373 Works

Catchment attributes and hydro-meteorological timeseries for 671 catchments across Great Britain (CAMELS-GB)

G. Coxon, N. Addor, J.P. Bloomfield, J. Freer, M. Fry, J. Hannaford, N.J.K. Howden, R. Lane, M. Lewis, E.L. Robinson, T. Wagener & R. Woods
This dataset provides hydro-meteorological timeseries and landscape attributes for 671 catchments across Great Britain. It collates river flows, catchment attributes and catchment boundaries from the UK National River Flow Archive together with a suite of new meteorological timeseries and catchment attributes. Daily timeseries for the time period 1st October 1970 to the 30th September 2015 are provided for a range of hydro-meteorological data (including rainfall, potential evapotranspiration, temperature, radiation, humidity and flow). A comprehensive set...

Impacts of Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) on seed dispersal services in Iberian Peninsula

A. Devenish
This data set describes the seed dispersal process of both invaded (presence of Linepithema humile) and non-invaded (absence of L. humile) ant communities. Data were collected from four field sites in and around Girona (41.9794° N, 2.8214° E), Northern Spain, during the summer months of 2014 (June-July) and 2015 (July-September). Experiment 1: Ant community structure of both invaded and non-invaded ant communities was determined using a series of pitfall and baiting traps. Experiment 2: Ant...

Monthly Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentration time series (1883 to 2014) measured at the outlet of the Thames basin (UK)

V. Noacco, T. Wagener, F. Worrall, T. P. Burt & N. J. K. Howden
The dataset consists of the world's longest fluvial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) record (1883-2014). The data have been measured at the outlet of the Thames basin, upstream of London (UK) and are reported monthly. The River Thames basin is a temperate, lowland, mineral soil-dominated catchment of 9,948 km2. Water colour data have been measured between 1883 and 1990, and DOC between 1990 and 2014. DOC until 1990 has been estimated through calibration between water colour...

Nabro Urgency Array

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A deployment of 8 Guralp 6TD seismometers around Nabro Volcano, Eritrea following the eruption on June 12th 2011.

Nectar values from: Quantifying nectar production by flowering plants in urban and rural landscapes

Nicholas Tew, Jane Memmott, Ian Vaughan, Stephanie Bird, Graham Stone, Simon Potts & Katherine Baldock
Floral resources (nectar and pollen) provide food for insect pollinators but have declined in the countryside due to land use change. Given widespread pollinator loss, it is important that we quantify their food supply to help develop conservation actions. While nectar resources have been measured in rural landscapes, equivalent data are lacking for urban areas, an important knowledge gap as towns and cities often host diverse pollinator populations. We quantified the nectar supply of urban...

Data from: Are British urban foxes (Vulpes vulpes) ‘bold’? The importance of understanding human-wildlife interactions in urban areas

Roberto Padovani, Zhuoyu Shi & Stephen Harris
Urban fox behaviour recorded during an extensive field experiment in Bristol, UK. We examined two different but inter-related behaviours, both of which influence a fox's propensity to take risks. Neophobia affects a fox's reaction to novelty in the environment, and wariness its reaction to potential threats. We investigated how social status and foraging social context influenced both behaviours in Bristol’s fox population. For further information please see Padovani et al. 2021.

Supplemental material for: Morphological phylogenetics evaluated using novel evolutionary simulations

Joseph Keating, Robert S Sansom, Mark D Sutton, Christopher G Knight & Russell J Garwood
Evolutionary inferences require reliable phylogenies. Morphological data has traditionally been analysed using maximum parsimony, but recent simulation studies have suggested that Bayesian analyses yield more accurate trees. This debate is ongoing, in part, because of ambiguity over modes of morphological evolution and a lack of appropriate models. Here we investigate phylogenetic methods using two novel simulation models – one in which morphological characters evolve stochastically along lineages and another in which individuals undergo selection. Both...

Reliably predicting pollinator abundance: challenges of calibrating process-based ecological models

Emma Gardner, Tom Breeze, Yann Clough, Henrik Smith, Katherine Baldock, Alistair Campbell, Michael Garratt, Mark Gillespie, William Kunin, Megan McKerchar, Jane Memmott, Simon Potts, Deepa Senapathi, Graham Stone, Felix Wäckers, Duncan Westbury, Andrew Wilby & Thomas Oliver
1. Pollination is a key ecosystem service for global agriculture but evidence of pollinator population declines is growing. Reliable spatial modelling of pollinator abundance is essential if we are to identify areas at risk of pollination service deficit and effectively target resources to support pollinator populations. Many models exist which predict pollinator abundance but few have been calibrated against observational data from multiple habitats to ensure their predictions are accurate. 2. We selected the most...

Data from: Projected impacts of warming seas on commercially fished species at a biogeographic boundary of the European continental shelf

Katherine Maltby, Louise Rutterford, Jonathan Tinker, Martin Genner & Stephen Simpson
1. Projecting the future effects of climate change on marine fished populations can help prepare the fishing industry and management systems for resulting ecological, social and economic changes. Generating projections using multiple climate scenarios can provide valuable insights for fisheries stakeholders regarding uncertainty arising from future climate data. 2. Using a range of climate projections based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios, we modelled abundance of eight commercially...

Data from: Colour pattern variation forms local background matching camouflage in a leaf-mimicking toad

James Barnett, Constantine Michalis, Nicholas Scott-Samuel & Innes Cuthill
Optimal camouflage can, in principle, be relatively easily achieved in simple, homogeneous, environments where backgrounds always have the same color, brightness, and patterning. Natural environments are, however, rarely homogenous and species often find themselves viewed against varied backgrounds where the task of concealment is more challenging. One result of variable backgrounds is the evolution of intraspecific phenotypic variation which may either be generalized, with multiple similarly cryptic patterns, or specialized, with each discrete color form...

Data from: Biomechanical properties of the jaws of two species of Clevosaurus and a reanalysis of rhynchocephalian dentary morphospace

Sofia Chambi-Trowell, David Whiteside, Mike Benton & Emily Rayfield
Rhynchocephalians were a successful, globally distributed group of diapsid reptiles that thrived in the Mesozoic. Multiple species of Clevosaurus existed worldwide in the Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic, and they are characterised by shearing bladelike teeth perhaps functionally analogous to the carnassial teeth of mammals. Morphometric analysis shows that the dentary morphospace of clevosaurs differs significantly from that of other rhynchocephalians. Five Clevosaurus species occupied islands in the Bristol Channel archipelago of the UK, but...

Categorical versus geometric morphometric approaches to characterising the evolution of morphological disparity in Osteostraci (Vertebrata, stem-Gnathostomata)

Humberto Ferron, Jenny Greenwood, Bradley Deline, Carlos Martínez Pérez, Hector Botella, Robert Sansom, Marcello Ruta & Philip Donoghue
Morphological variation (disparity) is almost invariably characterised by two non-mutually exclusive approaches: (i) quantitatively, through geometric morphometrics, and (ii) in terms of discrete, ‘cladistic’, or categorical characters. Uncertainty over the comparability of these approaches diminishes the potential to obtain nomothetic insights into the evolution of morphological disparity and the few benchmarking studies conducted so far show contrasting results. Here, we apply both approaches to characterising morphology in the stem-gnathostome clade Osteostraci in order to assess...

Data from: Aposematism: balancing salience and camouflage

James B. Barnett, Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel & Innes C. Cuthill
Aposematic signals are often characterized by high conspicuousness. Larger and brighter signals reinforce avoidance learning, distinguish defended from palatable prey and are more easily memorized by predators. Conspicuous signalling, however, has costs: encounter rates with naive, specialized or nutritionally stressed predators are likely to increase. It has been suggested that intermediate levels of aposematic conspicuousness can evolve to balance deterrence and detectability, especially for moderately defended species. The effectiveness of such signals, however, has not...

Data from: Recent ecological selection on regulatory divergence is shaping clinal variation in Senecio on Mount Etna

Graham Muir, Owen G. Osborne, Jonas Sarasa, Simon J. Hiscock & Dmitry A. Filatov
The hybrid zone on Mount Etna (Sicily) between Senecio aethnensis and Senecio chrysanthemifolius (two morphologically and physiologically distinct species) is a classic example of an altitudinal cline. Hybridization at intermediate altitudes and gradients in phenotypic and life-history traits occur along altitudinal transects of the volcano. The cline is considered to be a good example of ecological selection with species differences arising by divergent selection opposing gene flow. However, the possibility that the cline formed from...

Data from: Hierarchical polygyny in multiparous lesser flat-headed bats

Panyu Hua, Libiao Zhang, Guangjian Zhu, Gareth Jones, Shuyi Zhang & Stephen James Rossiter
How males gain access to mates and the potential for female choice will determine whether polygyny can operate at several levels, from within litters and groups to the wider population. Female lesser flat-headed bats (Tylonycteris pachypus) form maternity groups in bamboo stems. Unusually for bats, they are multiparous, providing the opportunity to test whether multi-level polygyny differs among males depending on whether they roost with females, with males, or are solitary. We genotyped 662 individuals...

Data from: Tag jumps illuminated – reducing sequence-to-sample misidentifications in metabarcoding studies

Ida Bærholm Schnell, Kristine Bohmann, M. Thomas P. Gilbert & Ida Baerholm Schnell
Metabarcoding of environmental samples on second-generation sequencing platforms has rapidly become a valuable tool for ecological studies. A fundamental assumption of this approach is the reliance on being able to track tagged amplicons back to the samples from which they originated. In this study, we address the problem of sequences in metabarcoding sequencing outputs with false combinations of used tags (tag jumps). Unless these sequences can be identified and excluded from downstream analyses, tag jumps...

Data from: Year-round sexual harassment as a behavioral mediator of vertebrate population dynamics

Victoria Wearmouth, Emily Southall, David Morritt, Richard C. Thompson, Innes C. Cuthill, Julian Partridge, David W. Sims & Julian C. Partridge
Within-species sexual segregation is a widespread phenomenon among vertebrates but its causes remain a topic of much debate. Female avoidance of male coercive mating attempts has the potential to influence the social structure of animal populations, yet it has been largely overlooked as a driver of sexual separation. Indeed, its potential role in long-term structuring of natural populations has not been studied. Here we use a comparative approach to examine the suitability of multiple hypotheses...

Data from: Retrospective harm benefit analysis of pre-clinical animal research for six treatment interventions

Pandora Pound & Christine J. Nicol
Background: The harm benefit analysis (HBA) is the cornerstone of animal research regulation and is considered to be a key ethical safeguard for animals. The HBA involves weighing the anticipated benefits of animal research against its predicted harms to animals but there are doubts about how objective and accountable this process is. Objectives: i. To explore the harms to animals involved in pre-clinical animal studies and to assess these against the benefits for humans accruing...

Data from: Bayesian inference reveals positive but subtle effects of experimental fishery closures on marine predator demographics

Richard B. Sherley, Barbara J. Barham, Peter J. Barham, Kate J. Campbell, Robert J.M. Crawford, Jennifer Grigg, Catharine Horswill, Alistair McInnes, Taryn L. Morris, Lorien Pichegru, Antje Steinfurth, Florian Weller, Henning Winker, Stephen C. Votier & Cat Horswill
Global forage-fish landings are increasing, with potentially grave consequences for marine ecosystems. Predators of forage fish may be influenced by this harvest, but the nature of these effects is contentious. Experimental fishery manipulations offer the best solution to quantify population-level impacts, but are rare. We used Bayesian inference to examine changes in chick survival, body condition and population growth rate of endangered African penguins Spheniscus demersus in response to eight years of alternating time-area closures...

Data from: The fossil record of ichthyosaurs, completeness metrics and sampling biases

Terri J. Cleary, Benjamin C. Moon, Alexander M. Dunhill & Michael J. Benton
Ichthyosaurs were highly successful marine reptiles with an abundant and well-studied fossil record. However, their occurrences through geological time and space are sporadic, and it is important to understand whether times of apparent species richness and rarity are real or the result of sampling bias. Here, we explore the skeletal completeness of 351 dated and identified ichthyosaur specimens, belonging to all 102 species, the first time that such a study has been carried out on...

Data from: Masquerade is associated with polyphagy and larval overwintering in the Lepidoptera

Andrew D. Higginson, Leoni De Wert, Hannah M. Rowland, Michael P. Speed & Graeme D. Ruxton
Masquerading animals benefit from the difficulty that predators have in differentiating them from the inedible objects, such as twigs, that they resemble. The function of masquerade has been demonstrated, but how it interacts with the life history of organisms has not been studied. Here, we report the use of comparative analyses to test hypotheses linking masquerade to life-history parameters. We constructed a phylogenetic tree of the British species of the lepidoptera families Geometridae and Drepanidae...

Data from: Marginal predation: do encounter or confusion effects explain the targeting of prey group edges?

Callum Duffield & Christos C. Ioannou
Marginal predation, also known as the edge effect, occurs when aggregations of prey are preferentially targeted on their periphery by predators and has long been established in many taxa. Two main processes have been used to explain this phenomenon, the confusion effect and the encounter rate between predators and prey group edges. However, it is unknown at what size a prey group needs to be before marginal predation is detectable and to what extent each...

Data from: Feeding ecology of the deep-bodied fish Dapedium (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) from the Sinemurian of Dorset, England

Fiann M. Smithwick
Reconstructing the feeding ecology of fossil fishes can be difficult, but new mechanical approaches enable reasonably reliable inferences by comparison with living forms. Here, the feeding ecology of one of the most iconic and abundant actinopterygians of the Early Jurassic, Dapedium, is explored through detailed anatomical study and functional analyses of jaw mechanics. Mathematical models derived from modern teleost functional morphology are applied, to ascertain the transmission of force through the jaws of Dapedium. A...

Data from: A giant pliosaurid skull from the Late Jurassic of England

Roger B. J. Benson, Mark Evans, Adam S. Smith, Judyth Sassoon, Scott Moore-Faye, Hilary F. Ketchum & Richard Forrest
Pliosaurids were a long-lived and cosmopolitan group of marine predators that spanned 110 million years and occupied the upper tiers of marine ecosystems from the Middle Jurassic until the early Late Cretaceous. A well-preserved giant pliosaurid skull from the Late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation of Dorset, United Kingdom, represents a new species, Pliosaurus kevani. This specimen is described in detail, and the taxonomy and systematics of Late Jurassic pliosaurids is revised. We name two additional...

Data from: Prediction and attenuation of seasonal spillover of parasites between wild and domestic ungulates in an arid mixed-use system

Josephine G. Walker, Kate E. Evans, Hannah Rose Vineer, Jan A. Van Wyk & Eric R. Morgan
1.Transmission of parasites between host species affects host population dynamics, interspecific competition, and ecosystem structure and function. In areas where wild and domestic herbivores share grazing land, management of parasites in livestock may affect or be affected by sympatric wildlife due to cross-species transmission. 2.We develop a novel method for simulating transmission potential based on both biotic and abiotic factors in a semi-arid system in Botswana. Optimal timing of antiparasitic treatment in livestock is then...

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