38 Works

Data from: Bayesian methods outperform parsimony but at the expense of precision in the estimation of phylogeny from discrete morphological data

Joseph E. O'Reilly, Mark N. Puttick, Luke Parry, Alistair R. Tanner, James E. Tarver, James Fleming, Davide Pisani, Philip C. J. Donoghue & Alastair R. Tanner
Different analytical methods can yield competing interpretations of evolutionary history and, currently, there is no definitive method for phylogenetic reconstruction using morphological data. Parsimony has been the primary method for analysing morphological data, but there has been a resurgence of interest in the likelihood-based Mk-model. Here, we test the performance of the Bayesian implementation of the Mk-model relative to both equal and implied-weight implementations of parsimony. Using simulated morphological data, we demonstrate that the Mk-model...

Data from: Acoustic identification of Mexican bats based on taxonomic and ecological constraints on call design

Veronica Zamora-Gutierrez, Celia Lopez-Gonzalez, M. Cristina MacSwiney Gonzalez, Brock Fenton, Gareth Jones, Elisabeth K. V. Kalko, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Vassilios Stathopoulos & Kate E. Jones
Monitoring global biodiversity is critical for understanding responses to anthropogenic change, but biodiversity monitoring is often biased away from tropical, megadiverse areas that are experiencing more rapid environmental change. Acoustic surveys are increasingly used to monitor biodiversity change, especially for bats as they are important indicator species and most use sound to detect, localise and classify objects. However, using bat acoustic surveys for monitoring poses several challenges, particularly in megadiverse regions. Many species lack reference...

Data from: The evolution of cooperation by negotiation in a noisy world

Koichi Ito, John M. McNamara, Atsushi Yamauchi & Andrew D. Higginson
Cooperative interactions among individuals are ubiquitous despite the possibility of exploitation by selfish free-riders. One mechanism that may promote cooperation is “negotiation”: individuals altering their behaviour in response to the behaviour of others. Negotiating individuals decide their actions through a recursive process of reciprocal observation, thereby reducing the possibility of free-riding. Evolutionary games with response rules have shown that infinitely many forms of the rule can be evolutionarily stable simultaneously, unless there is variation in...

Data from: Partially incorrect fossil data augment analyses of discrete trait evolution in living species

Mark N. Puttick
Ancestral state reconstruction of discrete character traits is often vital when attempting to understand the origins and homology of traits in living species. The addition of fossils has been shown to alter our understanding of trait evolution in extant taxa, but researchers may avoid using fossils alongside extant species if only few are known, or if the designation of the trait of interest is uncertain. Here, I investigate the impacts of fossils and incorrectly coded...

Data from: Anthropogenic ecosystem disturbance and the recovery debt

David Moreno Mateos, Edward B. Barbier, Peter C. Jones, Holly P. Jones, James Aronson, Jose A. Lopez-Lopez, Michelle L. McCrackin, Paula Meli, Daniel Montoya & José Rey Benayas
Ecosystem recovery from anthropogenic disturbances, either without human intervention or assisted by ecological restoration, is increasingly occurring worldwide. As ecosystems progress through recovery, it is important to estimate any resulting deficit in biodiversity and functions. Here we use data from 3,035 sampling plots worldwide, to quantify the interim reduction of biodiversity and functions occurring during the recovery process (that is, the ‘recovery debt’). Compared with reference levels, recovering ecosystems run annual deficits of 46–51% for...

Data from: A method for detecting characteristic patterns in social interactions with an application to handover interactions

Nikolai W. F. Bode, Andrew Sutton, Lindsey Lacey, John G. Fennell & Ute Leonards
Social interactions are a defining behavioural trait of social animals. Discovering characteristic patterns in the display of such behaviour is one of the fundamental endeavours in behavioural biology and psychology, as this promises to facilitate the general understanding, classification, prediction and even automation of social interactions. We present a novel approach to study characteristic patterns, including both sequential and synchronous actions in social interactions. The key concept in our analysis is to represent social interactions...

Data from: Use of glacial fronts by narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in West Greenland

Kristin L. Laidre, Twila Moon, Donna D.W. Hauser, Richard McGovern, Mads Peter Heide-Joergensen, Rune Dietz, Benjamin Hudson, Donna D. W. Hauser & Ben Hudson
Glacial fronts are important summer habitat for narwhals (Monodon monoceros), however, no studies have quantified which glacial properties attract whales. We investigated the importance of glacial habitats using telemetry data from n=15 whales in September 1993-1994 and 2006-2007 in Melville Bay, West Greenland. For 41 marine-terminating glaciers, we estimated 1) narwhal presence/absence, 2) number of 24 h periods spent at glaciers, and 3) the fraction of narwhals that visited each glacier (at 5, 7, and...

Data from: Stripes for warning and stripes for hiding: spatial frequency and detection distance

James B. Barnett, Annabelle S. Redfern, Robin Bhattacharyya-Dickson, Olivia Clifton, Thomas Courty, Thien Ho, Annabel Hopes, Thomas McPhee, Kaitlin Merrison, Robert Owen, Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel & Innes C. Cuthill
Striped patterns are common in nature and are used both as warning signals and camouflage. Their effectiveness in either role depends on their color and spatial frequency, and how these compare to the background. Although this general principle is well established, the specific detail of how visual texture influences defensive coloration remains untested in the field. For aposematic patterns, especially, little work has focused on how pattern components, as opposed to color, affect warning signal...

Data from: Increasing compliance with low tidal volume ventilation in the ICU with two nudge-based interventions: evaluation through intervention time-series analyses

Christopher P. Bourdeaux, Matthew J. C. Thomas, Timothy H. Gould, Gaurav Malhotra, Andreas Jarvstad, Timothy Jones & Iain D. Gilchrist
Objectives: Low tidal volume (TVe) ventilation improves outcomes for ventilated patients, and the majority of clinicians state they implement it. Unfortunately, most patients never receive low TVes. ‘Nudges’ influence decision-making with subtle cognitive mechanisms and are effective in many contexts. There have been few studies examining their impact on clinical decision-making. We investigated the impact of 2 interventions designed using principles from behavioural science on the deployment of low TVe ventilation in the intensive care...

Data from: Rival group scent induces changes in dwarf mongoose immediate behaviour and subsequent movement

Charlotte Christensen, Julie M. Kern, Emily Bennitt & Andrew N. Radford
In many social species, groups of animals defend a shared territory against rival conspecifics. Intruders can be detected from a variety of cues, including fecal deposits, and the strength of response is expected to vary depending on the identity of the rival group. Previous studies examining differences in response to neighbor and stranger groups have focused on the immediate response to the relevant cues. Here, we investigated how simulated intrusions of rival groups affect both...

Data from: Identifying acne treatment uncertainties via a James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership

Alison M. Layton, Elizabeth Anne Eady, Maggie Peat, Heather Whitehouse, Nick J. Levell, Matthew J. Ridd, Fiona Cowdell, Mahendra G. Patel, Stephen Andrews, Christine Oxnard, Mark Fenton & Lester Firkins
Objectives: The Acne Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) was set up to identify and rank treatment uncertainties by bringing together people with acne and professionals providing care within and beyond the NHS. Setting: The UK with international participation. Participants: Teenagers and adults with acne, parents, partners, nurses, clinicians, pharmacists, private practitioners. Methods: Treatment uncertainties were collected via separate online harvesting surveys, embedded within the PSP website, for patients and professionals. A wide variety of approaches were...

Data from: Managing cryptic biodiversity: Fine-scale intralacustrine speciation along a benthic gradient in Alpine whitefish (Coregonus spp.)

Alan G. Hudson, Baenz Lundsgaard-Hansen, Kay Lucek, Pascal Vonlanthen & Ole Seehausen
Whitefish (Coregonus spp.) are an important catch for many freshwater fisheries, particularly in Switzerland. In support of this, supplemental stocking of whitefish species is carried out, despite lacking complete knowledge of the extent, distribution and origin of whitefish diversity in these lakes, potentially threatening local endemics via artificial gene flow. Here, we investigate phenotypic and genetic differentiation among coexisting whitefish species spawning along a depth gradient in a subalpine Swiss lake to better delineate intralacustrine...

Data from: Arthropod distribution in a tropical rainforest: tackling a four dimensional puzzle

Yves Basset, Lukas Cizek, Philippe Cuénoud, Raphael K. Didham, Vojtech Novotny, Frode Ødegaard, Tomas Roslin, Alexey K. Tishechkin, Jürgen Schmidl, Neville N. Winchester, David W. Roubik, Henri-Pierre Aberlenc, Johannes Bail, Héctor Barrios, Jonathan R. Bridle, Gabriela Castaño-Meneses, Bruno Corbara, Gianfranco Curletti, Wesley Duarte Da Rocha, Domir De Bakker, Jacques H.C. Delabie, Alain Dejean, Laura L. Fagan, Andreas Floren, Roger L. Kitching … & Jacques H. C. Delabie
Quantifying the spatio-temporal distribution of arthropods in tropical rainforests represents a first step towards scrutinizing the global distribution of biodiversity on Earth. To date most studies have focused on narrow taxonomic groups or lack a design that allows partitioning of the components of diversity. Here, we consider an exceptionally large dataset (113,952 individuals representing 5,858 species), obtained from the San Lorenzo forest in Panama, where the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa was surveyed using 14...

Data from: Population structure and phylogeography of the Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) across the Scotia Arc

Hila Levy, Gemma V. Clucas, Alex D. Rogers, Adam D. Leaché, Kate L. Ciborowski, Michael J. Polito, Heather J. Lynch, Michael J. Dunn & Tom Hart
Climate change, fisheries pressure on penguin prey, and direct human disturbance of wildlife have all been implicated in causing large shifts in the abundance and distribution of penguins in the Southern Ocean. Without mark-recapture studies, understanding how colonies form and, by extension, how ranges shift is challenging. Genetic studies, particularly focused on newly established colonies, provide a snapshot of colonisation and can reveal the extent to which shifts in abundance and occupancy result from changes...

Data from: Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms

Nigel R. Franks, Alan Worley, Katherine A. J. Grant, Alice R. Gorman, Victoria Vizard, Harriet Plackett, Ana Doran Borges De Sousa, Margaret L. Gamble, Martin C. Stumpe, Ana B. Sendova-Franks & Carolina Doran
Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to co-ordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin...

Data from: Dung beetles reduce livestock gastrointestinal parasite availability on pasture

Bryony Sands & Richard Wall
Anthelmintics are widely used to control gastrointestinal parasites of livestock. However, the residues of these compounds, particularly the macrocyclic lactones, are excreted largely unmetabolised in faeces, where they may have toxic effects on dung-colonising insects. Impoverishment of the coprophagous beetle community impairs the process of dung recycling and, as a result, may enhance the persistence of dung-dwelling helminth parasitic stages. To test this possibility, a large-scale field trial was conducted in south-west England. The availability...

Data from: The anti-predator role of within-nest emergence synchrony in sea turtle hatchlings

Robson G. Santos, Hudson Tercio Pinheiro, Agnaldo Silva Martins, Pablo Riul, Soraya Christina Bruno, Fredric J. Janzen & Christos C. Ioannou
Group formation is a common behaviour among prey species. In egg-laying animals, despite the various factors that promote intra-clutch variation leading to asynchronous hatching and emergence from nests, synchronous hatching and emergence occurs in many taxa. This synchrony may be adaptive by reducing predation risk, but few data are available in any natural system, even for iconic examples of the anti-predator function of group formation. Here, we show for the first time that increased group...

Data from: Heterogeneity of t-tubules in pig hearts

Hanne C. Gadeberg, Richard C. Bond, Cherrie H. T. Kong, Guillaume P. Chanoit, Raimondo Ascione, Mark B. Cannell & Andrew F. James
Background: T-tubules are invaginations of the sarcolemma that play a key role in excitation-contraction coupling in mammalian cardiac myocytes. Although t-tubules were generally considered to be effectively absent in atrial myocytes, recent studies on atrial cells from larger mammals suggest that t-tubules may be more numerous than previously supposed. However, the degree of heterogeneity between cardiomyocytes in the extent of the t-tubule network remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the...

Data from: Fine-scale flight strategies of gulls in urban airflows indicate risk and reward in city living

Emily L. C. Shepard, Cara Williamson & Shane P. Windsor
Birds modulate their flight paths in relation to regional and global airflows in order to reduce their travel costs. Birds should also respond to fine-scale airflows, although the incidence and value of this remains largely unknown. We resolved the three-dimensional trajectories of gulls flying along a built-up coastline, and used computational fluid dynamic models to examine how gulls reacted to airflows around buildings. Birds systematically altered their flight trajectories with wind conditions to exploit updraughts...

Data from: Optimizing countershading camouflage

Innes C. Cuthill, N. Simon Sanghera, Olivier Penacchio, Paul George Lovell, Graeme D. Ruxton & Julie M. Harris
Because the sun and sky are above us, natural illumination is directional and the cues from shading reveal shape and depth. However, many animals are darker on their backs and, over 100 years ago, it was proposed that this phenomenon was camouflage: countering the cues to shape that directional illumination creates. However, does this camouflage work in practice? We predicted the optimal countershading for different lighting conditions and tested this possibility with correspondingly patterned model...

Data from: Onychophoran-like myoanatomy of the Cambrian gilled lobopodian Pambdelurion whittingtoni

Fletcher J. Young & Jakob Vinther
Arthropods are characterized by a rigid, articulating, exoskeleton operated by a lever-like system of segmentally arranged, antagonistic muscles. This skeletomuscular system evolved from an unsegmented body wall musculature acting on a hydrostatic skeleton, similar to that of the arthropods’ close relatives, the soft-bodied onychophorans. Unfortunately, fossil evidence documenting this transition is scarce. Exceptionally-preserved panarthropods from the Cambrian Lagerstätte of Sirius Passet, Greenland, including the soft-bodied stem-arthropod Pambdelurion whittingtoni and the hard-bodied arthropods Kiisortoqia soperi and...

Data from: Testing for homologies in the axial skeleton of primitive echinoderms

Christopher R. C. Paul
The extraxial axial theory is used to investigate homology of ambulacral and oral plating because it predicts terminal branching and terminal addition of plates in the axial skeleton, although exceptions to the former may occur in some Paleozoic echinoderms. The variety of morphological designs and anomalous individuals also provide tests of plate homology. Homology of ambulacra is generally accepted, with the hydropore and/or single gonopore in Carpenter’s CD interray. In the 2-1-2 ambulacral pattern the...

Data from: Comparative cranial myology and biomechanics of Plateosaurus and Camarasaurus and evolution of the sauropod feeding apparatus

David J. Button, Paul M. Barrett & Emily J. Rayfield
Sauropodomorpha represents an important group of Mesozoic megaherbivores, and includes the largest terrestrial animals ever known. It was the first dinosaur group to become abundant and widespread, and its members formed a significant component of terrestrial ecosystems from the Late Triassic until the end of the Cretaceous. Both of these factors have been explained by their adoption of herbivory, but understanding the evolution of sauropodomorph feeding has been hampered by the scarcity of biomechanical studies....

Data from: Fossilization of melanosomes via sulfurization

Maria E. McNamara, Bart E. Van Dongen, Nick P. Lockyer, Ian D. Bull & Patrick J. Orr
Fossil melanin granules (melanosomes) are an important resource for inferring the evolutionary history of colour and its functions in animals. The taphonomy of melanin and melanosomes, however, is incompletely understood. In particular, the chemical processes responsible for melanosome preservation have not been investigated. As a result, the origins of sulfur-bearing compounds in fossil melanosomes are difficult to resolve. This has implications for interpretations of original colour in fossils based on potential sulfur-rich phaeomelanosomes. Here we...

Data from: Developmental biology of the early Cambrian cnidarian Olivooides

Xi-Ping Dong, Kelly Vargas, John A. Cunningham, Huaqiao Zhang, Teng Liu, Fang Chen, Jianbo Liu, Stefan Bengtson & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Fossilized embryos afford direct insight into the pattern of development in extinct organisms, providing unique tests of hypotheses of developmental evolution based in comparative embryology. However, these fossils can only be effective in this role if their embryology and phylogenetic affinities are well constrained. We elucidate and interpret the development of Olivooides from embryonic and adult stages and use these data to discriminate among competing interpretations of their anatomy and affinity. The embryology of Olivooides...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Bristol
  • University of Washington
  • British Antarctic Survey
  • University of Southampton
  • University of Manchester
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University College Dublin
  • National Museum
  • Universidad De Panama
  • Acadia University