16 Works

Data from: Superparasitism drives heritable symbiont epidemiology and host sex ratio in a wasp

Steven R. Parratt, Crystal L. Frost, Martijn A. Schenkel, Annabel Rice, Gregory D. D. Hurst & Kayla C. King
Heritable microbial symbionts have profound impacts upon the biology of their arthropod hosts. Whilst our current understanding of the dynamics of these symbionts is typically cast within a framework of vertical transmission only, horizontal transmission has been observed in a number of cases. For instance, several symbionts can transmit horizontally when their parasitoid hosts share oviposition patches with uninfected conspecifics, a phenomenon called superparasitism. Despite this, horizontal transmission, and the host contact structures that facilitates...

Data from: Perceptions of research bronchoscopy in Malawian adults with pulmonary tuberculosis: a cross-sectional study.

Andrew D. McCallum, Deborah Nyirenda, Wezzie Lora, Saye H. Khoo, Derek J. Sloan, Henry C. Mwandumba, Nicola Desmond & Geraint R. Davies
Bronchoscopy is an established research tool in Malawi, enabling collection of pulmonary samples for immunological, pharmacological, and microbiological studies. It is, however, an invasive clinical procedure that offers no direct benefit to volunteering participants when used in a research capacity alone, and thus informed consent is essential. This study aimed to explore TB patients’ understanding of research bronchoscopy, what would motivate them to participate in research bronchoscopy, and their concerns, in order to inform consenting...

Data from: Microbe-mediated host defence drives the evolution of reduced pathogen virulence

Suzanne A. Ford, Damian Kao, David Williams & Kayla C. King
Microbes that protect their hosts from pathogens are widespread in nature and are attractive disease control agents. Given that pathogen adaptation to barriers against infection can drive changes in pathogen virulence, ‘defensive microbes’ may shape disease severity. Here we show that co-evolving a microbe with host-protective properties (Enterococcus faecalis) and a pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) within Caenorhabditis elegans hosts drives the evolution of reduced pathogen virulence as a by-product of adaptation to the defensive microbe. Using...

Data from: Spatial extinction or persistence: landscape-temperature interactions perturb predator-prey dynamics

Jason L. Salt, Celia Bulit, Wei Zhang, Hongli Qi, David J.S. Montagnes & David J. S. Montagnes
Recognising that species interact across a range of spatial scales, we explore how landscape structure interacts with temperature to influence persistence. Specifically, we recognise that few studies indicate thermal shifts as the proximal cause of species extinctions; rather, species interactions exacerbated by temperature result in extinctions. Using microcosm-based experiments, as models of larger landscape processes, we test hypotheses that would be problematic to address through field work. A text-book predator-prey system (the ciliates Didinium and...

Data from: Multihost Bartonella parasites display covert host specificity even when transmitted by generalist vectors

Susan M. Withenshaw, Godefroy Devevey, Amy B. Pedersen & Andy Fenton
Many parasites infect multiple sympatric host species, and there is a general assumption that parasite transmission between co-occurring host species is commonplace. Such between-species transmission could be key to parasite persistence within a disease reservoir and is consequently an emerging focus for disease control. However, while a growing body of theory indicates the potential importance of between-species transmission for parasite persistence, conclusive empirical evidence from natural communities is lacking, and the assumption that between-species transmission...

Soil survey in England, Scotland and Wales carried out during 2013 and 2014 [LTLS]

H. Toberman, J. Adams, E. Tipping, D. Schillereff, C. Somerville, M. Coull, R. Helliwell, H. Carter, H. Guyatt, P. Keenan, A. Lawlor, M.G. Pereira, M. Patel, B. Tanna, S. Thacker, N. Thomson, J. Owens, S. Gibbs, D. Smith, C. Bryant, F. Elliot & P. Gulliver
Data comprise results of a soil survey in England, Scotland and Wales carried out during 2013 and 2014 as part of the NERC Macronutrient Cycles project: LTLS : Analysing and simulating long-term and large-scale interactions of carbon nitrogen and phosphorus in UK land, freshwater and atmosphere. The data include bulk density measurements, charcoal and coal determinations, site locations and sampling dates, site vegetation data, soil chemistry and isotope data, soil classifications, information on soil cores...

Data from: Do space-for-time assessments underestimate the impacts of logging on tropical biodiversity? An Amazonian case study using dung beetles

Filipe França, Júlio Louzada, Vanesca Korasaki, Hannah Griffiths, Juliana M. Silveira & Jos Barlow
Human alteration of the global environment is leading to a pervasive loss of biodiversity. Most studies evaluating human impacts on biodiversity occur after the disturbance has taken place using spatially distinct sites to determine the undisturbed reference condition. This approach is known as a space-for-time (SFT) substitution. However, SFT substitution could be underestimating biodiversity loss if spatial controls fail to provide adequate inferences about pre-disturbance conditions. We compare the SFT substitution with a before–after control–impact...

Data from: Cytokine responses in birds challenged with the human food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni implies a Th17 response

William D. K. Reid, Andrew J. Close, Suzanne Humphrey, Gemma Chaloner, Lizeth Lacharme-Lora, Lisa Rothwell, Pete Kaiser, Nicola J. Williams, Thomas J. Humprey, Paul Wigley, Stephen P. Rushton & Tom J. Humphrey
Development of process orientated understanding of cytokine interactions within the gastrointestinal tract during an immune response to pathogens requires experimentation and statistical modelling. The immune response against pathogen challenge depends on the specific threat to the host. Here, we show that broiler chickens mount a breed-dependent immune response to Campylobacter jejuni infection in the caeca by analysing experimental data using frequentist and Bayesian structural equation models (SEM). SEM provides a framework by which cytokine interdependencies,...

Moth counts on chalk grassland and surrounding arable fields with agri-environment schemes in Hampshire, 2014

J. Alison, S.J. Duffield, M.D. Morecroft & J.A. Hodgson
Results of moth surveys carried out at four landscapes in North-West Hampshire in June and July 2014. The data includes dates and locations of the surveys and associated counts for each of 180 moth species. Also included is information on site management, connectivity of survey sites to chalk grassland and habitat specialism of each moth species. Moths were surveyed in light traps for 24 nights in June/July 2014 in four landscapes in North-West Hampshire. Each...

Data from: The value of trophic interactions for ecosystem function: dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in tropical forests

Hannah M. Griffiths, Richard D. Bardgett, Julio Louzada & Jos Barlow
Anthropogenic activities are causing species extinctions, raising concerns about the consequences of changing biological communities for ecosystem functioning. To address this, we investigated how dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in the Brazilian Amazon. First, we conducted a burial and retrieval experiment using seed mimics. We found that dung beetle biomass had a stronger positive effect on the burial of large than small beads, suggesting that anthropogenic reductions in large-bodied beetles will...

Data from: Paternal care and litter size coevolution in mammals

Paula Stockley & Liane Hobson
Biparental care of offspring occurs in diverse mammalian genera, and is particularly common among species with socially monogamous mating systems. Despite numerous well-documented examples however, the evolutionary causes and consequences of paternal care in mammals are not well understood. Here we investigate the evolution of paternal care in relation to offspring production. Using comparative analyses to test for evidence of evolutionary associations between male care and life history traits, we explore if biparental care is...

Data from: Genetic hitchhiking and resistance evolution to transgenic Bt toxins: insights from the African stalk borer Busseola fusca (Noctuidae)

Pascal Campagne, Claire Capdevielle-Dulac, Rémy Pasquet, Stephen J. Cornell, Marlene Vanrooyen-Kruger, Jean-François Silvain, Bruno LeRu & Johnnie Van Den Berg
Since transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins were first released, resistance evolution leading to failure in control of pests populations has been observed in a number of species. Field resistance of the moth Busseola fusca was acknowledged 8 years after Bt maize was introduced in South Africa. Since then, field resistance of this corn borer has been observed at several locations, raising questions about the nature, distribution and dynamics of the resistance trait. Using...

Data from: Co-evolutionary dynamics between a defensive microbe and a pathogen driven by fluctuating selection

Suzanne A. Ford, David Williams, Steve Paterson & Kayla C. King
Microbes that protect their hosts from pathogenic infection are widespread components of the microbiota of both plants and animals. It has been found that interactions between ‘defensive’ microbes and pathogens can be genotype-specific and even underlie the variation in host resistance to pathogenic infection. These observations suggest a dynamic co-evolutionary association between pathogens and defensive microbes, but direct evidence of co-evolution is lacking. We tested the hypothesis that defensive microbes and pathogens could co-evolve within...

Data from: Seabird diversity hotspot linked to ocean productivity in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem

W. James Grecian, Matthew J. Witt, Martin J. Attrill, Stuart Bearhop, Peter H. Becker, Carsten Egevang, Robert W. Furness, Brendan J. Godley, Jacob González-Solís, David Grémillet, Matthias Kopp, Amélie Lescroël, Jason Matthiopoulos, Samantha C. Patrick, Hans-Ulrich Peter, Richard A. Phillips, Iain J. Stenhouse & Stephen C. Votier
Upwelling regions are highly productive habitats targeted by wide-ranging marine predators and industrial fisheries. In this study, we track the migratory movements of eight seabird species from across the Atlantic; quantify overlap with the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) and determine the habitat characteristics that drive this association. Our results indicate the CCLME is a biodiversity hotspot for migratory seabirds; all tracked species and more than 70% of individuals used this upwelling region. Relative...

Data from: Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan

Karl T. Bates, Philip D. Mannion, Peter L. Falkingham, Stephen L. Brusatte, John R. Hutchinson, Alexandros Otero, William I. Sellers, Corwin Sullivan, Kent A. Stevens & Vivian Allen
The colossal size and body plan of sauropod dinosaurs are unparalleled in terrestrial vertebrates. However, to date, there have been only limited attempts to examine temporal and phylogenetic patterns in the sauropod bauplan. Here, we combine three-dimensional computational models with phylogenetic reconstructions to quantify the evolution of whole-body shape and body segment properties across the sauropod radiation. Limitations associated with the absence of soft tissue preservation in fossils result in large error bars about mean...

Data from: Reproductive success is driven by local site fidelity despite stronger specialisation by individuals for large scale habitat preference

Samantha Clare Patrick & Henri Weimerskirch
1. There is widespread evidence that within populations, specialists and generalists can coexist and this is particularly prevalent in marine ecosystems, where foraging specialisations are evident. 2. While individuals may limit niche overlap by consistently foraging in specific areas, site fidelity may also emerge as an artefact of habitat choice but both drivers and fitness consequences of site fidelity are poorly understood. 3. Here we examine an individual metric of site and habitat fidelity, using...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Liverpool
  • University of Edinburgh
  • Federal University of Lavras
  • University of Manchester
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • Lancaster University
  • University of Oxford
  • Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology
  • Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital
  • Tianjin Agricultural University