1,459 Works

Data from: Genetic population structure of U.S. Atlantic coastal striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

David T. Gauthier, Corinne A. Audemard, Jeanette E. L. Carlsson, Tanya L. Darden, Michael R. Denson, Kimberly S. Reece & Jens Carlsson
Genetic population structure of anadromous striped bass along the US Atlantic coast was analyzed using 14 neutral nuclear DNA microsatellites. Young-of-the-year and adult striped bass (n = 1114) were sampled from Hudson River, Delaware River, Chesapeake Bay, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Analyses indicated clear population structure with significant genetic differentiation between all regions. Global multilocus F ST was estimated at 0.028 (P < 0.001). Population structure followed an isolation-by-distance model and temporal sampling indicated...

Data from: Temporal variability and cooperative breeding: testing the bet-hedging hypothesis in the acorn woodpecker

Walter D. Koenig & Eric L. Walters
Cooperative breeding is generally considered an adaptation to ecological constraints on dispersal and independent breeding, usually due to limited breeding opportunities. Although benefits of cooperative breeding are typically thought of in terms of increased mean reproductive success, it has recently been proposed that this phenomenon may be a bet-hedging strategy that reduces variance in reproductive success (fecundity variance) in populations living in highly variable environments. We tested this hypothesis using long-term data on the polygynandrous...

Data from: Gain-of-function experiments in bacteriophage lambda uncover residues under diversifying selection in nature

Rohan Maddamsetti, Daniel T. Johnson, Stephanie J. Spielman, Katherine L. Petrie, Debora S. Marks & Justin R. Meyer
Viral gain-of-function mutations frequently evolve during laboratory experiments. Whether the specific mutations that evolve in the lab also evolve in nature and whether they have the same impact on evolution in the real world is unknown. We studied a model virus, bacteriophage λ, that repeatedly evolves to exploit a new host receptor under typical laboratory conditions. Here we demonstrate that two residues of λ’s J protein are required for the new function. In natural λ...

Are you my baby? Testing whether paternity affects behavior of cobreeder male acorn woodpeckers

Walter Koenig, Joseph Haydock, Hannah Dugdale & Eric Walters
Natural selection is expected to favor males that invest more in offspring they sire. We investigated the relationship between paternity and male behavior in the acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus), cooperative breeders that live in family groups including offspring that remain on their natal territory, sometimes for years, and cobreeders of both sexes. Regardless of group composition, only one communal nest is attended at a time. Whereas cobreeding females share maternity equally, one male often sires...

Quantifying capital vs. income breeding: new promise with stable isotope measurements of individual amino acids

John Whiteman
1. Capital breeders accumulate nutrients prior to egg development, then use these stores to support offspring. In contrast, income breeders rely on local nutrients consumed contemporaneously with offspring development. Understanding such nutrient allocations is critical to assessing wildlife reliance on different habitats. 2. Despite the contrast between these strategies, it remains challenging to trace nutrients from endogenous stores or exogenous food intake into offspring. Here, we tested a new solution to this problem. 3. Using...

Designing for the One-Shot: Building Consensus on Design Processes for Academic Librarians

Kirsten Hostetler
Academic librarians have long been responsible for teaching information literacy competencies on college campuses, even as many are hesitant to accept the title of teacher. With inadequate instructional design preparation and one-shot sessions serving as a popular, if limited, instructional medium, librarians’ design processes are often developed on the job and infrequently explored in the literature. Previous research has examined specific design models and instructional strategies, but no studies were found that determined how academic...

Numerical Analysis of a Roadway Piezoelectric Harvesting System

Abdul Rahman Badawi
Highways, streets, bridges, and sidewalks with heavy traffic dissipate a considerable amount of waste mechanical energy every day. Piezoelectric energy harvesting devices are a very promising technology that can convert the waste mechanical energy to clean and renewable energy to enhance the sustainability of infrastructures. Research efforts in large-scale energy harvesting have led to the advancement of piezoelectric devices to the point that large-scale implementation is starting to become more feasible. The energy harvested by...

A Meta-Analysis of Group Treatment Outcomes for Veterans with Substance Use Disorders

Robert “Tony” Dice
Group therapy is commonly used in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD). Many studies exist related to the efficacy of group interventions for veterans with SUDs. A meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature addressing the use of group therapy, specifically psychoeducational groups, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) groups and support groups, in the treatment of SUDs with veterans was conducted. The following questions guided the research: What are viable treatment outcomes for psychoeducational, CBT,...

Community College Students with Psychological Disorders and Their Perceptions of Online Learning

Gretchen Winifred Langford Warren
Research focusing on students with learning disabilities is abundant for secondary and higher education. Studies utilizing data on students with psychological disorders cover secondary and 4-year university education. However, community college students with psychological disorders and their perception of online classes is an area of educational research which lacks data. Students across a wide spectrum of psychological disorders tend to find learning challenging. The community college's learning environment may best fit their learning styles. With...

Discovering Career Self-Efficacy Among Rural Community College Students

Tameka Mierelle Womack
Many students report that their main purpose for attending a two- or four-year academic institution is to prepare for a career, and require assistance during the process of selecting a major and career that is appropriate for them. Students who struggle with career indecision often seek help through career counseling and/or computer-assisted career guidance systems. Self-efficacy plays a key role in students' self-esteem and their belief that they can not only choose a career but...

Food Habits and Ecology of Beavers in Southeastern Virginia

John Lennox Echternach Jr.
The food habits and ecology of three beaver colonies in James County, Virginia were studied. Vegetation surrounding the colonies was characterized as southern mixed hardwood forest or lowland swamp forest. Stream flow values ranged from 0.013 to 0.369 m3/sec. Water depth ranged from 0.5 60 4.0 m. Caloric value of 13 heavily used woody species ranged from 3305 to 6204 cal/g. Considerable seasonal variation was noted in most species with the lowest caloric values noted...

Stratigraphy and Depositional Environments of a Late Pleistocene Barrier Island Complex, Southeastern Virginia

Alan K. Jasper
The Norfolk, Kempsville, and Sand Bridge Formations beneath the HIckory Scarp of southeastern Virginia are reinterpreted as representing one glacio-eustatic transgressive cycle. The timing of this transgressive event is set during the earliest Wisconsinan. The formations were previously interpreted as unconformable overlying one another. The Norfolk-Kempsville unconformity is actually a diagenetic boundary. Evidence is presented which indicates that the Kempsville Scarp area should be reduced to member status or dropped entirely.

Copula-Based Zero-Inflated Count Time Series Models

Mohammed Sulaiman Alqawba
Count time series data are observed in several applied disciplines such as in environmental science, biostatistics, economics, public health, and finance. In some cases, a specific count, say zero, may occur more often than usual. Additionally, serial dependence might be found among these counts if they are recorded over time. Overlooking the frequent occurrence of zeros and the serial dependence could lead to false inference. In this dissertation, we propose two classes of copula-based time...

Analysis of Attitude and Achievement Using the 5E Instructional Model in an Interactive Television Environment

Gamaliel R. Cherry
The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to examine attitude and achievement among fifth grade students participating in inquiry and lecture-based forms of instruction through interactive television. Participants (N = 260) were drawn from registered users of NASA's Digital Learning Network™. The first three levels of Bloom's Revised Taxonomy were used to measure levels of achievement while the Science Attitude Inventory II was used to measure science attitudes. Results indicated a significant interaction between inquiry...

Relationship Between Membership in DECA, An Association of Marketing Students, and Grade Point Average as an Indicator of Academic Success

Michael Frederick Kosloski Jr.
Stakeholders in career and technical education, and more specifically marketing education, tout member benefits of applied learning through career and technical student organizations. However, there is little empirical evidence to support the notion that such student organizations help students to achieve academic gains. As a result, the purpose of this study was to collect and analyze empirical data to determine whether there is a relationship between DECA, An Association of Marketing Students, and academic gains...

Worked Examples in Teaching Queries for Searching Academic Databases

Mary Kickham-Samy
The worked-example effect, an application of cognitive load theory, is a well-supported method of instruction for well-structured problems (Chandler and Sweller, 1991; Cooper and Sweller, 1987; Sweller and Cooper, 1985; Tuovinen & Sweller, 1999; Ward and Sweller, 1990). One limitation is expertise-reversal effect, where advanced students perform less well when exposed to worked examples than when exposed to traditional problem solving (Kalyuga, Ayres, Chandler, & Sweller, 2003; Kalyuga, Chandler, & Sweller, 1998; Kalyuga, Chandler, Tuovinen,...

Project Management Professional Training Needs for Defense Industry Projects

Cole Jerome Kupec II
The purpose of this study was to determine if the Project Management Professional credential requirements encompass the knowledge for project managers required to effectively manage defense industry projects. This study used a four-round Delphi methodology to solicit opinions of defense industry project management professionals about current project management credential curriculum and if that curriculum reflects the realities of the current project management environment. Two research questions guided this study: 1) Do government contractors working on...

An eLearning Narration Modality Study: In Pursuit of Faster, Cheaper, and Almost the Same

Richard David Horner
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of five different eLearning modality practices on workplace learning and perceived learner satisfaction. Using a factorial posttest comparison design (with a control group), this experimental field study explored the learning effects and learner perceived satisfaction associated with the use of different modality approaches within an eLearning course delivered in a workplace. More than 3,000 study participants, who are part of a U.S. federal workforce, where...

Efficacy of Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) Certifications

Daniel L. Trent
This research investigated the perceived effect of industry recognized Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) certifications among community college drafting instructors and employers. The research questions that guided this study were: (1) Do community college drafting instructors believe that certified drafters perform better on the job than non-certified drafters? (2) Do employers believe that certified drafters perform better on the job than non-certified drafters? (3) Do employers seek CAD certified individuals to fill drafting positions? (4) Is...

Engineering Design: A Cognitive Process Approach

Greg Joseph Strimel
The intent of this dissertation was to identify the cognitive processes used by advanced pre-engineering students to solve complex engineering design problems. Students in technology and engineering education classrooms are often taught to use an ideal engineering design process that has been generated mostly by educators and curriculum developers. However, the review of literature showed that it is unclear as to how advanced pre-engineering students cognitively navigate solving a complex and multifaceted problem from beginning...

Perceptions of Second-Level Managers' Performance in Student affairs

Jennifer Kingsley
This study explored first- (subordinates) and second-level (managers) student affairs professionals' perceptions of managers' skills and abilities (N = 193). Participants in this study were members of the National Association for Student Personnel Administrators, National Association for Campus Activities, Association of College an University Housing Officer-International, and the Association on Higher Education and Disability in Virginia. Two instruments were used for the study: (1) Demographics, collecting demographic information and qualitative data, (2) Survey of Management...

Evaluating Work Keys Profiling as a Pre-Employment Assessment Tool to Increase Employee Retention

Ruth Zimmer Hendrick
Twenty-first century changes in the nature of work, the workforce and employment practices, along with increased employer need to select employees who will have the best "fit" with particular jobs in order to increase return on investment, are leading employers toward greater use of pre-employment assessments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of one of those tools, the Work Keys skill assessment battery, on employment retention. Research questions centered around the...

The Relationship of Teacher Route to Certification to Student Outcomes on Statewide Social Studies Assessment

Aaron L. Smith
Public school divisions face daunting challenges today. One such challenge is the ability to recruit and retain highly qualified and effective teachers. Endemic teacher shortages coupled with escalating national education standards make it imperative that school divisions hire and retain teachers who can positively and immediately impact student achievement. Schools without effective teachers face possible sanctions, which could include re-staffing of the school, parental choice that would allow the student population to attend more successful...

The Impact of Participation in a Virginia Community College Orientation Program Course on Student Engagement, Satisfaction, Academic achievement, and Retention

Wendy L. Tighe
Participation in an orientation program course and several student engagement and satisfaction factors have been identified as positively related to desirable student outcomes. This study explored student engagement, satisfaction, academic achievement, and retention for students based on their enrollment in an orientation course at Tidewater Community College (TCC) in Virginia. This study used a cross-sectional, static group comparison secondary data analysis approach to explore four research questions. The Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE)...

Predictors of Persistence Among Community College Adult and Traditional-Aged Students

Kellie Crawford Sorey
Previous literature has documented the high attrition rates for community college students. Beyond raw data, research has demonstrated that predictors of higher education persistence may include a student's background characteristics, a student's external commitments, institutional influences, and a combination thereof. However, empirical research on the persistence of community college students is scarce, and even fewer studies address the differential predictors of persistence between adult and traditional-aged students. The present study examined the predictors of institutional...

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  • Old Dominion University
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