17 Works

Data from: Cranial biomechanics underpins high sauropod diversity in resource-poor environments

David J. Button, Emily J. Rayfield & Paul M. Barrett
High megaherbivore species richness is documented in both fossil and contemporary ecosystems despite their high individual energy requirements. An extreme example of this is the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation, which was dominated by sauropod dinosaurs, the largest known terrestrial vertebrates. High sauropod diversity within the resource-limited Morrison is paradoxical, but might be explicable through sophisticated resource partitioning. This hypothesis was tested through finite-element analysis of the crania of the Morrison taxa Camarasaurus andDiplodocus. Results demonstrate...

Data from: Feeding ecology of the deep-bodied fish Dapedium (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) from the Sinemurian of Dorset, England

Fiann M. Smithwick
Reconstructing the feeding ecology of fossil fishes can be difficult, but new mechanical approaches enable reasonably reliable inferences by comparison with living forms. Here, the feeding ecology of one of the most iconic and abundant actinopterygians of the Early Jurassic, Dapedium, is explored through detailed anatomical study and functional analyses of jaw mechanics. Mathematical models derived from modern teleost functional morphology are applied, to ascertain the transmission of force through the jaws of Dapedium. A...

Data from: Beyond the print - virtual paleontology in science publishing, outreach and education

Stephan Lautenschlager & Martin Rücklin
Virtual paleontology unites a variety of computational techniques and methods for the visualization and analysis of fossils. Due to their great potential and increasing availability, these methods have become immensely popular in the last decade. However, communicating the wealth of digital information and results produced by the various techniques is still exacerbated by traditional methods of publication. Transferring and processing three-dimensional information, such as interactive models or animations, into scientific publications still poses a challenge....

Data from: Comparative rangewide phylogeography of four endemic Taiwanese bat species

Stephen J. Rossiter, Hao-Chih Kuo, Shiang-Fan Chen, Yin-Ping Fang & Jon Flanders
Phylogeographic reconstructions of co-distributed taxa can help reveal the interplay between abiotic factors, such as altitude and climate, and species-specific attributes, in shaping patterns of population genetic structure. Recent studies also demonstrate the value of both range-wide sampling and species distribution modeling (SDM) in comparative phylogeography. Here we combine these approaches to study the population histories of four phylogenetically-related forest-dependent bat species. All are endemic to the mountainous island of Taiwan but show differences in...

Data from: Comparative finite-element analysis: a single computational modeling method can reliably estimate the mechanical properties of porcine and human vertebrae

Kate A. Robson Brown, Sami Tarsuslugil, V. Nagitha Wijayathunga & Ruth K. Wilcox
Significant advances in the functional analysis of musculoskeletal systems require the development of modelling techniques with improved focus, accuracy and validity. This need is particularly visible in the fields, such as palaeontology, where unobservable parameters may lie at the heart of the most interesting research questions, and where models and simulations may provide some of the most innovative solutions. Here, we report on the development of a computational modelling method to generate estimates of the...

Data from: Seasonality in communication and collective decision-making in ants

Nathalie Stroeymeyt, Caroline Jordan, Gregory Mayer, Sarah Hovsepian, Martin Giurfa & Nigel R. Franks
The ability of animals to adjust their behaviour according to seasonal changes in their ecology is crucial for their fitness. Eusocial insects display strong collective behavioural seasonality, yet the mechanisms underlying such changes are poorly understood. We show that nest preference by emigrating Temnothorax albipennis ant colonies is influenced by a season-specific modulatory pheromone that may help tune decision-making according to seasonal constraints. The modulatory pheromone triggers aversion towards low-quality nests and enhances colony cohesion...

Data from: Insights into the development and evolution of exaggerated traits using de novo transcriptomes of two species of horned scarab beetles

Ian A. Warren, J. Cristobal Vera, Annika Johns, Robert Zinna, James H. Marden, Douglas J. Emlen, Ian Dworkin & Laura C. Lavine
Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as “horns”. These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce...

Data from: Evidence of concurrent local adaptation and high phenotypic plasticity in a polar microeukaryote

Karin Rengefors, Ramiro Logares, Johanna Laybourn-Parry & Rebecca J. Gast
Here we investigated whether there is evidence of local adaptation in strains of an ancestrally marine dinoflagellate to the lacustrine environment they now inhabit (optimal genotypes) and/or if they have evolved phenotypic plasticity (a range of phenotypes). Eleven strains of Polarella glacialis were isolated and cultured from three different environments: the polar seas, a hyposaline and a hypersaline Antarctic lake. Local adaptation was tested by comparing growth rates of lacustrine and marine strains at their...

Data from: Genetic diversity and population structure of Trypanosoma brucei in Uganda: implications for the epidemiology of sleeping sickness and Nagana

Richard Echodu, Mark J. Sistrom, Rosemary Bateta, Grace Murilla, Loyce Okedi, Serap Aksoy, Chineme Enyioha, John Enyaru, Elizabeth Opiyo, Wendy Gibson, Caccone Adalgisa, Mark Sistrom & Adalgisa Caccone
Background: While Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is in decline on the continent of Africa, the disease still remains a major health problem in Uganda. There are recurrent sporadic outbreaks in the traditionally endemic areas in south-east Uganda, and continued spread to new unaffected areas in central Uganda. We evaluated the evolutionary dynamics underpinning the origin of new foci and the impact of host species on parasite genetic diversity in Uganda. We genotyped 269 Trypanosoma brucei...

Data from: Calibration uncertainty in molecular dating analyses: there is no substitute for the prior evaluation of time priors

Rachel C. M. Warnock, James F. Parham, Walter G. Joyce, Tyler R. Lyson & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Calibration is the rate-determining step in every molecular clock analysis and, hence, considerable effort has been expended in the development of approaches to distinguish good from bad calibrations. These can be categorized into a priori evaluation of the intrinsic fossil evidence, and a posteriori evaluation of congruence through cross-validation. We contrasted these competing approaches and explored the impact of different interpretations of the fossil evidence upon Bayesian divergence time estimation. The results demonstrate that a...

Data from: Dietary specializations and diversity in feeding ecology of the earliest stem mammals

Pamela G. Gill, Mark A. Purnell, Nick Crumpton, Kate Robson Brown, Neil J. Gostling, Marco Stampanoni & Emily J. Rayfield
Morganucodon mandible CT slice videoMorganucodon.mpgKuehneotherium mandible CT scan videoKuehneotherium.mpg

Data from: Interspecific crossing and genetic mapping reveal intrinsic genomic incompatibility between two Senecio species that form a hybrid zone on Mount Etna, Sicily

Adrian C. Brennan, Simon J. Hiscock & Richard J. Abbott
Studies of hybridizing species can reveal much about the genetic basis and maintenance of species divergence in the face of gene flow. Here we report a genetic segregation and linkage analysis conducted on F2 progeny of a reciprocal cross between Senecio aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius that form a hybrid zone on Mount Etna, Sicily, aimed at determining the genetic basis of intrinsic hybrid barriers between them. Significant transmission ratio distortion (TRD) was detected at 34...

Data from: Ants show a leftward turning bias when exploring unknown nest sites

Edmund R. Hunt, Thomas O'Shea-Wheller, Gregory F. Albery, Tamsyn H. Bridger, Mike Gumn & Nigel R. Franks
Behavioural lateralization in invertebrates is an important field of study because it may provide insights into the early origins of lateralization seen in a diversity of organisms. Here, we present evidence for a leftward turning bias in Temnothorax albipennis ants exploring nest cavities and in branching mazes, where the bias is initially obscured by thigmotaxis (wall-following) behaviour. Forward travel with a consistent turning bias in either direction is an effective nest exploration method, and a...

Data from: Predicting invasive species impacts: a community module functional response approach reveals context dependencies

Rachel A. Paterson, Jaimie T. A. Dick, Daniel W. Pritchard, Marilyn Ennis, Melanie J. Hatcher & Alison M. Dunn
1. Predatory functional responses play integral roles in predator-prey dynamics, and their assessment promises greater understanding and prediction of the predatory impacts of invasive species. 2. Other inter-specific interactions, however, such as parasitism and higher-order predation, have the potential to modify predator-prey interactions and thus the predictive capability of the comparative functional response approach. 3. We used a four-species community module (higher-order predator; focal native or invasive predators; parasites of focal predators; native prey) to...

Data from: Long-term and trans-generational effects of neonatal experience on sheep behaviour

Michael Mendl, Corinna Clark, Joanna Murrell, Mia Fernyhough & Treasa O'Rourke
Early life experiences can have profound long-term, and sometimes trans-generational, effects on individual phenotypes. However, there is a relative paucity of knowledge about effects on pain sensitivity, even though these may impact on an individual's health and welfare, particularly in farm animals exposed to painful husbandry procedures. Here, we tested in sheep whether neonatal painful and non-painful challenges can alter pain sensitivity in adult life, and also in the next generation. Ewes exposed to tail-docking...

Data from: Scale-dependent effects of landscape variables on gene flow and population structure in bats

Orly Razgour, Hugo Rebelo, Sébastien J. Puechmaille, Javier Juste, Carlos Ibáñez, Andreas Kiefer, Terry Burke, Deborah A. Dawson & Gareth Jones
Aim: A common pattern in biogeography is the scale-dependent effect of environmental variables on the spatial distribution of species. We tested the role of climatic and land cover variables in structuring the distribution of genetic variation in the grey long-eared bat, Plecotus austriacus, across spatial scales. Although landscape genetics has been widely used to describe spatial patterns of gene flow in a variety of taxa, volant animals have generally been neglected because of their perceived...

Data from: There is no general model for occlusal kinematics in conodonts

Carlos Martínez-Pérez, Pablo Plasencia, David Jones, Tea Kolar-Jurkovšek, Jingeng Sha, Hector Botella, Philip C. J. Donoghue & Philip C.J. Donoghue
Knowledge of conodont element function is based largely on analysis of morphologically similar P1 elements of few comparatively closely related species known from abundant articulated remains. From these, a stereotypical pattern of rotational occlusion has been inferred, leading to the suggestion that this may represent a general model for ozarkodinin P1 elements at the very least. We test the generality of this occlusal model through functional analysis of Pseudofurnishius murcianus P1 elements which, though superficially...

Registration Year

  • 2014
    17

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    17

Affiliations

  • University of Bristol
    17
  • University of Leeds
    2
  • University College Dublin
    2
  • National Museum
    1
  • University of Montana
    1
  • Queen's University Belfast
    1
  • Field Museum of Natural History
    1
  • Lund University
    1
  • Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology
    1
  • University of Lausanne
    1