58 Works

Female fertile phase synchrony, and male mating and reproductive skew, in the crested macaque

James Higham, Michael Heistermann, Muhammad Agil, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah, Anja Widdig & Antje Engelhardt
High social status is the primary determinant of reproductive success among group-living male mammals. Primates living in multimale–multifemale groups show the greatest variation in the strength of this link, with marked variation in reproductive skew by male dominance among species, dependent on the degree of female fertile phase synchrony, and the number of competing males. Here, we present data on two groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra), living in the Tangkoko Reserve, Sulawesi, Indonesia....

Data from: Microplastics disrupt hermit crab shell selection

Andrew Crump, Charlotte Mullens, Emily Bethell, Eoghan Cunningham & Gareth Arnott
Microplastics (plastics < 5 mm) are a potential threat to marine biodiversity. However, the effects of microplastic pollution on animal behaviour and cognition are poorly understood. We used shell selection in common European hermit crabs (Pagurus bernhardus) as a model to test whether microplastic exposure impacts the essential survival behaviours of contacting, investigating, and entering an optimal shell. We kept 64 female hermit crabs in tanks containing either polyethylene spheres (n = 35) or no...

Information transfer efficiency differs in wild chimpanzees and bonobos, but not social-cognition

Cedric Girard-Buttoz, Martin Surbeck, Liran Samuni, Patrick Tkaczynski, Christophe Boesch, Barbara Fruth, Roman Wittig, Gottfried Hohmann & Catherine Crockford
Several theories have been generated to understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying the unique cooperative abilities of humans. The “interdependence hypothesis” posits that the cognitive dimension of human cooperation evolved in contexts when several individuals needed to collaborate to achieve a common goal and that more interdependent individuals are more likely to cooperate (provide services to conspecifics) in non-collaborative contexts. Alternatively, the “social tolerance hypothesis” proposes that higher social tolerance allows conspecifics to cooperate more efficiently...

Data from: The effect of roads on spider monkeys’ home range and mobility in a heterogeneous regenerating forest

Norberto Asensio, Elvin Murillo-Chacon, Colleen M. Schaffner & Filippo Aureli
Arboreal fauna living in tropical ecosystems may be particularly affected by roads given their dependency on forest cover and the high vulnerability of such ecosystems to changes. Over a period of four years, we followed subgroups of spider monkeys living in a regenerating dry tropical forest with 8.2 km of roads within their home range. We aimed to understand whether roads shaped the home range of spider monkeys and which road features affected their movement....

Data from: A high quality pedigree and genetic markers both reveal inbreeding depression for quality but not survival in a cooperative mammal

David A. Wells, Michael A. Cant, Hazel J. Nichols, Joe I. Hoffman & Joseph I. Hoffman
Inbreeding depression, the reduced fitness of offspring of closely related parents, is commonplace in both captive and wild populations and has important consequences for conservation and mating system evolution. However, because of the difficulty of collecting pedigree and life history data from wild populations, relatively few studies have been able to compare inbreeding depression for traits at different points in the life cycle. Moreover, pedigrees give the expected proportion of the genome that is identical...

Data from: Downsizing a giant: re-evaluating Dreadnoughtus body mass

Karl T. Bates, Peter L. Falkingham, Sophie Macaulay, Charlotte Brassey & Susannah C. R. Maidment
Estimates of body mass often represent the founding assumption on which biomechanical and macroevolutionary hypotheses are based. Recently, a scaling equation was applied to a newly discovered titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur (Dreadnoughtus), yielding a 59 300 kg body mass estimate for this animal. Herein, we use a modelling approach to examine the plausibility of this mass estimate for Dreadnoughtus. We find that 59 300 kg for Dreadnoughtus is highly implausible and demonstrate that masses above 40...

Data from: Ecological divergence combined with ancient allopatry in lizard populations from a small volcanic island

Nicolas M. Suárez, Jose Pestano & Richard P. Brown
Population divergence and speciation are often explained by geographical isolation, but may also be possible under high gene flow due to strong ecology-related differences in selection pressures. This study combines coalescent analyses of genetic data (11 microsatellite loci and 1 Kbp of mtDNA) and ecological modelling to examine the relative contributions of isolation and ecology to incipient speciation in the scincid lizard Chalcides sexlineatus within the volcanic island of Gran Canaria. Bayesian multispecies coalescent dating...

Data from: Thrifty phenotype vs cold adaptation: trade-offs in upper limb proportions of Himalayan populations of Nepal

Stephanie Payne, Rajendra B.C. Kumar, Emma Pomeroy, Alison Macintosh, Jay Stock & Rajendra Kumar BC
The multi-stress environment of high altitude has been associated with growth deficits in humans, particularly in zeugopod elements (forearm, lower leg). This is consistent with the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, which has been observed in Andeans, but has yet to be tested in other high altitude populations. In Himalayan populations, other factors, such as cold stress, may shape limb proportions. The current study investigated whether relative upper limb proportions of Himalayan adults (n=254) differ between highland...

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