14 Works

Data from: Multiple cases of asymmetric introgression among horseshoe bats detected by phylogenetic conflicts across loci

Xiuguang Mao, Vu D. Thong, Paul J. J. Bates, Gareth Jones, Shuyi Zhang & Stephen J. Rossiter
Phylogenetic discordance among taxa can provide powerful insights into past episodes of introgressive hybridization, as well as lineage sorting. Previously, we showed that the taxonomically distinct taxon Rhinolophus sinicus septentrionalis has undergone historical introgression with its sympatric sister subspecies Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus. To examine in more detail the extent of gene flow between these two taxa, and also between these and their sister species Rhinolophus thomasi, we obtained new samples from China, Myanmar, and Vietnam,...

Data from: A giant pliosaurid skull from the Late Jurassic of England

Roger B. J. Benson, Mark Evans, Adam S. Smith, Judyth Sassoon, Scott Moore-Faye, Hilary F. Ketchum & Richard Forrest
Pliosaurids were a long-lived and cosmopolitan group of marine predators that spanned 110 million years and occupied the upper tiers of marine ecosystems from the Middle Jurassic until the early Late Cretaceous. A well-preserved giant pliosaurid skull from the Late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation of Dorset, United Kingdom, represents a new species, Pliosaurus kevani. This specimen is described in detail, and the taxonomy and systematics of Late Jurassic pliosaurids is revised. We name two additional...

Data from: Recent ecological selection on regulatory divergence is shaping clinal variation in Senecio on Mount Etna

Graham Muir, Owen G. Osborne, Jonas Sarasa, Simon J. Hiscock & Dmitry A. Filatov
The hybrid zone on Mount Etna (Sicily) between Senecio aethnensis and Senecio chrysanthemifolius (two morphologically and physiologically distinct species) is a classic example of an altitudinal cline. Hybridization at intermediate altitudes and gradients in phenotypic and life-history traits occur along altitudinal transects of the volcano. The cline is considered to be a good example of ecological selection with species differences arising by divergent selection opposing gene flow. However, the possibility that the cline formed from...

Data from: Trophic niche flexibility in Glossophaga soricina: how a nectar seeker sneaks an insect snack

Elizabeth L. Clare, Holger R. Goerlitz, Violaine A. Drapeau, Marc W. Holderied, Amanda M. Adams, Juliet Nagel, Elizabeth R. Dumont, Paul D. N. Hebert & M. Brock Fenton
Omnivory enables animals to fill more than one trophic niche, providing access to a wider variety of food resources with potentially higher nutrient value, particularly when resources become scarce. Animals can achieve omnivory using different strategies, for example opportunistic foraging, or switching between multiple trophic niches. The Neotropical bat Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766) is a common and widespread species known for nectar-feeding, but it also eats fruit and insects. Approaching stationary objects (flowers and fruits)...

Data from: Microsatellites for the marsh Fritillary butterfly: de novo transcriptome sequencing, and a comparison with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers

Melanie R. Smee, Yannick Pauchet, Paul Wilkinson, Brian Wee, Michael C. Singer, Richard H. Ffrench-Constant, David J. Hodgson & Alexander S. Mikheyev
BACKGROUND: Until recently the isolation of microsatellite markers from Lepidoptera has proved troublesome, expensive and time-consuming. Following on from a previous study of Edith's checkerspot butterfly, Euphydryas editha, we developed novel microsatellite markers for the vulnerable marsh fritillary butterfly, E. aurinia. Our goal was to optimize the process in order to reduce both time and cost relative to prevailing techniques. This was accomplished by using a combination of previously developed techniques: in silico mining of...

Data from: Morphological and biomechanical disparity of crocodile-line archosaurs following the end-Triassic extinction

Thomas L. Stubbs, Stephanie E. Pierce, Emily J. Rayfield & Philip S. L. Anderson
Mesozoic crurotarsans exhibited diverse morphologies and feeding modes, representing considerable ecological diversity, yet macroevolutionary patterns remain unexplored. Here we employ a unique combination of morphological and biomechanical disparity metrics to quantify the ecological diversity and trophic radiations of Mesozoic crurotarsans, using the mandible as a morpho-functional proxy. We recover three major trends. First, the diverse assemblage of Late Triassic crurotarsans was morphologically and biomechanically disparate, implying high levels of ecological variation; but, following the end-Triassic...

Data from: Timing of morphological and ecological innovations in the cyanobacteria – a key to understanding the rise in atmospheric oxygen

Carrine E. Blank & P. Sánchez-Baracaldo
When cyanobacteria originated and diversified, and what their ancient traits were, remain critical unresolved problems. Here, we used a phylogenomic approach to construct a well-resolved 'core' cyanobacterial tree. The branching positions of four lineages (Thermosynechococcus elongatus, Synechococcus elongatus, Synechococcus PCC 7335 and Acaryochloris marina) were problematic, probably due to long branch attraction artifacts. A consensus genomic tree was used to study trait evolution using ancestral state reconstruction (ASR). The early cyanobacteria were probably unicellular, freshwater,...

Data from: Size-dependent physiological responses of shore crabs to single and repeated playback of ship noise

Matthew A. Wale, Stephen D. Simpson & Andrew N. Radford
Anthropogenic noise has fundamentally changed the acoustics of terrestrial and aquatic environments, and there is growing empirical evidence that even a single noise exposure can impact behaviour in a variety of vertebrate organisms. Here we use controlled experiments to investigate how the physiology of a marine invertebrate, the shore crab (Carcinus maenas), is affected by both single and repeated exposure to ship-noise playback. Crabs experiencing ship-noise playback consumed more oxygen, indicating a higher metabolic rate...

Data from: Camouflage, detection and identification of moving targets

Joanna R. Hall, Innes C. Cuthill, Roland Baddeley, Adam J. Shohet & Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel
Nearly all research on camouflage has investigated its effectiveness for concealing stationary objects. However, animals have to move, and patterns that only work when the subject is static will heavily constrain behaviour. We investigated the effects of different camouflages on the three stages of predation—detection, identification and capture—in a computer-based task with humans. An initial experiment tested seven camouflage strategies on static stimuli. In line with previous literature, background-matching and disruptive patterns were found to...

Data from: Singing in the moonlight: dawn song performance of a diurnal bird varies with lunar phase

Jennifer E. York, Andrew J. Young & Andrew N. Radford
It is well established that the lunar cycle can affect the behaviour of nocturnal animals, but its potential to have a similar influence on diurnal species has received less research attention. Here we demonstrate that the dawn song of a cooperative songbird, the white-browed sparrow weaver (Plocepasser mahali), varies with moon phase. When the moon was above the horizon at dawn, males began singing on average 10 minutes earlier if there was a full moon...

Data from: Evolution on the move: specialization on widespread resources associated with rapid range expansion in response to climate change

Jon R. Bridle, James Buckley, Edward J. Bodsworth & Chris D. Thomas
Generalist species and phenotypes are expected to perform best under rapid environmental change. In contrast to this view that generalists will inherit the Earth, we find that increased specialisation on a single host plant is associated with the recent climate-driven range expansion of the UK Brown Argus butterfly. Field assays of female host plant preference across the UK reveal a diversity of adaptations to host plants in long-established parts of the range, whereas butterflies in...

Data from: Do differences in food web structure between organic and conventional farms affect the ecosystem service of pest control?

Sarina Macfadyen, Rachel Gibson, Andrew Polaszek, Rebecca J. Morris, Paul G. Craze, Robert Planqué, William O.C. Symondson & Jane Memmott
While many studies have demonstrated that organic farms support greater levels of biodiversity, it is not known whether this translates into better provision of ecosystem services. Here we use a food-web approach to analyse the community structure and function at the whole-farm scale. Quantitative food webs from 10 replicate pairs of organic and conventional farms showed that organic farms have significantly more species at three trophic levels (plant, herbivore and parasitoid) and significantly different network...

Data from: Economic investment by ant colonies in searches for better homes.

Carolina Doran, Tom Pearce, Aaron Connor, Thomas Schlegel, Elizabeth Franklin, Ana B. Sendova-Franks & Nigel R. Franks
Organisms should invest more in gathering information when the pay-off from finding a profitable resource is likely to be greater. Here we ask whether animal societies put more effort in scouting for a new nest when their current one is of low quality. We measured the scouting behaviour of Temnothorax albipennis ant colonies when they inhabit nest-sites with different combinations of desirable attributes. We show that the average probability of an ant scouting decreases significantly...

Data from: Do fish perceive anaesthetics as aversive?

Gareth D. Readman, Stewart F. Owen, Joanna C. Murrell & Toby G. Knowles
This study addresses a fundamental question in fish welfare: are the anaesthetics used for fish aversive? Despite years of routine general use of many agents, within both scientific research and aquaculture, there is a paucity of information regarding their tolerance and associated behavioural responses by fish. This study examined nine of the most commonly used fish anaesthetic agents, and performed preference tests using adult mixed sex zebrafish (Danio rerio), the most commonly held laboratory fish....

Registration Year

  • 2013
    14

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    14

Affiliations

  • University of Bristol
    14
  • University of Exeter
    3
  • Natural History Museum
    2
  • University of York
    2
  • University of Oxford
    2
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    1
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    1
  • University of Montana
    1
  • VU University Amsterdam
    1
  • University of Sussex
    1