to have significant effects on bat populations in both rural and urban areas. The majority of research in this area has focussed on observational data from bat rehabilitators documenting injuries, and cat owners, when domestic cats present prey. However, this has the potential to underestimate the number of bats killed or injured by cats. Here, we use forensic DNA analysis techniques to analyse swabs taken from injured...

Data from: The impact of personality, morphotype and shore-height on temperature-mediated behavioural responses in the beadlet anemone (Actinia equina)

Daniel Maskrey, Lynne Sneddon, Kathryn Arnold, David Wolfenden & Jack Thomson
1. Between-individual variation in behavioural phenotype, termed personality, is an important determinant of how populations cope with acute environmental fluctuation related to climate change. 2. Personality in the beadlet sea anemone (Actinia equina) is linked to genetically distinct morphotypes, which are associated with different heights on the shore. In the intertidal zone, high-shore environments experience more environmental fluctuation due to longer periods of exposure, and animals adapted to live in these environments are predicted to...

Sex-specific sterility caused by extreme temperatures is likely to create cryptic changes to the operational sex ratio in Drosophila virilis

Benjamin S. Walsh, Natasha L. M. Mannion, Tom A. R. Price & Steven R. Parratt
Climate change is increasing the frequency and severity of short-term heat shocks that threaten the persistence of natural populations. The effect of thermal stress on natural selection is a common topic of debate, but high temperatures can also influence sexual selection. Typically, males and females of a species can survive at similar extreme temperatures, but males have been shown to lose fertility at lower temperatures than females. Here, we examine how a brief exposure of...

Daphnia magna life history data for caged and uncaged individuals (lab and mesocosm)

Michael O'Connor, Daniel Sadler, Franziska Brunner, Alan Reynolds, Nicola White, Stephen Price & Stewart Plaistow
Life history studies are often conducted in a laboratory environment where it is easy to assay individual animals. However, factors such as temperature, photoperiod, and nutrition vary greatly between laboratory and field environments, making it difficult to compare results. Consequently, there is a need to study individual life histories in the field, but this is currently difficult in systems such as Daphnia where it is not possible to mark and track individual animals. Here, we...

Fine-scale spatial segregation in a pelagic seabird driven by differential use of tidewater glacier fronts

Philip Bertrand, Joël Bêty, Nigel Gilles Yoccoz, Marie-Josée Fortin, Hallvard Strøm, Harald Steen, Jack Kohler, Stephanie M. Harris, Samantha C. Patrick, Olivier Chastel, Pierre Blévin, Haakon Hop, Geir Moholdt, Joséphine Maton & Sébastien Descamps
In colonially breeding marine predators, individual movements and colonial segregation are influenced by seascape characteristics. Tidewater glacier fronts are important features of the Arctic seascape and are often described as foraging hotspots. Albeit their documented importance for wildlife, little is known about their structuring effect on arctic predator movements and space use. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that tidewater glacier fronts can influence marine bird foraging patterns and drive spatial segregation among adjacent...

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