33 Works

Selection for increased male size predicts variation in sexual size dimorphism among fish species

Curtis Horne, Andrew Hirst & David Atkinson
Variation in the degree of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) among taxa is generally considered to arise from differences in the relative intensity of male-male competition and fecundity selection. One might predict, therefore, that SSD will vary systematically with: 1) the intensity of sexual selection for increased male size, and 2) the intensity of fecundity selection for increased female size. To test these two fundamental hypotheses, we conducted a phylogenetic comparative analysis of SSD in fish....

Interpreting Verbal Irony: Linguistic Strategies and the Connection to the Type of Semantic Incongruity

Debanjan Ghosh, Elena Musi, Kartikeya Upasani & Smaranda Muresan

Sex-specific sterility caused by extreme temperatures is likely to create cryptic changes to the operational sex ratio in Drosophila virilis

Benjamin S. Walsh, Natasha L. M. Mannion, Tom A. R. Price & Steven R. Parratt
Climate change is increasing the frequency and severity of short-term heat shocks that threaten the persistence of natural populations. The effect of thermal stress on natural selection is a common topic of debate, but high temperatures can also influence sexual selection. Typically, males and females of a species can survive at similar extreme temperatures, but males have been shown to lose fertility at lower temperatures than females. Here, we examine how a brief exposure of...

European soil seed bank communities across a climate and land-cover gradient

Jan Plue, Hans Van Calster, Inger Auestad, Sofia Basto, Reneé M. Bekker, Hans Henrik Bruun, Richard Chevalier, Guillaume Decocq, Ulf Grandin, Martin Hermy, Hans Jacquemyn, Anna Jakobsson, Rein Kalamees, Rob H. Marrs, Bryndis Marteinsdóttir, Per Milberg, Robin J. Pakeman, Gareth Phoenix, Ken Thompson, Vigdis Vandvik, Markus Wagner, Sara A.O. Cousins, Ove Eriksson, Jamshid Ghorbani, Małgorzata Jankowska-Błaszczuk … & Alistair G. Auffret
This is the data set used for the publication Buffering effects of soil seed banks on plant community composition in response to land use and climate, published in the journal Global Ecology and Biogeography. Aim. Climate and land use are key determinants of biodiversity, with past and ongoing changes posing serious threats to global ecosystems. Unlike most other organism groups, plant species can possess dormant life-history stages such as soil seed banks, which may help...

Data from: Investigating cat predation as the cause of bat wing tears using forensic DNA analysis

Kirsty Shaw, Rana Khayat, Robyn Grant, Hazel Ryan, Gary Dougill & David Killick
Cat predation upon bat species has been reported to have significant effects on bat populations in both rural and urban areas. The majority of research in this area has focussed on observational data from bat rehabilitators documenting injuries, and cat owners, when domestic cats present prey. However, this has the potential to underestimate the number of bats killed or injured by cats. Here, we use forensic DNA analysis techniques to analyse swabs taken from injured...

Data from: The impact of personality, morphotype and shore-height on temperature-mediated behavioural responses in the beadlet anemone (Actinia equina)

Daniel Maskrey, Lynne Sneddon, Kathryn Arnold, David Wolfenden & Jack Thomson
1. Between-individual variation in behavioural phenotype, termed personality, is an important determinant of how populations cope with acute environmental fluctuation related to climate change. 2. Personality in the beadlet sea anemone (Actinia equina) is linked to genetically distinct morphotypes, which are associated with different heights on the shore. In the intertidal zone, high-shore environments experience more environmental fluctuation due to longer periods of exposure, and animals adapted to live in these environments are predicted to...

Increased sperm production linked to competition in the maternal social environment

Liane Hobson, Jane Hurst & Paula Stockley
Maternal or early life effects may prepare offspring for similar social conditions to those experienced by their mothers. For males, the ability to achieve mating and fertilisation success is a key social challenge. Competitive conditions may therefore favour increased body size or ejaculate production in male offspring. We tested this experimentally by comparing reproductive traits of adult male bank voles (Myodes glareolus), whose mothers had experienced contrasting encounter regimes with female conspecifics while breeding. We...

Drought and presence of ants can influence hemipitera in tropical leaf litter

Anna Goldman, Timothy Bonebrake, Theodore Evans, Hannah Griffiths, Catherine Parr, Louise Ashton & Paul Eggleton
Climate change is predicted to impact tropical rainforests, with droughts becoming more frequent and more severe in some regions. We currently have a poor understanding of how increased drought will change the functioning of tropical rainforest. In particular, tropical rainforest invertebrates, which are numerous and biologically important, may respond to drought in different ways across trophic levels. Ants are a diverse group that carry out important ecosystem processes, shaping ecosystem structure and function through predation...

Mate-finding Allee effects can be exacerbated or relieved by sexual cannibalism

Adam Fisher, Stephen Cornell, Gregory Holwell & Tom Price
1. Allee effects occur when individual or population survival decreases due to populations being small or sparse. A key mechanism underlying Allee effects is difficulty in finding mates at low densities. Species may be particularly vulnerable to mate-finding Allee effects if females rely on an abundance of males to reproduce successfully. In sexually cannibalistic species, females may consume males before or after copulation, potentially reducing the supply of males to the point where a mate-finding...

Coordination in parental effort decreases with age in a long-lived seabird

Samantha Patrick, Alexandre Corbeau, Denis Reale & Henri Weimerskirch
Biparental care is widespread in avian species. Individuals may match the contribution of their partner, resulting in equal parental effort, or may exploit their partner, to minimise their own investment. These two hypotheses have received much theoretical and empirical attention in short-lived species, that change mates between seasons. However, in species with persistent pair bonds, where divorce rate is low and costly, selective pressures are different, as partners share the value of future reproduction. In...

Teaching and learning in ecology: a horizon scan of emerging challenges and solutions

Zenobia Lewis, Julia Cooke, Yoseph Araya, Karen Bacon, Joanna Bagniewska, Lesley Batty, Tom Bishop, Moya Burns, Magda Charalambous, David Daversa, Liam Dougherty, Miranda Dyson, Adam Fisher, Dan Forman, Cristina Garcia, Ewan Harney, Thomas Hesselberg, Elizabeth John, Robert Knell, Kadmiel Maseyk, Alice Mauchline, Julie Peacock, Angelo Pernetto, Jeremy Pritchard, William Sutherland … & Nicholas Worsfold
We currently face significant, anthropogenic, global environmental challenges and therole of ecologists in mitigating these challenges is arguably more important than ever. Consequently there is an urgent need to recruit and train future generations of ecologists, both those whose main area is ecology, but also those involved in the geological, biological and environmental sciences. Here we present the results of a horizon scanning exercise that identified current and future challenges facing the teaching of ecology,...

Evolutionary biomechanics: hard tissues and soft evidence?

Karl Bates
Biomechanical modelling is a powerful tool for quantifying the evolution of functional performance in extinct animals to understand key anatomical innovations and selective pressures driving major evolutionary radiations. However, the fossil record is composed predominantly of hard parts, forcing palaeontologists to reconstruct soft tissue properties in such models. Rarely are these reconstruction approaches validated on extant animals, despite soft tissue properties being highly determinant of functional performance. The extent to which soft tissue reconstructions and...

Exploring high aspect ratio gold nanotubes as cytosolic agents: structural engineering and uptake into mesothelioma cells - dataset

Sunjie Ye, Arsalan Azad, Joseph Chambers, Alison Beckett, Lucien Roach, Samuel Moorcroft, Zabeada Aslam, Ian Prior, Alexander Markham, Louise P. Coletta, Stefan Marciniak & Stephen Evans
The generation of effective and safe nanoagents for biological applications requires their physicochemical characteristics to be tunable, and their cellular interactions to be well characterized. Here, the controlled synthesis is developed for preparing high‐aspect ratio gold nanotubes (AuNTs) with tailorable wall thickness, microstructure, composition, and optical characteristics. The modulation of optical properties generates AuNTs with strong near infrared absorption. Surface modification enhances dispersibility of AuNTs in aqueous media and results in low cytotoxicity. The uptake...

Dire wolves were the last of an ancient New World canid lineage

Laurent Frantz & Ardern Hulme-Beaman
Dire wolves are considered one of the most common and widespread large carnivores in Pleistocene America, yet relatively little is known about their evolution or extinction. To reconstruct the evolutionary history of dire wolves, we sequenced five genomes from sub-fossil bones dating from 13,000 to over 50,000 years ago. Our results indicate that though they were similar morphologically to the extant gray wolf, dire wolves were a highly divergent lineage that split from living canids...

Dataset associated with 'Quantification of Ebola virus replication kinetics in vitro'

Laura Liao, Jonathan Carruthers, Sophie J. Smither, , Simon A. Weller, Diane Williamson, Thomas R. Laws, Isabel Garcia-Dorival, Julian Hiscox, Benjamin P. Holder, Catherine Beauchemin, Alan S. Perelson, MARTIN LOPEZ-GARCIA, Grant Lythe, John Barr & carmen molina-parís
This dataset is associated with ‘Quantification of Ebola virus replication kinetics in vitro’. In the paper, a mathematical model is developed to describe the replication of Ebola virus in Vero cells. The model is parametrised using measurements of total and infectious extracellular virus at three different multiplicities of infection. The results provide insights into the distribution of time an infected cell spends in the eclipse phase (the period between infection and the start of virus...

Data from: Resource heterogeneity and the evolution of public-goods cooperation

Peter Stilwell, Siobhan O'Brien, Elze Hesse, Chris Lowe, Andy Gardner & Angus Buckling
Heterogeneity in resources is a ubiquitous feature of natural landscapes affecting many aspects of biology. However, the effect of environmental heterogeneity on the evolution of cooperation has been less well studied. Here, using a mixture of theory and experiments measuring siderophore production by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a model for public-goods based cooperation, we show that cooperation in metapopulations that were spatially heterogeneous in terms of resources can be maintained at a higher level...

Santiaguito Volcano 2014-2018 explosion catalogue

Seismic waveforms from an explosion catalogue from a seismic network at Santiaguito volcano between November 2014 and December 2018. A network of 6 broadband and 6 short-period stations was used to record explosive volcanic activity. Waveforms from 18,895 explosions have been automatically been detected and extracted.

Relationships of mass properties and body proportions to locomotor habit in terrestrial Archosauria

Peter Bishop, Karl Bates, Vivian Allen, Donald Henderson, Marcela Randau & John Hutchinson
Throughout their 250 Myr history, archosaurian reptiles have exhibited a wide array of body sizes, shapes and locomotor habits, especially in regard to terrestriality. These features make Archosauria a useful clade with which to study the interplay between body size, shape and locomotor behaviour, and how this interplay may have influenced locomotor evolution. Here, digital volumetric models of 80 taxa are used to explore how mass properties and body proportions relate to each other and...

Data from: Tradeoffs with growth limit host range in complex life cycle helminths

Daniel Benesh, Geoff Parker, James C. Chubb & Kevin Lafferty
Parasitic worms with complex life cycles have several developmental stages, with each stage creating opportunities to infect additional host species. Using a dataset for 973 species of trophically transmitted acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes, we confirmed that worms with longer life cycles (i.e. more successive hosts) infect a greater diversity of host species and taxa (after controlling for study effort). Generalism at the stage level was highest for ‘middle’ life stages, the second and third intermediate...

Data from: A meta-analysis of factors influencing the strength of mate choice copying in animals

Liam Dougherty, Alice Davies & Zenobia Lewis
Davies et al., (2020) All data and R code Mate-choice copying is a form of social learning in which an individual’s choice of mate is influenced by the apparent choices of other individuals of the same sex, and has been observed in more than 20 species across a broad taxonomic range. Though fitness benefits of copying have proven difficult to measure, theory suggests that copying should not be beneficial for all species or contexts. However,...

Data from: Agri-environment conservation set-asides have co-benefits for connectivity

Katie Threadgill, Colin McClean, Jenny Hodgson, Naomi Jones & Jane Hill
Widespread declines in farmland biodiversity have led to state-funded schemes which take land out of production to create (semi-)natural habitats for biodiversity (e.g. EU agri-environment schemes; US Conservation Reserve Program). Common features of such schemes are grassland strips at the edges of agricultural fields, and we examine potential co-benefits of these biodiversity set-asides for contributing to grassland connectivity. Although set-aside strips had negligible impact on landscape-scale species persistence (using metapopulation models parameterized for flying insects...

Data from: Breaking Barriers? Ethnicity and socioeconomic background impact on early career progression in the fields of ecology and evolution

Klara M. Wanelik, Joanne S. Griffin, Megan L. Head, Fiona C. Ingleby & Zenobia Lewis
The academic disciplines of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) have long suffered from a lack of diversity. While in recent years there has been some progress in addressing the underrepresentation of women in STEM subjects, other characteristics that have the potential to impact on equality of opportunity have received less attention. In this study, we surveyed 188 early career scientists (ECRs), defined as within ten years of completing their PhD, in the fields of...

Data to accompany manuscript: Detection and tracking of cracks based on thermoelastic stress analysis

Ceri Middleton, Melissa Weihrauch, William Christian, Richard Greene & Eann Patterson
Thermoelastic stress analysis datasets were collected during tensile loading of hole-in-plate aluminium alloy specimens, at both constant amplitude and frequency conditions, and at variable amplitude and frequency conditions - based on an idealised flight cycle. Data were collected during initiation and propagation of a fatigue crack and monitored using three types of infra-red detector at different price points. -------------------------- This dataset accompanies the manuscript: Detection and tracking of cracks based on thermoelastic stress analysis Middleton...

Virtual Mappa: Digital Editions of Early Medieval Maps of the World

Martin Foys, Heather Wacha, Catherine Crossley, Assa Mittman & LauraLee Brott
An ongoing collection of networked digital editions of early medieval maps of the world (mappa mundi); built on the digital humanities platform resource Digital Mappa (version 2.0); an open-source digital humanities platform for open-access, browser-based workspaces, projects and scholarly publications.

Data from: Carbon flux and forest dynamics: increased deadwood decomposition in tropical rainforest tree-fall gaps

Hannah Griffiths, Paul Eggleton & Catherine Parr
This study was carried out within an area of lowland, old growth dipterocarp rainforest in the Maliau Basin Conservation Area, Sabah, Malaysia (4° 44' 35" to 55" N and 116° 58' 10" to 30" E; mean annual rainfall 2838 mm ± 93 mm). On the 20th of July 2017, there was a storm at the study site, which generated winds speeds of 8.4 m/s (Fig. S1). These were among the strongest winds normally experienced in...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Interactive Resource
  • Text


  • University of Liverpool
  • University of Leeds
  • University of Cambridge
  • Natural History Museum
  • Queen Mary University of London
  • British Geological Survey
  • University of York
  • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
  • Grand Valley State University
  • University of Quebec at Montreal