Data from: A new solution to an old riddle: elongate dinosaur tracks explained as deep penetration of the foot, not plantigrade locomotionJens N. Lallensack, James O. Farlow & Peter L. Falkingham
The dinosaur track record features numerous examples of trackways with elongate metatarsal marks. Such “elongate tracks” are often highly variable and characterised by indistinct outlines and abbreviated or missing digit impressions. Elongate dinosaur tracks are well-known from the Paluxy River bed of Texas, where some had been interpreted as “man tracks” by creationists due to their superficially human-like appearance. The horizontal orientation of the metatarsal marks led to the now widely accepted idea of a...
There are 5 files. Two include 2D coordinates used to quantify cranium and mandible shape for a sample of 188 averaged Carnivora species. These coordinates are in .NTS format. Another file is the phylogenetic tree employed for this study in nexus format. In Excel there is museum catalog list of all the specimens included in the study while the text file RoutineR.txt include most of the scripts employed in this study with examples on how...
Data from: Testing the occurrence of convergence in the cranio-mandibular shape evolution of living carnivoransDavide Tamagnini, Carlo Meloro, Pasquale Raia & Luigi Maiorano
Convergence consists in the independent evolution of similar traits in distantly related species. The mammalian cranio-mandibular complex constitutes an ideal biological structure to investigate ecomorphological dynamics and the carnivorans, due to their phenotypic variability and ecological flexibility, offer an interesting case-study to explore the occurrence of convergent evolution. Here, we applied multiple pattern-based metrics to test the occurrence of convergence in the cranio-mandibular shape of extant carnivorans. To this aim, we tested for convergence in...
Patterns of recent natural selection on genetic loci associated with sexually differentiated human body size and shape phenotypesAudrey M. Arner, Kathleen E. Grogan, Mark Grabowski, Hugo Reyes-Centeno & George H. Perry
Levels of sex differences for human body size and shape phenotypes are hypothesized to have adaptively reduced following the agricultural transition as part of an evolutionary response to relatively more equal divisions of labor and new technology adoption. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by studying genetic variants associated with five sexually differentiated human phenotypes: height, body mass, hip circumference, body fat percentage, and waist circumference. We first analyzed genome-wide association (GWAS) results for...
Testing small scale ecological gradients and intraspecific differentiation for hundreds of kelp forest species using haplotypes from metabarcodingPeter Shum & Stephen Palumbi
DNA metabarcoding has been increasingly used to detail distributions of hundreds of species. Most analyses focus on creating molecular operation taxonomic units (MOTUs) from complex mixtures of DNA sequences, but much less common is use of the sequence diversity within these MOTUs. Here we use the diversity of COI haplotypes within MOTUs from a California kelp forest to infer patterns of population abundance, dispersal and population history from 527 species of animals and algae from...
An often-stated ecomorphological assumption that has the status of ‘textbook knowledge’ is that the dimensions of the digestive tract correlate with diet, where herbivores – consuming diets of lower digestibility – have longer intestinal tracts than faunivores – consuming diets of higher digestibility. However, statistical approaches have so far failed to demonstrate this link. Here, we collated data on the length of intestinal sections and body mass of 519 mammal species, and test for various...
Aim: Modelling African great ape distribution has until now focused on current or past conditions, whilst future scenarios remain scarcely explored. Using an ensemble forecasting approach, we predicted changes in taxon-specific distribution under future scenarios of climate, land-use and human populations for 1) areas outside protected areas (PAs) only (assuming complete management effectiveness of PAs), 2) the entire study region, and 3) interspecies range overlap. Location: Tropical Africa Methods: We compiled occurrence data (n=5,203) on...
Dataset from: Ardipithecus hand provides evidence that humans and chimpanzees evolved from an ancestor with suspensory adaptationsThomas Cody Prang, Kristen Ramirez, Mark Grabowski & Scott Williams
The morphology and positional behavior of the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees are critical for understanding the evolution of bipedalism. Early 20th century anatomical research supported the view that humans evolved from a suspensory ancestor bearing some resemblance to apes. However, the hand of the 4.4 million-year-old hominin Ardipithecus ramidus, purportedly provides evidence that the hominin hand was derived from a more generalized form. Here we use morphometric and phylogenetic comparative methods to...
Bird necks display unparalleled levels of morphological diversity compared to other vertebrates, yet it is unclear what factors have structured this variation. Using 3D geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistics we show that the avian cervical column is a hierarchical morpho-functional appendage, with varying magnitudes of ecologically-driven morphological variation at different scales of organisation. Contrary to expectations given the widely-varying ecological functions of necks in different species, we find that regional modularity of the avian neck...
High social status is the primary determinant of reproductive success among group-living male mammals. Primates living in multimale–multifemale groups show the greatest variation in the strength of this link, with marked variation in reproductive skew by male dominance among species, dependent on the degree of female fertile phase synchrony, and the number of competing males. Here, we present data on two groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra), living in the Tangkoko Reserve, Sulawesi, Indonesia....
Life history theory predicts a trade-off between growth rates and lifespan, which is reflected by telomere length, a biomarker of somatic state. We investigated the correlation between telomere length and early life growth of wild boar piglets, Sus scrofa, kept under semi-natural conditions with high food availability to examine our hypothesis that increased pre-and post-natal growth will lead to telomere length attrition but that a high supply of nutrient may provide the possibility to compensate...
Liverpool John Moores University12
New York University2
Sapienza University of Rome2
California Polytechnic State University1
University of the Free State1
University of Cincinnati1
Texas A&M University1
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna1
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology1