Red coloration is a salient feature of the natural world. Many vertebrates produce red color by converting dietary yellow carotenoids into red ketocarotenoids via an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that two enzymes, cytochrome P450 2J19 (CYP2J19) and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1-like (BDH1L), are sufficient to catalyze this conversion. In birds, both enzymes are expressed at sites of ketocarotenoid biosynthesis (feather follicles and red cone photoreceptors), and genetic evidence implicates these enzymes in yellow/red color variation...
Invasive non-native species can alter animal-mediated seed dispersal interactions and ultimately affect the stability of recipient communities. The degree of such disturbances, however, is highly variable and depends on several factors, two of which have received little attention: the relative timing of native and non-native fruiting phenologies, and the associated variation in relative resource availability across the fruiting period. Both are likely to alter plant-seed disperser interactions threatened by biological invasions. Here we investigated the...
Thoron contribution to the inhaled dose is often neglected due to its shorter half-life and lack of strong gamma emissions that hinder its measurement. However, numerous studies report a significant contribution of thoron and/or its progeny to the dose received by the population. In the present work, radon and thoron exhalation rate and emanation coefficient were measured simultaneously with the accumulation method with an AlphaGuard DF2000 monitor in granite samples collected in high background radiation...
University of Coimbra, LRN-Laboratory of Natural Radioactivity, Department of Earth Sciences, Portugal(1);IATV-Instituto do Ambiente, Tecnologia e Vida, Coimbra, Portugal.(2);University of Coimbra, CITEUC-Center for Earth and Space Research, Department of Earth Sciences, Portugal(3);The requirements for radiological protection regarding radioactive substances in water intended for human consumption are established in the Council Directive 2013/51/EURATOM of 22 October 2013. In Portugal, the Directive was transposed to the Decree-Law 152/2017, of December 7, which states that the entities managing...
Human impacts, particularly nutrient pollution and land-use change, have caused significant declines in the quality and quantity of freshwater resources. Most global assessments have concentrated on species diversity and composition, but effects on the multifunctionality of streams and rivers remain unclear. Here, we analyse the most comprehensive compilation of stream ecosystem functions to date to provide an overview of the responses of nutrient uptake, leaf litter decomposition, ecosystem productivity, and food web complexity to six...
Flower strips and remnant semi-natural vegetation have different impacts on pollination and productivity of sunflower cropsLucie Mota, Violeta Hevia, Carlos Rad, Joana Alves, António Silva, José González, Jorge Ortega-Marcos, Oscar Aguado, Paloma Alcorlo, Francisco M. Azcárate, Libertad Chapinal, César A. López, João Loureiro, Evan A. N. Marks, Catarina Siopa, José Paulo Sousa & Sílvia Castro
Intensification of agricultural landscapes to fulfil increased global food demands has dramatically impacted biodiversity and ecosystem services. Several pollinator groups, which are vital for the maintenance of pollinator-dependent crops, have been severely affected by this intensification process. Management tools, such as the implementation of agri-environmental schemes, have been widely proposed to improve pollinator's communities and pollination services, although the effectiveness of wildflower strips in comparison to existing natural or semi-natural habitats and the impact on...
Diaspore traits specialized to animal adhesion and sea current dispersal are positively associated with the naturalization of European plants across the WorldJaime Moyano, Essl Franz, Ruben Heleno, Vargas Pablo, Martin A. Nuñez & Mariano A. Rodriguez-Cabal
Understanding what drives non-native species naturalization (the establishment of a self-sustainable population outside its native range) is a central question in invasion science. Plants’ capacity for long distance dispersal (LDD) is likely to influence the spread and naturalization of non-native species differently according to their introduction pathways. These pathways include intentional introductions (for economic use, e.g. for agriculture), unintentional introductions (e.g. seed contaminants), plant dispersal via human infrastructures (e.g. roads), and plant spread from an...
Data from: An integrative skeletal and paleogenomic analysis of stature variation suggests relatively reduced health for early European farmersStephanie Marciniak, Christina Bergey, Ana Maria Silva, Agata Hałuszko, Mirosław Furmanek, Barbara Veselka, Petr Velemínský, Giuseppe Vercellotti, Joachim Wahl, Gunita Zarina, Cristina Longhi, Jan Kolář, Rafael Garrido-Pena, Raúl Flores-Fernández, Ana M. Herrero-Corral, Angela Simalcsik, Werner Müller, Alison Sheridan, Žydrūnė Miliauskienė, Rimantas Jankauskas, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Kitti Köhler, Ágnes Király, Beatriz Gamarra, Olivia Cheronet … & George H. Perry
Human culture, biology, and health were shaped dramatically by the onset of agriculture ~12,000 years before present (BP). This shift is hypothesized to have resulted in increased individual fitness and population growth as evidenced by archaeological and population genomic data alongside a decline in physiological health as inferred from skeletal remains. Here, we consider osteological and ancient DNA data from the same prehistoric individuals to study human stature variation as a proxy for health across...
University of Coimbra17
University of Aveiro2
The Ohio State University2
University of Lisbon2
Autonomous University of Madrid2
University of Vienna2
Pennsylvania State University2
University of Applied Sciences Biberach1
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research1
Institute for Anthropological Research1