49 Works

Data from: An integrated framework to identify wildlife populations under threat from climate change

Orly Razgour, John B. Taggart, Stéphanie Manel, Javier Juste, Carlos Ibáñez, Hugo Rebelo, Antton Alberdi, Gareth Jones & Kirsty Park
Climate change is a major threat to global biodiversity that will produce a range of new selection pressures. Understanding species responses to climate change requires an interdisciplinary perspective, combining ecological, molecular and environmental approaches. We propose an applied integrated framework to identify populations under threat from climate change based on their extent of exposure, inherent sensitivity due to adaptive and neutral genetic variation and range shift potential. We consider intraspecific vulnerability and population-level responses, an...

Data from: Bayesian inference reveals positive but subtle effects of experimental fishery closures on marine predator demographics

Richard B. Sherley, Barbara J. Barham, Peter J. Barham, Kate J. Campbell, Robert J.M. Crawford, Jennifer Grigg, Catharine Horswill, Alistair McInnes, Taryn L. Morris, Lorien Pichegru, Antje Steinfurth, Florian Weller, Henning Winker, Stephen C. Votier & Cat Horswill
Global forage-fish landings are increasing, with potentially grave consequences for marine ecosystems. Predators of forage fish may be influenced by this harvest, but the nature of these effects is contentious. Experimental fishery manipulations offer the best solution to quantify population-level impacts, but are rare. We used Bayesian inference to examine changes in chick survival, body condition and population growth rate of endangered African penguins Spheniscus demersus in response to eight years of alternating time-area closures...

Data from: Camouflaging moving objects: crypsis and masquerade

Joanna R. Hall, Roland Baddeley, Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel, Adam J. Shohet & Innes C. Cuthill
Motion is generally assumed to “break” camouflage. However, although camouflage cannot conceal a group of moving animals, it may impair a predator’s ability to single one out for attack, even if that discrimination is not based on a color difference. Here, we use a computer-based task in which humans had to detect the odd one out among moving objects, with “oddity” based on shape. All objects were either patterned or plain, and either matched the...

Data from: Marginal predation: do encounter or confusion effects explain the targeting of prey group edges?

Callum Duffield & Christos C. Ioannou
Marginal predation, also known as the edge effect, occurs when aggregations of prey are preferentially targeted on their periphery by predators and has long been established in many taxa. Two main processes have been used to explain this phenomenon, the confusion effect and the encounter rate between predators and prey group edges. However, it is unknown at what size a prey group needs to be before marginal predation is detectable and to what extent each...

Impacts of Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) on seed dispersal services in Iberian Peninsula

A. Devenish
This data set describes the seed dispersal process of both invaded (presence of Linepithema humile) and non-invaded (absence of L. humile) ant communities. Data were collected from four field sites in and around Girona (41.9794° N, 2.8214° E), Northern Spain, during the summer months of 2014 (June-July) and 2015 (July-September). Experiment 1: Ant community structure of both invaded and non-invaded ant communities was determined using a series of pitfall and baiting traps. Experiment 2: Ant...

Monthly Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentration time series (1883 to 2014) measured at the outlet of the Thames basin (UK)

V. Noacco, T. Wagener, F. Worrall, T. P. Burt & N. J. K. Howden
The dataset consists of the world's longest fluvial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) record (1883-2014). The data have been measured at the outlet of the Thames basin, upstream of London (UK) and are reported monthly. The River Thames basin is a temperate, lowland, mineral soil-dominated catchment of 9,948 km2. Water colour data have been measured between 1883 and 1990, and DOC between 1990 and 2014. DOC until 1990 has been estimated through calibration between water colour...

Data from: Jumping without slipping: leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) possess special tarsal structures for jumping from smooth surfaces

Christofer J. Clemente, Hanns Hagen Goetzke, James M. R. Bullock, Gregory P. Sutton, Malcolm Burrows & Walter Federle
Many hemipteran bugs can jump explosively from plant substrates, which can be very smooth. We therefore analysed the jumping performance of froghoppers (Philaenus spumarius, Aphrophoridae) and leafhoppers (Aphrodes bicinctus/makarovi, Cicadellidae) taking off from smooth (glass) and rough (sandpaper, 30 µm asperity size) surfaces. On glass, the propulsive hind legs of Philaenus froghoppers slipped, resulting in uncontrolled jumps with a fast forward spin, a steeper angle and only a quarter of the velocity compared with jumps...

Data from: Prediction and attenuation of seasonal spillover of parasites between wild and domestic ungulates in an arid mixed-use system

Josephine G. Walker, Kate E. Evans, Hannah Rose Vineer, Jan A. Van Wyk & Eric R. Morgan
1.Transmission of parasites between host species affects host population dynamics, interspecific competition, and ecosystem structure and function. In areas where wild and domestic herbivores share grazing land, management of parasites in livestock may affect or be affected by sympatric wildlife due to cross-species transmission. 2.We develop a novel method for simulating transmission potential based on both biotic and abiotic factors in a semi-arid system in Botswana. Optimal timing of antiparasitic treatment in livestock is then...

Data from: Tree crickets optimize the acoustics of baffles to exaggerate their mate-attraction signal

Natasha Mhatre, Robert Malkin, Rittik Deb, Rohini Balakrishnan & Daniel Robert
Object manufacture in insects is typically inherited, and believed to be highly stereotyped. Optimization, the ability to select the functionally best material and modify it appropriately for a specific function, implies flexibility and is usually thought to be incompatible with inherited behaviour. Here we show that tree-crickets optimize acoustic baffles, objects that are used to increase the effective loudness of mate-attraction calls. We quantified the acoustic efficiency of all baffles within the naturally feasible design...

Data from: Early photosynthetic eukaryotes inhabited low-salinity habitats

Patricia Sánchez-Baracaldo, John A. Raven, Davide Pisani & Andrew H. Knoll
The early evolutionary history of the chloroplast lineage remains an open question. It is widely accepted that the endosymbiosis that established the chloroplast lineage in eukaryotes can be traced back to a single event, in which a cyanobacterium was incorporated into a protistan host. It is still unclear, however, which Cyanobacteria are most closely related to the chloroplast, when the plastid lineage first evolved, and in what habitats this endosymbiotic event occurred. We present phylogenomic...

Data from: Head movements quadruple the range of speeds encoded by the insect motion vision system in hawkmoths

Shane P. Windsor & Graham K. Taylor
Flying insects use compensatory head movements to stabilize gaze. Like other optokinetic responses, these movements can reduce image displacement, motion, and misalignment, and simplify the optic flow field. Because gaze is imperfectly stabilized in insects, we hypothesised that compensatory head movements serve to extend the range of velocities of self-motion that the visual system encodes. We tested this by measuring head movements in hawkmoths Hyles lineata responding to full-field visual stimuli of differing oscillation amplitudes,...

Data from: Taxonomic reassessment of Clevosaurus latidens Fraser, 1993 (Lepidosauria, Rhynchocephalia) and rhynchocephalian phylogeny based on parsimony and Bayesian inference

Jorge A. Herrera-Flores, Thomas L. Stubbs, Armin Elsler & Michael J. Benton
The Late Triassic rhynchocephalian Clevosaurus latidens Fraser, 1993 is known from the fissure deposits of Cromhall Quarry, England. Many studies have questioned its referral to the genus Clevosaurus and some phylogenetic analyses suggest a close relationship with herbivorous rhynchocephalians. We reexamine the type specimens and referred material of C. latidens to elucidate its taxonomic identity. Additionally, we provide new phylogenetic analyses of the Rhynchocephalia using both parsimony and Bayesian approaches. Our taxonomic review and both...

Data from: Measuring site fidelity and spatial segregation within animal societies

Thomas O. Richardson, Luca Giuggioli, Nigel R. Franks & Ana B. Sendova-Franks
1.Animals often display a marked tendency to return to previously-visited locations that contain important resources, such as water, food, or developing brood that must be provisioned. A considerable body of work has demonstrated that this tendency is strongly expressed in ants, which exhibit fidelity to particular sites both inside and outside the nest. However, thus far many studies of this phenomena have taken the approach of reducing an animal's trajectory to a summary statistic, such...

Data from: Molecular clocks indicate turnover and diversification of modern coleoid cephalopods during the Mesozoic Marine Revolution

Alastair R. Tanner, Dirk Fuchs, Inger E. Winkelmann, Thomas P. Gilbert, M. Sabrina Pankey, Angela M. Ribeiro, Kevin M. Kocot, Kenneth M. Halanych, Todd H. Oakley, Rute R. Da Fonseca, Davide Pisani, Jakob Vinther & M. Thomas P. Gilbert
Coleoid cephalopod molluscs comprise squid, cuttlefish and octopuses, and represent nearly the entire diversity of modern cephalopods. Sophisticated adaptations such as the use of colour for camouflage and communication, jet propulsion and the ink sac highlight the unique nature of the group. Despite these striking adaptations, there are clear parallels in ecology between coleoids and bony fishes. The coleoid fossil record is limited, however, hindering confident analysis of the tempo and pattern of their evolution....

Data from: Evolutionary divergence in life history traits among populations of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera

Paul J. Parsons, Jon R. Bridle, Lukas Rüber & Martin J. Genner
During the early stages of adaptive radiation, populations diverge in life history traits such as egg size and growth rates, in addition to eco-morphological and behavioral characteristics. However, there are few studies of life history divergence within ongoing adaptive radiations. Here, we studied Astatotilapia calliptera, a maternal mouthbrooding cichlid fish within the Lake Malawi haplochromine radiation. This species occupies a rich diversity of habitats, including the main body of Lake Malawi, as well as peripheral...

Data from: Probabilistic methods surpass parsimony when assessing clade support in phylogenetic analyses of discrete morphological data

Joseph E. O'Reilly, Mark N. Puttick, Davide Pisani & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Fossil taxa are critical to inferences of historical diversity and the origins of modern biodiversity, but realizing their evolutionary significance is contingent on restoring fossil species to their correct position within the tree of life. For most fossil species, morphology is the only source of data for phylogenetic inference; this has traditionally been analysed using parsimony, the predominance of which is currently challenged by the development of probabilistic models that achieve greater phylogenetic accuracy. Here,...

Data from: The diversity of floral temperature patterns, and their use by pollinators

Michael J. M. Harrap, Sean A. Rands, Natalie Hempel De Ibarra, Heather M. Whitney & Michael JM Harrap
Pollinating insects utilise various sensory cues to identify and learn rewarding flower species. One such cue is floral temperature, created by captured sunlight or plant thermogenesis. Bumblebees, honeybees and stingless bees can distinguish flowers based on differences in overall temperature between flowers. We report here that floral temperature often differs between different parts of the flower creating a temperature structure or pattern. Temperature patterns are common, with 55% of 118 plant species thermographed, showing within-flower...

Data from: Optimal background matching camouflage

Constantine Michalis, Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel, David P. Gibson & Innes C. Cuthill
Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous,...

Denitrification and greenhouse gas emissions in natural and semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems [LTLS]

S. Ullah & F. Sgouridis
Data comprise monthly field measurements of in-situ denitrification rates in different land use types of the Ribble Wyre and Conwy catchments. The data include greenhouse gas emissions (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide), denitrification data (nitrogen and nitrous oxide) and soil properties data (nitrate, dissolved nitrogen, ammonia, bulk density, carbon to nitrogen ratio, dissolved organic carbon, moisture content, organic matter content, pH, temperature and water filled pore space). The research was funded by the UK Natural...

Data from: Biostratigraphy and geometric morphometrics of conchostracans (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) from the Late Triassic fissure deposits of Cromhall Quarry, UK

Jacob D. Morton, David I. Whiteside, Manja Hethke & Michael J. Benton
The enigmatic fissure deposits of south-eastern England and southern Wales are famous for their unique assemblage of Late Triassic vertebrates, although their age is contentious. While recent studies of palynomorphs have dated some as Rhaetian, their conchostracan (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) assemblages have not been described in detail nor used in biostratigraphy. We find that species determination of British Late Triassic conchostracans requires detailed observations of size, shape and ornamentation. We provide evidence that although Euestheria brodieana...

Data from: Neutralizing misinformation through inoculation: exposing misleading argumentation techniques reduces their influence

John Cook, Ullrich Ecker, Ullrich K.H. Lewandowsky, Stephan Lewandowsky & Ullrich K. H. Ecker
Misinformation can undermine a well-functioning democracy. For example, public misconceptions about climate change can lead to lowered acceptance of the reality of climate change and lowered support for mitigation policies. This study experimentally explored the impact of misinformation about climate change and tested several pre-emptive interventions designed to reduce the influence of misinformation. We found that false-balance media coverage (giving contrarian views equal voice with climate scientists) lowered perceived consensus overall, although the effect was...

Data from: Perceived duration of brief visual events is mediated by timing mechanisms at the global stages of visual processing

Lee Beattie, William Curran, Christopher P. Benton, Julie M. Harris & Paul B. Hibbard
There is a growing body of evidence pointing to the existence of modality-specific timing mechanisms for encoding sub-second durations. For example, the duration compression effect describes how prior adaptation to a dynamic visual stimulus results in participants underestimating the duration of a sub-second test stimulus when it is presented at the adapted location. There is substantial evidence for the existence of both cortical and pre-cortical visual timing mechanisms; however, little is known about where in...

Data from: Analysis of morphological variability in the clam shrimp Eosestheria middendorfii (Crustacea, Spinicaudata) from the Lower Cretaceous of China, and its implications for spinicaudatan taxonomy

Manja Hethke, Franz T. Fürsich, Jacob D. Morton & Baoyu Jiang
Unresolved taxonomic issues regarding spinicaudatans, clam shrimps that formed the most abundant faunal element in the lacustrine Barremian to Aptian Yixian Formation, have hampered palaeoecological and evolutionary interpretations of this key fossil group. Here, we analyse morphological variability in East Asian clam-shrimp taxa by quantifying: (1) size and shape; and (2) ornamental features (radial lirae distances). Intergeneric variability was examined using 51 specimens of various East Asian Mesozoic taxa, 16 of which were chosen for...

Data from: Cultural evolution of military camouflage

Laszlo Talas, Roland J. Baddeley & Innes C. Cuthill
While one has evolved and the other been consciously created, animal and military camouflage are expected to show many similar design principles. Using a unique database of calibrated photographs of camouflage uniform patterns, processed using texture and colour analysis methods from computer vision, we show that the parallels with biology are deeper than design for effective concealment. Using two case studies we show that, like many animal colour patterns, military camouflage can serve multiple functions....

Data from: The efficacy of consensus tree methods for summarising phylogenetic relationships from a posterior sample of trees estimated from morphological data

Joseph E. O'Reilly & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Consensus trees are required to summarise trees obtained through MCMC sampling of a posterior distribution, providing an overview of the distribution of estimated parameters such as topology, branch lengths and divergence times. Numerous consensus tree construction methods are available, each presenting a different interpretation of the tree sample. The rise of morphological clock and sampled-ancestor methods of divergence time estimation, in which times and topology are co-estimated, has increased the popularity of the maximum clade...

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Bristol
  • University of Exeter
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Queen's University Belfast
  • University of Queensland
  • University of Tübingen
  • University of Birmingham
  • Harvard University
  • Freie Universität Berlin
  • University of Western Australia