213 Works

Data from: Cross-cultural variation in men’s preference for sexual dimorphism in women’s faces

Mikhail V. Kozlov, Huajian Cai, Jorge Contreras-Garduño, Barnaby J. Dixson, Gavita A. Oana, Gwenaël Kaminski, Norman P. Li, Minna T. Lyons, Ike E. Onyishi, Keshav Prasai, Farid Pazhoohi, Pavol Prokop, Sandra L. Rosales Cardozo, Nicolle Sydney, Jose C. Yong, Markus J. Rantala, U. M. Marcinkowska & J. Contreras-Garduno
Both attractiveness judgements and mate preferences vary considerably cross-culturally. We investigated whether men's preference for femininity in women's faces varies between 28 countries with diverse health conditions by analysing responses of 1972 heterosexual participants. Although men in all countries preferred feminized over masculinized female faces, we found substantial differences between countries in the magnitude of men's preferences. Using an average femininity preference for each country, we found men's facial femininity preferences correlated positively with the...

Data from: The trophic vacuum and the evolution of complex life cycles in trophically-transmitted helminths

Daniel P. Benesh, James C. Chubb & Geoff A. Parker
Parasitic worms (helminths) frequently have complex life cycles in which they are transmitted trophically between two or more successive hosts. Sexual reproduction often takes place in high trophic-level (TL) vertebrates, where parasites can grow to large sizes with high fecundity. Direct infection of high TL hosts, while advantageous, may be unachievable for parasites constrained to transmit trophically, because helminth propagules are unlikely to be ingested by large predators. Lack of niche overlap between propagule and...

Data from: Transcriptomics and in vivo tests reveal novel mechanisms underlying endocrine disruption in an ecological sentinel, Nucella lapillus

Sonia Pascoal, Gary Carvalho, Olga Vasieva, Roger Hughes, Andrew Cossins, Yongxiang Fang, Kevin Ashelford, Lisa Olohan, Carlos Barroso, Sonia Mendo & Simon Creer
Anthropogenic endocrine disruptors now contaminate all environments globally, with concomitant deleterious effects across diverse taxa. While most studies on endocrine disruption (ED) have focused on vertebrates, the superimposition of male sexual characteristics in the female dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus (imposex), caused by organotins, provides one of the most clearcut ecological examples of anthropogenically induced ED in aquatic ecosystems. To identify the underpinning mechanisms of imposex for this ‘nonmodel’ species, we combined Roche 454 pyrosequencing with custom...

Data from: Can long-range PCR be used to amplify genetically divergent mitochondrial genomes for comparative phylogenetics? A case study within spiders (Arthropoda: Araneae).

Andrew G. Briscoe, Sarah Goodacre, Susan E. Masta, Martin I. Taylor, Miquel A. Arnedo, David Penney, John Kenny, Simon Creer & Sara Goodacre
The development of second generation sequencing technology has resulted in the rapid production of large volumes of sequence data for relatively little cost, thereby substantially increasing the quantity of data available for phylogenetic studies. Despite these technological advances, assembling longer sequences, such as that of entire mitochondrial genomes, has not been straightforward. Existing studies have been limited to using only incomplete or nominally intra-specific datasets resulting in a bottleneck between mitogenome amplification and downstream high-throughput...

Mate-finding Allee effects can be exacerbated or relieved by sexual cannibalism

Adam Fisher, Stephen Cornell, Gregory Holwell & Tom Price
1. Allee effects occur when individual or population survival decreases due to populations being small or sparse. A key mechanism underlying Allee effects is difficulty in finding mates at low densities. Species may be particularly vulnerable to mate-finding Allee effects if females rely on an abundance of males to reproduce successfully. In sexually cannibalistic species, females may consume males before or after copulation, potentially reducing the supply of males to the point where a mate-finding...

Drought and presence of ants can influence hemipitera in tropical leaf litter

Anna Goldman, Timothy Bonebrake, Theodore Evans, Hannah Griffiths, Catherine Parr, Louise Ashton & Paul Eggleton
Climate change is predicted to impact tropical rainforests, with droughts becoming more frequent and more severe in some regions. We currently have a poor understanding of how increased drought will change the functioning of tropical rainforest. In particular, tropical rainforest invertebrates, which are numerous and biologically important, may respond to drought in different ways across trophic levels. Ants are a diverse group that carry out important ecosystem processes, shaping ecosystem structure and function through predation...

Data from: Distinct spread of DNA and RNA viruses among mammals amid prominent role of domestic species

Konstans Wells, Serge Morand, Maya Wardeh & Matthew Baylis
Aim: Emerging infectious diseases arising from pathogen spillover from mammals to humans comprise a substantial health threat. Tracing virus origin and predicting the most likely host species for future spillover events are major objectives in One Health disciplines. We assessed patterns of virus sharing among a large diversity of mammals, including humans and domestic species. Location: Global. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Mammals and associated viruses. Methods: We used network centrality analysis and trait-based...

Data from: Temperature can shape a cline in polyandry, but only genetic variation can sustain it over time

Michelle L. Taylor, Tom A. R. Price, Alison Skeats & Nina Wedell
Multiple mating by females (polyandry) is a widespread behavior occurring in diverse taxa, species, and populations. Polyandry can also vary widely within species, and individual populations, so that both monandrous and polyandrous females occur together. Genetic differences can explain some of this intraspecific variation in polyandry, but environmental factors are also likely to play a role. One environmental factor that influences many fundamental biological processes is temperature. Higher temperatures have been shown to directly increase...

Data from: Experimental reduction of intromittent organ length reduces male reproductive success in a bug

Liam R. Dougherty, Imran A. Rahman, Emily R. Burdfield-Steel, E. V. Greenway & David M. Shuker
It is now clear in many species that male and female genital evolution has been shaped by sexual selection. However, it has historically been difficult to confirm correlations between morphology and fitness, as genital traits are complex and manipulation tends to impair function significantly. In this study, we investigate the functional morphology of the elongate male intromittent organ (or processus) of the seed bug Lygaeus simulans, in two ways. We first use micro-computed tomography (micro-CT)...

Data from: Direction of biological motion affects early brain activation: a link with social cognition

Alan John Pegna, Elise Gehring, Georg Meyer & Marzia Del Zotto
A number of EEG studies have investigated the time course of brain activation for biological movement over this last decade, however the temporal dynamics of processing are still debated. Moreover, the role of direction of movement has not received much attention even though it is an essential component allowing us to determine the intentions of the moving agent, and thus permitting the anticipation of potential social interactions. In this study, we examined event-related responses (ERPs)...

Data from: Negative frequency-dependent selection is intensified at higher population densities in protist populations

Ewan J. A. Minter, Phillip C. Watts, Chris D. Lowe & Michael A. Brockhurst
Natural populations of free-living protists often exhibit high-levels of intraspecific diversity, yet this is puzzling as classic evolutionary theory predicts dominance by genotypes with high fitness, particularly in large populations where selection is efficient. Here, we test whether negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) plays a role in the maintenance of diversity in the marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina using competition experiments between multiple pairs of strains. We observed strain-specific responses to frequency and density, but an overall...

Data from: Environmental heterogeneity amplifies behavioural response to a temporal cycle

Alice M. Trevail, Jonathan A. Green, Jonathan Sharples, Jeff A. Polton, John P.Y. Arnould, Samantha C. Patrick & Jonathan P. Y. Arnould
Resource acquisition is integral to maximise fitness, however in many ecosystems this requires adaptation to resource abundance and distributions that seldom stay constant. For predators, prey availability can vary at fine spatial and temporal scales as a result of changes in the physical environment, and therefore selection should favour individuals that can adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly. The tidal cycle is a short, yet predictable, temporal cycle, which can influence prey availability at temporal scales...

Data from: Flexibility, variability and constraint in energy management strategies across vertebrate taxa revealed by long-term heart rate measurements

Lewis G. Halsey, Jonathan A. Green, Sean D. Twiss, Walter Arnold, Sarah J. Burthe, Patrick J. Butler, Steve J. Cooke, David Gremillet, Thomas Ruf, Olivia Hicks, Katarzyna J. Minta, Tanya S. Prystay, Claudia A.F. Wascher, Vincent Careau, Steven J Cooke, Tania S Prystay & Claudia AF Wascher
1) Animals are expected to be judicious in the use of the energy they gain due to the costs and limits associated with its intake. The management of energy expenditure (EE) exhibited by animals has previously been considered in terms of three patterns: the constrained, independent and performance patterns of energy management. These patterns can be interpreted by regressing daily EE against maintenance EE measured over extended periods. From the multiple studies on this topic,...

Teaching and learning in ecology: a horizon scan of emerging challenges and solutions

Zenobia Lewis, Julia Cooke, Yoseph Araya, Karen Bacon, Joanna Bagniewska, Lesley Batty, Tom Bishop, Moya Burns, Magda Charalambous, David Daversa, Liam Dougherty, Miranda Dyson, Adam Fisher, Dan Forman, Cristina Garcia, Ewan Harney, Thomas Hesselberg, Elizabeth John, Robert Knell, Kadmiel Maseyk, Alice Mauchline, Julie Peacock, Angelo Pernetto, Jeremy Pritchard, William Sutherland … & Nicholas Worsfold
We currently face significant, anthropogenic, global environmental challenges and therole of ecologists in mitigating these challenges is arguably more important than ever. Consequently there is an urgent need to recruit and train future generations of ecologists, both those whose main area is ecology, but also those involved in the geological, biological and environmental sciences. Here we present the results of a horizon scanning exercise that identified current and future challenges facing the teaching of ecology,...

Coordination in parental effort decreases with age in a long-lived seabird

Samantha Patrick, Alexandre Corbeau, Denis Reale & Henri Weimerskirch
Biparental care is widespread in avian species. Individuals may match the contribution of their partner, resulting in equal parental effort, or may exploit their partner, to minimise their own investment. These two hypotheses have received much theoretical and empirical attention in short-lived species, that change mates between seasons. However, in species with persistent pair bonds, where divorce rate is low and costly, selective pressures are different, as partners share the value of future reproduction. In...

Evolutionary biomechanics: hard tissues and soft evidence?

Karl Bates
Biomechanical modelling is a powerful tool for quantifying the evolution of functional performance in extinct animals to understand key anatomical innovations and selective pressures driving major evolutionary radiations. However, the fossil record is composed predominantly of hard parts, forcing palaeontologists to reconstruct soft tissue properties in such models. Rarely are these reconstruction approaches validated on extant animals, despite soft tissue properties being highly determinant of functional performance. The extent to which soft tissue reconstructions and...

Data from: Cytokine responses in birds challenged with the human food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni implies a Th17 response

William D. K. Reid, Andrew J. Close, Suzanne Humphrey, Gemma Chaloner, Lizeth Lacharme-Lora, Lisa Rothwell, Pete Kaiser, Nicola J. Williams, Thomas J. Humprey, Paul Wigley, Stephen P. Rushton & Tom J. Humphrey
Development of process orientated understanding of cytokine interactions within the gastrointestinal tract during an immune response to pathogens requires experimentation and statistical modelling. The immune response against pathogen challenge depends on the specific threat to the host. Here, we show that broiler chickens mount a breed-dependent immune response to Campylobacter jejuni infection in the caeca by analysing experimental data using frequentist and Bayesian structural equation models (SEM). SEM provides a framework by which cytokine interdependencies,...

Data from: Do space-for-time assessments underestimate the impacts of logging on tropical biodiversity? An Amazonian case study using dung beetles

Filipe França, Júlio Louzada, Vanesca Korasaki, Hannah Griffiths, Juliana M. Silveira & Jos Barlow
Human alteration of the global environment is leading to a pervasive loss of biodiversity. Most studies evaluating human impacts on biodiversity occur after the disturbance has taken place using spatially distinct sites to determine the undisturbed reference condition. This approach is known as a space-for-time (SFT) substitution. However, SFT substitution could be underestimating biodiversity loss if spatial controls fail to provide adequate inferences about pre-disturbance conditions. We compare the SFT substitution with a before–after control–impact...

Data from: Advancing Precambrian palaeomagnetism with the PALEOMAGIA and PINT(QPI) databases

Toni H. Veikkolainen, Andrew J. Biggin, Lauri J. Pesonen, David A. Evans & Nicholas A. Jarboe
State-of-the-art measurements of the direction and intensity of Earth’s ancient magnetic field have made important contributions to our understanding of the geology and palaeogeography of Precambrian Earth. The PALEOMAGIA and PINT(QPI) databases provide thorough public collections of important palaeomagnetic data of this kind. They comprise more than 4,100 observations in total and have been essential in supporting our international collaborative efforts to understand Earth's magnetic history on a timescale far longer than that of the...

Data from: Transformation of measurement uncertainties into low-dimensional feature vector space

Antonios Alexiadis, Scott Ferson & Eann A. Patterson
Advances in technology allow the acquisition of data with high spatial and temporal resolution. These datasets are usually accompanied by estimates of the measurement uncertainty, which may be spatially or temporally varying and should be taken into consideration when making decisions based on the data. At the same time, various transformations are commonly implemented to reduce the dimensionality of the datasets for post-processing, or to extract significant features. However, the corresponding uncertainty is not usually...

Data from: Sperm competition suppresses gene drive among experimentally evolving populations of house mice

Andri Manser, Anna K. Lindholm, Leigh W. Simmons & Renée C. Firman
Drive genes are genetic elements that manipulate the 50% ratio of Mendelian inheritance in their own favour, allowing them to rapidly propagate through populations. The action of drive genes is often hidden, making detection and identification inherently difficult. Yet drive genes can have profound evolutionary consequences for the populations that harbour them: most known drivers are detrimental to organismal gamete development, reproduction and survival. In this study, we identified the presence of a well-known drive...

Data from: A test for paedomorphism in domestic pig cranial morphology

Allowen Evin, Joseph Owen, Greger Larson, Mélanie Debiais-Thibaud, Thomas Cucchi, Una Strand Vidarsdottir & Keith Dobney
Domestic animals are often described as paedomorphic, meaning that they retain juvenile characteristics into adulthood. Through a three-dimensional landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of cranial morphology at three growth stages, we demonstrate that wild boar (n = 138) and domestic pigs (n = 106) (Sus scrofa) follow distinct ontogenetic trajectories. With the exception of the size ratio between facial and neurocranial regions, paedomorphism does not appear to be the primary pattern describing the observed differences between...

Data from: Exploitation of the same trophic link favors convergence of larval life-history strategies in complex life cycle helminths

Daniel P. Benesh, James C. Chubb & Geoff A. Parker
Switching from one host to the next is a critical life history transition in parasites with complex life cycles. Growth and mortality rates are thought to influence the optimal time and size at transmission, but these rates are difficult to measure in parasites. The parasite life cycle, in particular the trophic link along which transmission occurs, may be a reasonable proxy for these rates, leading to the hypothesis that life cycle should shape life history...

Data from: Linkage map of the peppered moth, Biston betularia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): a model of industrial melanism

Arjen E. Van't Hof, Petr Nguyen, Martina Dalíková, Nicola Edmonds, František Marec & Ilik J. Saccheri
We have constructed a linkage map for the peppered moth (Biston betularia), the classical ecological genetics model of industrial melanism, aimed both at localizing the network of loci controlling melanism and making inferences about chromosome dynamics. The linkage map, which is based primarily on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and genes, consists of 31 linkage groups (LGs; consistent with the karyotype). Comparison with the evolutionarily distant Bombyx mori suggests that the gene content of chromosomes...

Data from: Detecting genes for variation in parasite burden and immunological traits in a wild population: testing the candidate gene approach

Emily A. Brown, Jill G. Pilkington, Dan H. Nussey, Kathryn A. Watt, Adam D. Hayward, Rachel Tucker, Andrea L. Graham, Steve Paterson, Dario Beraldi, Josephine M. Pemberton & Jon Slate
Identifying the genes underlying phenotypic variation in natural populations can provide novel insight into the evolutionary process. Here we test the candidate gene approach to identifying loci involved in variation in gastrointestinal parasite burden, in a wild population of Soay sheep. A comprehensive literature review, Gene Ontology databases, and comparative genomics resources were used to generate a list of candidate genes. In a pilot study these candidates, along with 50 random genes, were then sequenced...

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