38 Works

Data from: Tips and nodes are complimentary not competing approaches to the calibration of molecular clocks

Joseph E. O'Reilly & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Molecular clock methodology provides the best means of establishing evolutionary timescales, the accuracy and precision of which remain reliant on calibration, traditionally based on fossil constraints on clade (node) ages. Tip calibration has been developed to obviate undesirable aspects of node calibration, including the need for maximum age constraints that are invariably very difficult to justify. Instead, tip calibration incorporates fossil species as dated tips alongside living relatives, potentially improving the accuracy and precision of...

Data from: Histology and affinity of anaspids, and the early evolution of the vertebrate dermal skeleton

Joseph N. Keating & Philip C. J. Donoghue
The assembly of the gnathostome bodyplan constitutes a formative episode in vertebrate evolutionary history, an interval in which the mineralized skeleton and its canonical suite of cell and tissue types originated. Fossil jawless fishes, assigned to the gnathostome stem-lineage, provide an unparalleled insight into the origin and evolution of the skeleton, hindered only by uncertainty over the phylogenetic position and evolutionary significance of key clades. Chief among these are the jawless anaspids, whose skeletal composition,...

Data from: Women are seen more than heard in online newspapers

Sen Jia, Thomas Lansdall-Welfare, Saatviga Sudhahar, Cynthia Carter & Nello Cristianini
Feminist news media researchers have long contended that masculine news values shape journalists’ quotidian decisions about what is newsworthy. As a result, it is argued, topics and issues traditionally regarded as primarily of interest and relevance to women are routinely marginalised in the news, while men’s views and voices are given privileged space. When women do show up in the news, it is often as “eye candy,” thus reinforcing women’s value as sources of visual...

Family lineage and landscape quality data for wild bumblebee colonies across an agricultural landscape in Buckinghamshire, U.K.

C. Carvell, A.F.G. Bourke, S. Dreier, S.N. Freeman, S. Hulmes, W.C. Jordan, J.W. Redhead, J. Wang, S. Sumner & M.S. Heard
Family lineage relationships between spring queens, daughter workers and sister queens of three bumblebee species (Bombus terrestris, B. lapidarius and B. pascuorum) collected across the Hillesden Estate, Buckinghamshire, UK, between spring 2011 and spring 2012. A combination of land-use and habitat surveys, molecular genetics and spatial modelling was used to estimate the locations of wild colonies represented by greater than 1 worker and to calculate the proportions of cover represented by different habitat quality and...

Data from: Social-bond strength influences vocally-mediated recruitment to mobbing

Julie M. Kern & Andrew N. Radford
Strong social bonds form between individuals in many group-living species, and these relationships can have important fitness benefits. When responding to vocalizations produced by groupmates, receivers are expected to adjust their behaviour depending on the nature of the bond they share with the signaller. Here we investigate whether the strength of the signaller–receiver social bond affects response to calls that attract others to help mob a predator. Using field-based playback experiments on a habituated population...

Data from: Fish and tetrapod communities across a marine to brackish salinity gradient in the Pennsylvanian (early Moscovian) Minto Formation of New Brunswick, Canada, and their palaeoecological and palaeogeographical implications

Aodhán Ó Gogáin, Howard J. Falcon-Lang, David K. Carpenter, Randall F. Miller, Michael J. Benton, Peir K. Pufahl, Marcello Ruta, Thomas G. Davies, Steven J. Hinds & Matthew R. Stimson
Euryhaline adaptations in Pennsylvanian vertebrates allowed them to inhabit the marine to freshwater spectrum. This is illustrated by new assemblages of fish and tetrapods from the early Moscovian Minto Formation of New Brunswick, Canada. Fish include chondrichthyans (xenacanthids and the enigmatic Ageleodus), acanthodians (gyracanthids and acanthodiforms), sarcopterygians (rhizodontids, megalichthyids and dipnoans), and actinopterygians (eurynotiforms). Tetrapods include small- to medium-sized, and largely aquatic, stem tetrapods (colosteids) and anthracosaurs (embolomeres). A key finding is that the parautochthonous...

Data from: Aposematism: balancing salience and camouflage

James B. Barnett, Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel & Innes C. Cuthill
Aposematic signals are often characterized by high conspicuousness. Larger and brighter signals reinforce avoidance learning, distinguish defended from palatable prey and are more easily memorized by predators. Conspicuous signalling, however, has costs: encounter rates with naive, specialized or nutritionally stressed predators are likely to increase. It has been suggested that intermediate levels of aposematic conspicuousness can evolve to balance deterrence and detectability, especially for moderately defended species. The effectiveness of such signals, however, has not...

Data from: Pigmented anatomy in Carboniferous cyclostomes and the evolution of the vertebrate eye

Sarah E. Gabbott, Philip C.J. Donoghue, Robert S. Sansom, Jakob Vinther, Andrei Dolocan, Mark A. Purnell & Philip C. J. Donoghue
The success of vertebrates is linked to the evolution of a camera-style eye and sophisticated visual system. In the absence of useful data from fossils, scenarios for evolutionary assembly of the vertebrate eye have been based necessarily on evidence from development, molecular genetics and comparative anatomy in living vertebrates. Unfortunately, steps in the transition from a light-sensitive ‘eye spot’ in invertebrate chordates to an image-forming camera-style eye in jawed vertebrates are constrained only by hagfish...

Data from: Violence in the prehistoric period of Japan: the spatiotemporal pattern of skeletal evidence for violence in the Jomon period

Hisashi Nakao, Kohei Tamura, Yui Arimatsu, Tomomi Nakagawa, Naoko Matsumoto & Takehiko Matsugi
Whether man is predisposed to lethal violence, ranging from homicide to warfare, and how that may have impacted human evolution, are among the most controversial topics of debate on human evolution. Although recent studies on the evolution of warfare have been based on various archaeological and ethnographic data, they have reported mixed results: it is unclear whether or not warfare among prehistoric hunter–gatherers was common enough to be a component of human nature and a...

Data from: Lifespan and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction

Emeline Mourocq, Pierre Bize, Sandra Bouwhuis, Russell Bradley, Anne Charmantier, Carlos De La Cruz, Szymon Marian Obniak, Richard H. M. Espie, Márton Herenyi, Hermann Hötker, Oliver Kruger, John Marzluff, Anders P. Møller, Shinichi Nakagawa, Richard A. Phillips, Andrew N. Radford, Alexandre Roulin, János Török, Juliana Valencia, Martijn Van De Pol, Ian G. Warkentin, Isabel S. Winney, Andrew G. Wood, Michael Griesser & Szymon M. Drobniak
Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life-history as well as social and...

Data from: Does cooperation mean kinship between spatially discrete ant nests?

Duncan S. Procter, Joan E. Cottrell, Kevin Watts, Stuart W. A'Hara, Michael Hofreiter & Elva J. H. Robinson
Eusociality is one of the most complex forms of social organization, characterized by cooperative and reproductive units termed colonies. Altruistic behavior of workers within colonies is explained by inclusive fitness, with indirect fitness benefits accrued by helping kin. Members of a social insect colony are expected to be more closely related to one another than they are to other conspecifics. In many social insects, the colony can extend to multiple socially connected but spatially separate...

Data from: Background complexity and the detectability of camouflaged targets by birds and humans

Feng Xiao & Innes C. Cuthill
Remaining undetected is often key to survival, and camouflage is a widespread solution. However, extrinsic to the animal itself, the complexity of the background may be important. This has been shown in laboratory experiments using artificially patterned prey and backgrounds, but the mechanism remains obscure (not least because ‘complexity’ is a multifaceted concept). In this study, we determined the best predictors of detection by wild birds and human participants searching for the same cryptic targets...

Data from: Herbivorous dinosaur jaw disparity and its relationship to extrinsic evolutionary drivers

Jamie A. MacLaren, Philip S. L. Anderson, Paul Barrett & Emily J. Rayfield
Morphological responses of nonmammalian herbivores to external ecological drivers have not been quantified over extended timescales. Herbivorous nonavian dinosaurs are an ideal group to test for such responses, because they dominated terrestrial ecosystems for more than 155 Myr and included the largest herbivores that ever existed. The radiation of dinosaurs was punctuated by several ecologically important events, including extinctions at the Triassic/Jurassic (Tr/J) and Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) boundaries, the decline of cycadophytes, and the origin of...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Bristol
  • University of Washington
  • British Antarctic Survey
  • University of Southampton
  • University of Manchester
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University College Dublin
  • National Museum
  • Universidad De Panama
  • Acadia University