303 Works

Additional file 1 of Genomic characterization of peste des petits ruminants vaccine seed “45G37/35-k”, Russia

Olivier Kwiatek, Geneviève Libeau, Samia Guendouz, Chloé Corbanini, Andrey Gogin, Andrey Lunitsin, Irina Sindryakova, Denis Koblasov & Arnaud Bataille
Additional file 1. Position and frequency of the 248 nucleotide differences separating the PPR vaccine strains Nigeria/75/1 (Nig75/1) and 45G37/35-k (FRCVM). Nucleotide positions corresponding to mutations associated to the attenuation of Nigeria/75/1 are in bold [14].

Data from: The effect of copy number hemiplasy on gene family evolution

Qiuyi Li, Yao-Ban Chan, Nicolas Galtier & Celine Scornavacca
The evolution of gene families is complex, involving gene-level evolutionary events such as gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer, and gene loss (DTL), and other processes such as incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). Because of this, topological differences often exist between gene trees and species trees. A number of models have been recently developed to explain these discrepancies, the most realistic of which attempt to consider both gene-level events and ILS. When unified in a single model,...

The generality of cryptic dietary niche differences in diverse large-herbivore assemblages

Robert Pringle, Johan Pansu, Matthew Hutchinson, T. Michael Anderson, Mariska Te Beest, Colleen Begg, Keith Begg, Aurelie Bonin, Lackson Chama, Simon Chamaillé-Jammes, Eric Coissac, Joris Cromsigt, Margaret Demmel, Jason Donaldson, Jennifer Guyton, Christina Hansen, Christopher Imakando, Azwad Iqbal, Davis Kalima, Graham Kerley, Samson Kurukura, Marietjie Landman, Ryan Long, Isaack Munuo, Ciara Nutter … & Tyler Kartzinel
Ecological niche differences are necessary for stable species coexistence but are often difficult to discern. Models of dietary niche differentiation in large mammalian herbivores invoke the quality, quantity, and spatiotemporal distribution of plant tissues and growth-forms but are agnostic towards food-plant species identity. Empirical support for these models is variable, suggesting that additional mechanisms of resource partitioning may be important in sustaining large-herbivore diversity in African savannas. We used DNA metabarcoding to conduct a taxonomically...

Joint modeling strategy for using electronic medical records data to build machine learning models: an example of intracerebral hemorrhage

Jianxiang Tang, Xiaoyu Wang, Hongli Wan, Chunying Lin, Zilun Shao, Yang Chang, Hexuan Wang, Yi Wu, Tao Zhang & Yu Du
Abstract Background Outliers and class imbalance in medical data could affect the accuracy of machine learning models. For physicians who want to apply predictive models, how to use the data at hand to build a model and what model to choose are very thorny problems. Therefore, it is necessary to consider outliers, imbalanced data, model selection, and parameter tuning when modeling. Methods This study used a joint modeling strategy consisting of: outlier detection and removal,...

Additional file 1 of No association between habitat, autogeny and genetics in Moroccan Culex pipiens populations

Soukaina Arich, Yuki Haba, Najlaa Assaid, Megan L. Fritz, Carolyn S. McBride, Mylène Weill, Hassan Taki, M’hammed Sarih & Pierrick Labbé
Additional file 1: Table S1. CQ11 genotype data from previously published studies in Morocco. CQ11 genotype data for C. pipiens s.s. in Morocco retrieved from the literature are indicated with, for each sample, the locality of sampling, the date (year), the type of breeding site (when reported in the publication, “-” when not), the number of individuals of each CQ11 genotypes (homozygotes for the pipiens allele, for the molestus allele, and heterozygotes) and the reference....

No association between habitat, autogeny and genetics in Moroccan Culex pipiens populations

Soukaina Arich, Yuki Haba, Najlaa Assaid, Megan L. Fritz, Carolyn S. McBride, Mylène Weill, Hassan Taki, M’hammed Sarih & Pierrick Labbé
Abstract Background Mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex are found across the globe and are the focus of many research studies. Among the temperate species C. pipiens sensu stricto (s.s.), two forms are usually described: molestus and pipiens. These two forms are indistinguishable in terms of morphology but show behavioral and physiological differences that may have consequences for their associated epidemiology. The two forms are well defined in the northern part of the species distribution,...

Additional file 1 of Host-plant adaptation as a driver of incipient speciation in the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)

Estelle Fiteni, Karine Durand, Sylvie Gimenez, Robert L. Meagher, Fabrice Legeai, Gael J. Kergoat, Nicolas Nègre, Emmanuelle d’Alençon & Kiwoong Nam
Additional file 1: Table S1. Summary statistics of genome assemblies showing contiguity and correctness of the assemblies (BUSCO) generated in this study and other published assemblies. Table S2. The information of each sample used in this study. Table S3. Position of targets of selective sweeps specific to the corn or grass group. Table S5. Summary statistics of genome assemblies showing contiguity and correctness of the assemblies generated using SALSA2 and 3D-DNA. Table S6. The list...

Additional file 1 of Intensified tuberculosis treatment to reduce the mortality of HIV-infected and uninfected patients with tuberculosis meningitis (INTENSE-TBM): study protocol for a phase III randomized controlled trial

Thomas Maitre, Maryline Bonnet, Alexandra Calmy, Mihaja Raberahona, Rivonirina Andry Rakotoarivelo, Niaina Rakotosamimanana, Juan Ambrosioni, José M. Miró, Pierre Debeaudrap, Conrad Muzoora, Angharad Davis, Graeme Meintjes, Sean Wasserman, Robert Wilkinson, Serge Eholié, Frédéric Ello Nogbou, Maria-Camilla Calvo-Cortes, Corine Chazallon, Vanessa Machault, Xavier Anglaret & Fabrice Bonnet
Additional file 1. Modified MARAIS Score (modified from Marais et al. [27]).

Data from: Patterns of macroevolution among Primates inferred from a supermatrix of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

Pierre-Henri Fabre, Andrew Rodrigues, Emmanuel J. P. Douzery, P-.H. Fabre & E.J.P. Douzery
Here, we present a new primate phylogeny inferred from molecular supermatrix analyses of size 42 kb containing 70% of missing data, and representing 75% of primate species diversity. The supermatrix was analysed using a gene-partitioned maximum likelihood approach to obtain an exhaustive molecular phylogenetic framework. All clades recovered from recent molecular works were upheld in our analyses demonstrating that the presence of missing data did not bias our supermatrix inference. The resulting phylogenetic tree was...

Data from: Reverse evolution: selection against costly resistance in disease-free microcosm populations of Paramecium caudatum

Alison B Duncan, Simon Fellous & Oliver Kaltz
Evolutionary costs of parasite resistance arise if genes conferring resistance reduce fitness in the absence of parasites. Thus, parasite-mediated selection may lead to increased resistance and a correlated decrease in fitness, whereas relaxed parasite-mediated selection may lead to reverse evolution of increased fitness and a correlated decrease in resistance. We tested this idea in experimental populations of the protozoan Paramecium caudatum and the parasitic bacterium Holospora undulata. After 8 years, resistance to infection and asexual...

Data from: Molecular phylogenetics unveils the ancient evolutionary origins of the enigmatic fairy armadillos

Frédéric Delsuc, Mariella Superina, Marie-Ka Tilak-Jean, Emmanuel J. P. Douzery, Alexandre Hassanin, Marie-Ka Tilak & Emmanuel J.P. Douzery
Fairy armadillos or pichiciegos (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) are among the most elusive mammals. Due to their subterranean and nocturnal lifestyle, their basic biology and evolutionary history remain virtually unknown. Two distinct species with allopatric distributions are recognized: Chlamyphorus truncatus is restricted to central Argentina, while Calyptophractus retusus occurs in the Gran Chaco of Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia. To test their monophyly and resolve their phylogenetic affinities within armadillos, we obtained sequence data from modern and museum...

Data from: New DNA data from a Transthyretin nuclear intron suggest an Oligocene to Miocene diversification of living South America opossums (Marsupialia: Didelphidae).

Cynthia C. Steiner, Marie-Ka Tilak, Emmanuel J. P. Douzery, François M. Catzeflis & Emmanuel J.P. Douzery
Phylogenetic relationships of 19 species of didelphid marsupials were studied using two nuclear markers, the non-coding transthyretin intron 1 (TTR) and the coding interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein exon 1 (IRBP), and two mitochondrial genes, the protein-coding cytochrome b (cyt-b) and the structural 12S ribosomal DNA (12S rDNA). Evolutionary dynamics of these four markers were compared to each other, revealing the appropriate properties presented by TTR intron 1 together with its well supported and resolved phylogenetic...

Data from: Diversification in temporally heterogeneous environments: effect of the grain in experimental bacterial populations.

Patrick A Venail, Nicolas Mouquet, Oliver Kaltz, Isabelle Olivieri & Thomas Pommier
Although theory established the necessary conditions for diversification in temporally heterogeneous environments, empirical evidence remains controversial. One possible explanation is the difficulty of designing experiments including the relevant range of temporal grains and the appropriate environmental tradeoffs. Here, we experimentally explore the impact of the grain on the diversification of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 in a temporally fluctuating environment by including twenty different pairs of environments and four temporal grains. In general, higher levels...

Data from: Social learning and the replication process: an experimental investigation

Maxime Derex, Romain Feron, Bernard Godelle & Michel Raymond
Human cultural traits typically result from a gradual process that has been described as analogous to biological evolution. This observation has led pioneering scholars to draw inspiration from population genetics to develop a rigorous and successful theoretical framework of cultural evolution. Social learning, the mechanism allowing information to be transmitted between individuals, has thus been described as a simple replication mechanism. Although useful, the extent to which this idealization appropriately describes the actual social learning...

Data from: Pine afforestation decreases the long-term performance of understory shrubs in a semiarid Mediterranean ecosystem: a stable isotope approach.

Cristina Moreno-Gutiérrez, Giovanna Battipaglia, Paolo Cherubini, Antonio Delgado Huertas & José Ignacio Querejeta
1. Plant–plant interactions shape the structure and composition of plant communities, but shifts in interaction outcomes might occur in the face of ongoing climate change. 2. We assessed the influence of Pinus halepensis plantations on the long-term ecophysiological performance of understorey vegetation, by conducting a retrospective comparison (1989–2007) of growth-ring widths, δ13C and δ18O between Rhamnus lycioides shrubs from two contrasting vegetation types: P. halepensis plantations vs. open woodlands. We also measured the leaf δ13C,...

Data from: Assessing the distribution of disease-bearing rodents in human-modified tropical landscapes

Serge Morand, Frédéric Bordes, Kim Blasdell, Shai Pilosof, Jean-François Cornu, Kittipong Chaisiri, Yannick Chaval, Jean-François Cosson, Julien Claude, Tristan Feyfant, Vincent Herbreteau, Stéphane Dupuy & Annelise Tran
1. We tested how habitat structure and fragmentation affect the spatial distribution of common murine rodents inhabiting human-dominated landscapes in southeast Asia. The spatial distribution patterns observed for each rodent species were then used to assess how changes in habitat structure may potentially affect the risk of several major rodent-borne diseases. 2. For this analysis, we used an extensive geo-referenced database containing details of rodents trapped from seven sites in Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR....

Data from: Gene expression, chromosome heterogeneity and the fast-X effect in mammals

Linh-Phuong Nguyen, Nicolas Galtier, Benoit Nabholz & L.-P. Nguyen
The higher rate of non-synonymous over synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) of the X chromosome compared with autosomes is often interpreted as a consequence of X hemizygosity. However, other factors, such as gene expression, are also known to vary between X and autosomes. Analysing 4800 orthologues in six mammals, we found that gene expression levels, associated with GC content, fully account for the variation in dN/dS between X and autosomes with no detectable effect of hemizygosity. We...

Data from: Escape of spring frost and disease through phenological variations in oak populations along elevation gradients

Cécile Françoise Dantec, Hugo Ducasse, Xavier Capdevielle, Olivier Fabreguettes, Sylvain Delzon & Marie-Laure Desprez-Loustau
1. The timing of tree flushing follows strong phenotypic and genetic clines across environmental gradients. It may be seen as an adaptive response to abiotic (escape of spring frost and maximizing growing season length) and biotic (escape of pest and disease) hazards. However, few studies have investigated jointly both types of hazards. 2. We assessed exposure to both abiotic (spring frost) and biotic (powdery mildew) hazards within and between sessile oak populations along elevation gradients,...

Data from: Home loving boreal hare mitochondria survived several invasions in Iberia: the relative roles of recurrent hybridisation and allele surfing

José Melo-Ferreira, Liliana Farelo, Helder Freitas, Franz Suchentrunk, Pierre Boursot & Paulo C. Alves
Genetic introgression from a resident species into an invading close relative can result from repeated hybridisation along the invasion front and/or allele surfing on the expansion wave. Cases where the phenomenon is massive and systematic, such as for hares (genus Lepus) in Iberia, would be best explained by recurrent hybridisation but this is difficult to prove since the donor populations are generally extinct. In the Pyrenean foothills, Lepus europaeus presumably replaced Lepus granatensis recently and...

Data from: Bushmeat genetics: setting up a reference framework for the DNA-typing of African forest bushmeat

Philippe Gaubert, Flobert Njiokou, Ayodeji Olayemi, Paolo Pagani, Sylvain Dufour, Emmanuel Danquah, Mac Elikem K. Nutsuakor, Gabriel Ngua, Alain-Didier Missoup, Pablo A. Tedesco, Rémy Dernat & Agostinho Antunes
The bushmeat trade in tropical Africa represents illegal, unsustainable off-takes of millions of tons of wild game – mostly mammals – per year. We sequenced four mitochondrial gene fragments (cyt b, COI, 12S, 16S) in >300 bushmeat items representing nine mammalian orders and 59 morphological species from five western and central African countries (Guinea, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea). Our objectives were to assess the efficiency of cross-species PCR amplification and to evaluate the...

Data from: Decomposing changes in phylogenetic and functional diversity over space and time

Loïc Chalmandrier, Tamara Münkemüller, Vincent Devictor, Sébastien Lavergne & Wilfried Thuiller
1. The α, β, γ diversity decomposition methodology is commonly used to investigate changes in diversity over space or time but rarely conjointly. However, with the ever-increasing availability of large-scale biodiversity monitoring data, there is a need for a sound methodology capable of simultaneously accounting for spatial and temporal changes in diversity. 2. Using the properties of Chao's index, we adapted Rao's framework of diversity decomposition between orthogonal dimensions to a multiplicative α, β, γ...

Data from: Sexual selection against natural hybrids may contribute to reinforcement in a house mouse hybrid zone

Yasmin Latour, Guila Ganem, Carole M. Smadja, Pierre Boursot, Pierre Caminade & Marco Perriat-Sanguinet
Sexual selection may hinder gene flow across contact zones when hybrid recognition signals are discriminated against. We tested this hypothesis in a unimodal hybrid zone between Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus where a pattern of reinforcement was described and lower hybrid fitness documented. We presented mice from the border of the hybrid zone with a choice between opposite sex urine from the same subspecies versus hybrids sampled in different locations across the zone....

Data from: Functional responses of multi-taxa communities to disturbance and stress gradients in a restored floodplain

Bertrand Fournier, François Gillet, Renée-Claire Le Bayon, Edward A. D. Mitchell & Marco Moretti
1. Trait-based approaches can reveal the mechanisms through which disturbances or stress impact communities, allowing comparisons of the role of different mechanisms in shaping communities among taxonomic groups. Such information can lead to higher comparability, transferability and predictability of the outcome of restoration projects. However, multitaxa trait-based approaches were rarely used in the context of ecosystem restoration. 2. We investigated the responses to environmental gradients of seven taxa (vascular plants, staphylinid and carabid beetles, spiders,...

Data from: Population genomic footprints of fine-scale differentiation between habitats in Mediterranean blue tits

Marta Szulkin, Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire, Nicolas Bierne, Anne Charmantier & P.-A. Gagnaire
Linking population genetic variation to the spatial heterogeneity of the environment is of fundamental interest to evolutionary biology and ecology, in particular when phenotypic differences between populations are observed at biologically small spatial scales. Here, we applied restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) to test whether phenotypically differentiated populations of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) breeding in a highly heterogeneous environment exhibit genetic structure related to habitat type. Using 12106 SNPs in 197 individuals from deciduous...

Data from: Evidence for adaptation from standing genetic variation on an antimicrobial peptide gene in the mussel Mytilus edulis

Célia C. Gosset, Joana Do Nascimento, Marie-Thérèse Augé & Nicolas Bierne
Genome scans of population differentiation identify candidate loci for adaptation but provide little information on how selection has influenced the genetic structure of these loci. Following a genome scan, we investigated the nature of the selection responsible for the outlying differentiation observed between populations of the marine mussel Mytilus edulis at a leucine/arginine polymorphism (L31R) in the antimicrobial peptide MGD2. We analysed DNA sequence polymorphisms, allele frequencies and population differentiation of polymorphisms closely linked to...

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