45 Works

Morphological adaptations linked to flight efficiency and aerial lifestyle determine natal dispersal distance in birds

Brian Weeks, Bruce OBrien, Jonathan Chu, Santiago Claramunt, Catherine Sheard & Joseph Tobias
Natal dispersal—the movement from birthplace to breeding location—is often considered the most significant dispersal event in an animal’s lifetime. Natal dispersal distances may be shaped by a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and remain poorly quantified in most groups, highlighting the need for indices that capture variation in dispersal among species. In birds, it is hypothesized that dispersal distance can be predicted by flight efficiency, which can be estimated using wing morphology. However, the...

Increasing morphological disparity and decreasing optimality for jaw speed and strength during the radiation of jawed vertebrates

William Deakin, Philip Anderson, Wendy Den Boer, Thomas Smith, Jennifer Hill, Martin Rücklin, Philip Donoghue & Emily Rayfield
The Siluro-Devonian adaptive radiation of jawed vertebrates, which underpins almost all living vertebrate biodiversity, is characterised by the evolutionary innovation of the lower jaw. Multiple lines of evidence have suggested that the jaw evolved from a rostral gill arch, but when the jaw took on a feeding function remains unclear. We quantified the variety of form in the earliest jaws in the fossil record and , from which we generated a range of theoretical morphospacelogies...

Alternative Covid-19 mitigation measures in school classrooms: Analysis using an agent-based model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission

Mark Woodhouse, Willy Aspinall, RSJ Sparks, Ellen Brooks-Pollock & Caroline L. Relton
The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic continues to have major impacts on children’s education, with schools required to implement infection control measures that have led to long periods of absence and classroom closures. We have developed an agent-based epidemiological model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission that allows us to quantify projected infection patterns within primary school classrooms, and related uncertainties; the basis of our approach is a contact model constructed using random networks, informed by structured expert judgment. The effectiveness...

Scan files, 3D reconstructions, data spreadsheet and supplementary files for Heterochrony and parallel evolution of echinoderm, hemichordate and cephalochordate internal bars

Nidia Álvarez Armada, Christopher Cameron, Jennifer Bauer & Imran Rahman
Deuterostomes comprise three phyla with radically different body plans. Phylogenetic bracketing of the living deuterostome clades suggests the latest common ancestor of echinoderms, hemichordates and chordates was a bilaterally symmetrical worm with pharyngeal openings, with these characters lost in echinoderms. Early fossil echinoderms with pharyngeal openings have been described, but their interpretation is highly controversial. Here, we critically evaluate the evidence for pharyngeal structures (gill bars) in the extinct stylophoran echinoderms Lagynocystis pyramidalis and Jaekelocarpus...

Better residential than ethnic discrimination! ( LIEPP Working Paper, n°38 bis)

Francois Bonnet, Etienne Lalé, Mirna Safi & Etienne Wasmer
Access to housing is difficult for minorities in France. An audit study we run in the Paris area showed that minority applicants do not face a strong disadvantage in the first step of the application; however, the fact that applicants come from a deprived area leads to more frequent unfavorable outcome (we call this residential discrimination as opposed to ethnic discrimination). The puzzle and paradox come from the fact that face-to-face interviews with real-estate agents...

Detecting and reducing heterogeneity of error in acoustic classification: Data

Oliver Metcalf, Jos Barlow, Yves Bas, Erika Berenguer, Christian Devenish, Filipe França, Stuart Marsden, Charlotte Smith & Alexander Lees
Passive acoustic monitoring can be an effective method for monitoring species, allowing the assembly of large audio datasets, removing logistical constraints in data collection, and reducing anthropogenic monitoring disturbances. However, the analysis of large acoustic datasets is challenging, and fully automated machine-learning processes are rarely developed or implemented in ecological field studies. One of the greatest uncertainties hindering the development of these methods is spatial generalisability – can an algorithm trained on data from one...

UCL CPOM CryoSat2 Polar Ocean Significant Wave Height 2011-2019

Harold Heorton
We present the significant ocean surface wave heights in the Arctic and Southern Oceans from CryoSat-2 data. We use a semi-analytical model for an idealised synthetic aperture satellite radar or pulse-limited radar altimeter echo power. We develop a processing methodology that specifically considers both the Synthetic Aperture and Pulse Limited modes of the radar that change close to the sea ice edge within the Arctic Ocean. All CryoSat-2 echoes to date were matched by our...

Single time point sampling of site characteristics, soil parameters and soil greenhouse gas emissions for extensive and intensive sheep-farming sites in North Wales and Devon, 2016

A.F. Charteris, P. Harris, K.A. Marsden, I.M. Harris, Z. Guo, D.A. Beaumont, H. Taylor, G. Sanfratello, D.L. Jones, S.C.M. Johnson, M.J. Whelan, N. Howden, H. Sint, D.R. Chadwick & L.M. Cárdenas
The data pertains to a single time point ‘snapshot’ spatial sampling of site characteristics, soil parameters and soil greenhouse gas emissions for two sites (Extensive and Intensive). The extensively managed site (‘Extensive’; 240-340 m above sea level; a.s.l.) consisted of an 11.5 ha semi-improved, sheep-grazed pasture at Bangor University’s Henfaes Research Station, Abergwyngregyn, North Wales (53°13’13’’N, 4°0’34’’W). The intensively managed site (‘Intensive’; on average 160 m a.s.l.) was a 1.78 ha sheep-grazed pasture located in...

Bone thin sections of six Alvarezsaurian dinosaurs

Congyu Yu, Zichuan Qin, Fangbo Qin & Ying Li
This dataset includes histological thin sections from long bones of six different Alvarezsaurian dinosaurs and labelled primary and secondary osteons.

Data from: Insect visual sensitivity to long wavelengths enhances colour contrast against vegetation

Lu-Yi Wang, Devi Stuart-Fox, Geoff Walker, Nicholas W. Roberts & Amanda M. Franklin
The sensitivity of animal photoreceptors to different wavelengths of light strongly influence the perceived visual contrast of objects in the environment. Outside of the human visual wavelength range, ultraviolet sensitivity in many species provides important and behaviourally relevant visual contrast between objects. However, at the opposite end of the spectrum, the potential advantage of red sensitivity remains unclear. We investigated the potential benefit of long wavelength sensitivity by modelling the visual contrast of a wide...

Beak lengths of young laying hens (pullets) from flocks provided with potential beak-blunting materials and from control flocks

Christine Nicol, Paula Baker & Claire Weeks
Injurious Pecking, commonly controlled by beak trimming (BT) is a widespread issue in laying hens associated with thwarted foraging. This controlled study compared the effect in intact and beak-trimmed pullets of providing pecking pans to 8 treatment flocks from 6 weeks of age. Flocks (mean size 6,843) comprised 8 British Blacktail, 6 Lohmann Brown and 2 Bovans Brown. All young birds (6-7 weeks) pecked more frequently at the pecking pans (mean 40.4) than older pullets...

Data from: Climate, competition, and the rise of mosasauroid ecomorphological disparity

Samuel Cross, Benjamin Moon, Thomas Stubbs, Emily Rayfield & Michael Benton
Mosasauroidea, important marine lizards (Squamata, Toxicofera) of the final 30 million years of the Cretaceous, have been extensively studied for their morphology, ecology, and systematics in the past two centuries. However, the relative roles of biological and physical processes as drivers of their morphological diversification remains uncertain. Here we investigate the macroevolution of mosasauroid feeding and locomotory disparity using continuous characters measured from the mandible and forelimb. Patterns of morphospace occupation demonstrate important roles for...

Humans of AI3SD: Dr Zosia Beckles

Michelle Pauli & Zosia Beckles
This interview forms part of our Humans of AI3SD Series.

Local and moment magnitudes of Preston New Road seismicity, 2018-2019

Tom Kettlety & Antony Butcher
This is a combined microseismic catalogue of all of the seismic magnitudes recorded for microseismic events recorded during Cuadrilla's Preston New Road hydraulic fracturing operations. 5 magnitude types are given for each event: the downhole measured moment magnitude (Mw); the downhole measured local magnitude (ML); the surface measured ML; the surface measured Mw; and a combined/corrected Mw. This corrected Mw follows the procedure laid out in Kettlety et al. (2021, https://doi.org/10.1785/0220200187) and Baptie et al....

When in Rome… on local norms and sentencing decisions (LIEPP Working Paper, n°88)

David Abrams, Roberto Galbiati, Emeric Henry & Arnaud Philippe
The paper deals with legal intermediaries, as two streams of research apprehend and define them in recent and dynamic works. One, rooted in political science, studies regulatory intermediaries (LeviFaur et al., 2017; Bes, 2019), as actors between regulators and regulated, whereas the other, rooted in the Law and Society field and sociology, analyses legal intermediaries (Edelman, 2016; Talesh and Pélisse, 2019 ; Billows and alii 2019), as a broader and more bottom up category describing...

Shear wave splitting catalogue, Rutford Ice Stream (West Antarctica), November 2018 to February 2019

Sofia-Katerina Kufner, Alex Brisbourne, Andrew Smith, James Wookey, Carlos Martin, Thomas Hudson & John Michael Kendall
This dataset contains an ASCII file with shear wave splitting results for 202,652 station-event pairs from glacial micro-seismicity, recorded from a 35-station seismic network located ~40 km upstream of the grounding line of Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica. Microseismicity is located at the base of the ice stream at ~2.2 km depth (relative to the ice surface). Seismic waveform data, which was used to calculate shear wave splitting parameters is provided in miniseed format. Event...

Stratifying Ischaemic Stroke Patients Across 3 Treatment Windows Using T2 Relaxation Times, Ordinal Regression and Cumulative Probabilities

Bryony McGarry, Elizabeth Hunter, Robin Damian, Michael Knight, Philip Clatworthy, George Harston, Keith Muir, Risto Kauppinen & John Kelleher

Accelerating ice loss from peripheral glaciers in North Greenland

Shfaqat Abbas Khan, William Colgan, Thomas A. Neumann, Michiel R. Van Den Broeke, Kelly M. Brunt, Brice Noël, Jonathan L. Bamber, Javed Hassan & Anders A. Bjørk
In recent decades, Greenland’s peripheral glaciers have experienced large-scale mass loss, resulting in a substantial contribution to sea-level rise. Only 4% of Greenland’s ice cover are small peripheral glaciers that are distinct from the ice sheet proper. Despite comprising this relatively small area, these small peripheral glaciers are responsible for 11% of the ice loss associated with Greenland’s recent sea-level rise contribution. Using the satellite laser platforms ICESat and ICESat-2, we estimate that ice loss...

Year-round Arctic sea ice thickness from CryoSat-2 Baseline-D Level 1b observations 2010-2020

Jack Landy & Geoffrey Dawson
This dataset presents biweekly gridded sea ice thickness and uncertainty for the Arctic derived from the European Space Agency's satellite CryoSat-2. An associated 'developer's product' also includes intermediate parameters used or output in the sea ice thickness processing chain. Data are provided as biweekly grids with a resolution of 80 km, mapped onto a Northern Polar Stereographic Grid, covering the Arctic region north of 50 degrees latitude, for all months of the year between October...

Environmental variation and biotic interactions limit adaptation at ecological margins: lessons from rainforest Drosophila and European butterflies

Eleanor K. O'Brien, Greg M. Walter & Jon Bridle
Models of local adaptation to spatially varying selection predict that maximum rates of evolution are determined by the interaction between increased adaptive potential owing to increased genetic variation, and the cost genetic variation brings by reducing population fitness. We discuss existing and new results from our laboratory assays and field transplants of rainforest Drosophila and UK butterflies along environmental gradients, which try to test these predictions in natural populations. Our data suggest that: (i) local...

Incorporating effects of age on energy dynamics predicts non-linear maternal allocation patterns in iteroparous animals

Antoine Barreaux, Andrew Higginson, Michael Bonsall & Sinead English
Iteroparous parents face a trade-off between allocating current resources to reproduction versus maximizing survival to produce further offspring. Optimal allocation varies across age, and follows a hump-shaped pattern across diverse taxa, including mammals, birds and invertebrates. This non-linear allocation pattern lacks a general theoretical explanation, potentially because most studies focus on offspring number rather than quality and do not incorporate uncertainty or age-dependence in energy intake or costs. Here, we develop a life history model...

The functional diversity of marsupial limbs is influenced by both ecology and developmental constraint

Spencer Pevsner, David Grossnickle & Zhe-Xi Luo
Extant marsupials are less ecologically diverse than placentals, and this is reflected by placentals exhibiting a greater diversity of locomotor modes, including powered flight and fully aquatic swimming. One proposed explanation for this discrepancy is that the development of more disparate marsupial forelimbs is prevented by the neonate’s crawl to the pouch, which requires precocious forelimb development for climbing adaptations. To test predictions of this Developmental Constraint Hypothesis, we pursue a comparative morphometric study on...

Data from: Phylogenomics of elongate-bodied Springtails reveals independent transitions from aboveground to belowground habitats in deep time

Daoyuan Yu, Yinhuan Ding, Erik Tihelka, Chenyang Cai, Feng Hu, Manqiang Liu & Feng Zhang
Soil has become a major hotspot of biodiversity studies, yet the pattern and timing of the evolution of soil organisms are poorly known because of the scarcity of palaeontological data. To overcome this limitation, we conducted a genome-based macroevolutionary study of an ancient, diversified, and widespread lineage of soil fauna, the elongate-bodied springtails (class Collembola, order Entomobryomorpha). To build the first robust backbone phylogeny of this previously refractory group, we sampled representatives of major higher...

CT slices of three Protoceratopsian skulls and example slices of other Gobi Desert vertebrates

Congyu Yu, Fangbo Qin, Yin Li, Zichuan Qin & Mark Norell
This is a image dataset for deep learning studies. The main dataset comprises labeled CT slices from 3 protoceratopsian dinosaur skulls discovered from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia. The fossil specimens are now in the Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA. Inside the folders named after specimen number (i.e. IGM100-1021), there are six sub-folders comprising labeled or unlabled CT slice images of the specimen from three directions: axial, coronal, and...

Geographic and temporal morphological stasis in the latest Cretaceous ammonoid Discoscaphites iris from the U.S. Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains

James Witts, Corinne Myers, Matthew Garb, Kayla Irizarry, Ekaterina Larina, Anastasia Rashkova & Neil Landman
We examine temporal and spatial variation in morphology of the ammonoid cephalopod Discoscaphites iris using a large dataset from multiple localities in the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of the United States Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains, spanning a distance of 2000 km along the paleoshoreline. Our results suggest that the fossil record of D. iris is consistent with no within species net accumulation of phyletic evolutionary change across morphological traits or the lifetime of this species....

Registration Year

  • 2022

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text
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  • Journal Article


  • University of Bristol
  • University of Oxford
  • Natural Environment Research Council
  • University College London
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • American Museum of Natural History
  • Northumbria University
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • Royal Horticultural Society
  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor