15 Works

A catastrophic tropical drought kills hydraulically vulnerable tree species

Jennifer Powers, German Vargas-G, Timothy Brodribb, Naomi Schwartz, Daniel Perez-Aviles, Chris Smith-Martin, Justin Becknell, Filippo Aureli, Roger Blanco, Erick Calderón-Morales, Julio César Calvo-Alvarado, Ana Julieta Calvo-Obando, María Marta Chavarría, Dorian Carvajal-Vanegas, César Dionisio Jiménez-Rodríguez, Evin Murillo Chacon, Colleen Schaffner, Leland Werden, Xiangtao Xu & David Medvigy
Drought-related tree mortality is now a widespread phenomenon predicted to increase in magnitude with climate change. However, the patterns of which species and trees are most vulnerable to drought, and the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive, in part due to the lack of relevant data and difficulty of predicting the location of catastrophic drought years in advance. We used long‐term demographic records and extensive databases of functional traits and distribution patterns to understand the responses...

Gregariousness, foraging effort, and social interactions in lactating bonobos and chimpanzees

Sean Lee, Gottfried Hohmann, Elizabeth Lonsdorf, Barbara Fruth & Carson Murray
Fission-fusion dynamics have evolved in a broad range of animal taxa and are thought to allow individuals to mitigate feeding competition. While this is the principal benefit of fission-fusion, few studies have evaluated its costs. We compared gregariousness, foraging budgets, and social budgets between lactating bonobos and chimpanzees from wild populations to evaluate such costs. Both species exhibit fission-fusion dynamics, but chimpanzees, particularly in East African populations, appear to experience higher feeding competition than bonobos....

Data from: A method for mapping morphological convergence on three-dimensional digital models: the case of the mammalian saber-tooth

Pasquale Raia, Marina Melchionna, Antonio Profico, Silvia Castiglione, Carmela Serio, Alessandro Mondanaro, Maria Modafferi, Davide Tamagnini, Luigi Maiorano, Pasquale Raia, Stephen Wroe, Lawrence Witmer & Gabriele Sansalone
Morphological convergence can be assessed through a variety of statistical methods. None of the methods proposed to date enable the visualization of convergence. All are based on the assumption that the phenotypes either converge, or do not. However, between species, morphologically similar regions of a larger structure may behave differently. Previous approaches do not identify these regions within the larger structures or quantify the degree to which they may contribute to overall convergence. Here we...

The impact of a heat and moisture exchange mask on respiratory symptoms and airway response to exercise in asthma

John Dickinson, Anna Jackson, James Hull, James Hopker, Hannah Fletcher, William Gowers & John Molphy
Respiratory symptoms, including cough are prevalent in asthmatic individuals when exercising. This study investigates whether a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) face mask is effective in modulating exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and post exercise cough in a cold, dry environment in asthmatic individuals. Twenty-six participants diagnosed with asthma (20 males, 6 females) completed three cycling exercise challenges (EX) at 8 oC and 24% relative humidity (RH) in a randomised order. Participants wore either an HME...

Pitfall and refuge trap sampling Linn Co March 2018-June2019

Inga Reich, Casi Jessie, Seung-Joon Ahn, Man-Yeon Choi, Christopher Williams, Mike Gormally & Rory Mc Donnell
Numbers of carabid beetles, caterpillars, cranefly larvae and slugs collected from pitfall and refuge traps in ten Annual Ryegrass fields in Linn County, Oregon between March 23, 2018 and June 20, 2019. Given are details on sampling date, trap, size and sex (carabids only), weight (slugs only) and species (where possible). Provided are also the results of the molecular gut content analysis of the carabid beetles: Date of gut dissection and associated details on the...

Listening and watching: do camera traps or acoustic sensors more efficiently detect wild chimpanzees in an open habitat?

Anne-Sophie Crunchant, David Borchers, Hjalmar Kuehl & Alex K. Piel
1. With one million animal species at risk of extinction, there is an urgent need to regularly monitor threatened species. However, in practice this is challenging, especially with wide-ranging, elusive and cryptic species or those that occur at low density. 2. Here we compare two non-invasive methods, passive acoustic monitoring (n=12) and camera trapping (n=53), to detect chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a savanna-woodland mosaic habitat at the Issa Valley, Tanzania. With occupancy modelling we evaluate...

Data from: All is fish that comes to the net: metabarcoding for rapid fisheries catch assessment

Lorenzo Talarico, Tommaso Russo, Giulia Maiello, Charles Baillie, Giuliano Colosimo, Lorenzo D'Andrea, Federico Di Maio, Fabio Fiorentino, Simone Franceschini, Germana Garofalo, Dario Scannella, Stefano Cataudella & Stefano Mariani
AbstractMonitoring marine resource exploitation is a key activity in fisheries science and biodiversity conservation. Since research surveys are time-consuming and costly, fishery-dependent data (i.e. derived directly from fishing vessels) are increasingly credited with a key role in expanding the reach of ocean monitoring. Fishing vessels may be seen as widely ranging data-collecting platforms, which could act as a fleet of sentinels for monitoring marine life, in particular exploited stocks. Here, we investigate the possibility of...

Variation in mouse pelvic morphology maps to locations enriched in Sox9 Class II and Pitx1 regulatory features

Charles Roseman, Terrence Capellini, Evelyn Jagoda, Scott Williams, Mark Grabowski, Christine O'Connor, John Polk & James Cheverud
Variation in pelvic morphology has a complex genetic basis and its patterning and specification is governed by conserved developmental pathways. Whether the mechanisms underlying the differentiation and specification of the pelvis also produce the morphological covariation on which natural selection may act is still an open question in evolutionary developmental biology. We use high-resolution Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping in the F34 generation of an advanced intercross experiment (LG,SM-G34) to characterize the genetic architecture of...

Palm fruit colours are linked to the broad-scale distribution and diversification of primate colour vision systems

Renske Onstein, Daphne Vink, Jorin Veen, Christopher Barratt, Suzette Flantua, Serge Wich & Daniel Kissling
A long-standing hypothesis in ecology and evolution is that trichromatic colour vision (the ability to distinguish red from green) in frugivorous primates has evolved as an adaptation to detect conspicuous (reddish) fruits. This could provide a competitive advantage over dichromatic frugivores which cannot distinguish reddish colours from a background of green foliage. Here, we test whether the origin, distribution and diversity of trichromatic primates is positively associated with the availability of conspicuous palm fruits, i.e....

Targeted and passive environmental DNA approaches outperform established methods for detection of quagga mussels, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis in flowing water

Rosetta Blackman, Kar Keun Sean Ling, Lynsey R Harper, Peter Shum, Bernd Hänfling & Lori Lawson-Handley
The early detection of invasive non-native species (INNS) is important for informing management actions. Established monitoring methods require the collection or observation of specimens, which is unlikely at the beginning of an invasion when densities are likely to be low. Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis is a highly promising technique for the detection of INNS – particularly during the early stages of an invasion. Here, we compared the use of traditional kick-net sampling with two eDNA...

Data from: Genetic analysis of Boletus edulis suggests that intra-specific competition may reduce local genetic diversity as a woodland ages

Vivienne Litzke, Rebecca Nagel, Joseph Hoffman, David Wells & William Amos
Ectomycorrhizal fungi are key players in terrestrial ecosystems yet their mating systems and population dynamics remain poorly understood. We investigated the fine-scale relatedness structure and genetic diversity of Boletus edulis, one of the world’s most commercially important wild mushrooms. Microsatellite genotyping of fruiting bodies from 14 different sites around Bielefeld in Germany revealed little in the way of population structure over a geographic scale of several kilometers. However, on a more local scale we found...

Acoustic and temporal birdsong measurements

Tristan Kleyn, Mariane Da Cruz Kaizer & Luiza Figueiredo Passos
In tropical birds, survival is dependent on the ability to effectively communicate with others against a background of high ambient noise. The Acoustic Niche Hypothesis proposes that the deterrent selective force of signal masking has caused animals sharing a habitat to partition their calling behaviour amongst the acoustic bandwidths available, so as to minimise interference between one another. Whether and why species share the so-called ‘acoustic space’ remains a gap in our understanding of animal...

Environmental DNA effectively captures functional diversity of coastal fish communities

Giorgio Aglieri, Charles Baillie, Stefano Mariani, Carlo Cattano, Antonio Calò, Gabriele Turco, Davide Spatafora, Antonio Di Franco, Manfredi Di Lorenzo, Paolo Guidetti & Marco Milazzo
Robust assessments of taxonomic and functional diversity are essential components of research programs aimed at understanding current biodiversity patterns and forecasting trajectories of ecological changes. Yet, evaluating marine biodiversity along its dimensions is challenging and dependent on the power and accuracy of the available data collection methods. Here we combine three traditional survey methodologies [Underwater Visual Census strip transects (UVCt), Baited Underwater Videos (BUVs) and Small Scale Fishery catches (SSFc)], and one novel molecular technique...

Data from: Microplastics disrupt hermit crab shell selection

Andrew Crump, Charlotte Mullens, Emily Bethell, Eoghan Cunningham & Gareth Arnott
Microplastics (plastics < 5 mm) are a potential threat to marine biodiversity. However, the effects of microplastic pollution on animal behaviour and cognition are poorly understood. We used shell selection in common European hermit crabs (Pagurus bernhardus) as a model to test whether microplastic exposure impacts the essential survival behaviours of contacting, investigating, and entering an optimal shell. We kept 64 female hermit crabs in tanks containing either polyethylene spheres (n = 35) or no...

Information transfer efficiency differs in wild chimpanzees and bonobos, but not social-cognition

Cedric Girard-Buttoz, Martin Surbeck, Liran Samuni, Patrick Tkaczynski, Christophe Boesch, Barbara Fruth, Roman Wittig, Gottfried Hohmann & Catherine Crockford
Several theories have been generated to understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying the unique cooperative abilities of humans. The “interdependence hypothesis” posits that the cognitive dimension of human cooperation evolved in contexts when several individuals needed to collaborate to achieve a common goal and that more interdependent individuals are more likely to cooperate (provide services to conspecifics) in non-collaborative contexts. Alternatively, the “social tolerance hypothesis” proposes that higher social tolerance allows conspecifics to cooperate more efficiently...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    15

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    15

Affiliations

  • Liverpool John Moores University
    15
  • Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
    4
  • University of Salford
    3
  • Harvard University
    3
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • Royal Brompton Hospital
    1
  • Colby College
    1
  • Queen's University Belfast
    1
  • University of Notre Dame
    1
  • University of Kent
    1