96 Works

Pteridium nuclear gene phylogeny

Paul G. Wolf, Carol A. Rowe, Sylvia P. Kinosian, Joshua P. Der, Peter J. Lockhart, Lara D. Shepherd, Patricia A. McLenachan & John A. Thomson

New Zealand ShakeOut 2018 Observation Evaluation Report: a summary of high-level findings

Emily Lambie, Julia S Becker & Maureen A Coomer
The New Zealand ShakeOut 2018, organised by the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management (MCDEM), was the latest national earthquake drill to be held in New Zealand. Over 870,000 participants registered to participate in the drill via the ShakeOut website. The drill was held on 18 October 2018 at 9:30 a.m., and participants were encouraged to practice ‘Drop, Cover and Hold’ in response to a potential earthquake. In addition to the drill, other activities...

Incorporating evaporative water loss into bioenergetic models of hibernation to test for relative influence of host and pathogen traits on white-nose syndrome

Catherine Haase, Nathan Fuller, C. Reed Hranac, David Hayman, Liam McGuire, Kaleigh Norquay, Kirk Silas, Craig Willis, Raina Plowright & Sarah Olson
Hibernation consists of extended durations of torpor interrupted by periodic arousals. The ‘dehydration hypothesis’ proposes that hibernating mammals arouse to replenish water lost through evaporation during torpor. Arousals are energetically expensive, and increased arousal frequency can alter survival throughout hibernation. Yet we lack a means to assess the effect of evaporative water loss (EWL), determined by animal physiology and hibernation microclimate, on torpor bout duration and subsequent survival. White-nose syndrome (WNS), a devastating disease impacting...

Lineage identification affects estimates of evolutionary mode in marine snails

Felix Vaux, Michael R Gemmell, Simon F K Hills, Bruce A Marshall, Alan G Beu, James S Crampton, Steve A Trewick & Mary Morgan-Richards
In order to study evolutionary pattern and process we need to be able to accurately identify species and the evolutionary lineages from which they are derived. Determining the concordance between genetic and morphological variation of living populations, and then directly comparing extant and fossil morphological data, provides a robust approach for improving our identification of lineages through time. We investigate genetic and shell morphological variation in extant species of Penion marine snails from New Zealand,...

Data from: Convergent morphological responses to loss of flight in rails (Aves: Rallidae)

Julien Gaspar, Gillian C. Gibb & Steven A. Trewick
The physiological demands of flight exert strong selection pressure on avian morphology and so it is to be expected that the evolutionary loss of flight capacity would involve profound changes in traits. Here we investigate morphological consequences of flightlessness in a bird family where the condition has evolved repeatedly. The Rallidae include more than 130 recognised species of which over 30 are flightless. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic data were used here to compare species with...

Combined cues of male competition influence spermatozoal investment in a moth

Junyan Liu, Yujing Zhang, Xia-Lin Zheng, Xiong Zhao He & Qiao Wang
Male animals usually raise their sperm allocation after detecting sperm competition risk. To date, only a few studies have investigated the cues used by males to sense and respond to rivals. Yet, it is still largely unknown whether males respond to single or combined cues and whether they can increase their lifetime spermatozoal investment after a perception of rival cue(s). Here we postulate that males increase ejaculation and production of sperm after detecting combined cues...

Loss of ecologically important genetic variation in late generation hybrids reveals links between adaptation and speciation

Greg Walter, Thomas Richards, Melanie Wilkinson, Mark Blows, J. Aguirre & Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos
Adaptation to contrasting environments occurs when advantageous alleles accumulate in each population, but it remains largely unknown whether these same advantageous alleles create genetic incompatibilities that can cause intrinsic reproductive isolation leading to speciation. Identifying alleles that underlie both adaptation and reproductive isolation is further complicated by factors such as dominance and genetic interactions among loci, which can affect both processes differently and obscure potential links between adaptation and speciation. Here, we use a combination...

Body mass and hibernation microclimate may predict bat susceptibility to white-nose syndrome

Catherine Haase, Nathan Fuller, Yvonne Dzal, C. Reed Hranac, David Hayman, Cori Lausen, Kirk Silas, Sarah Olson & Raina Plowright
In multi-host disease systems, differences in mortality between species may reflect variation in host physiology, morphology, and behavior. In systems where the pathogen can persist in the environment, microclimate conditions, and the adaptation of the host to these conditions, may also impact mortality. White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease of hibernating bats caused by an environmentally persistent fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. We assessed the effects of body mass, torpid metabolic rate, evaporative water loss, and hibernaculum...

Data from: Sticky genomes: using NGS evidence to test hybrid speciation hypotheses

Mary Morgan-Richards, Simon F. K. Hills, Patrick J. Biggs & Steven A. Trewick
Hypotheses of hybrid origin are common. Here we use next generation sequencing to test a hybrid hypothesis for a non-model insect with a large genome. We compared a putative hybrid triploid stick insect species (Acanthoxyla geisovii) with its putative paternal diploid taxon (Clitarchus hookeri), a relationship that provides clear predictions for the relative genetic diversity within each genome. The parental taxon is expected to have comparatively low allelic diversity that is nested within the diversity...

Data from: Nutrient-specific compensation for seasonal cold stress in a free-ranging temperate colobine monkey

Songtao Guo, Rong Hou, Paul A. Garber, David Raubenheimer, Nicoletta Righini, Weihong Ji, Ollie Jay, Shujun He, Fan Wu, Fangfang Li, Baoguo Li, Song-Tao Guo, Shu-Jun He, Fang-Fang Li, Bao-Guo Li & Wei-Hong Ji
1. Homeostatic responses of animals to environmentally-induced changes in nutrient requirements provide a powerful basis for predictive ecological models, and yet such responses are virtually unstudied in the wild. 2. We tested for macronutrient-specific compensatory feeding responses by free-ranging golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) inhabiting high altitude temperate forests where they experience a substantial difference in ambient temperature in cold winters vs. warmer springs. The monkeys had free access to natural foods throughout the year,...

Data from: The chemical basis of a signal of individual identity: Shell pigment concentrations track the unique appearance of Common Murre eggs

Mark E Hauber, Alexander L Bond, Amy-Lee Kouwenberg, Gregory J Robertson, Erpur S Hansen, Mande Holford, Miri Dainson, Alec Luro & James Dale
In group-living species with parental care, the accurate recognition of one’s own young is critical to fitness. Because discriminating offspring within a large colonial group may be challenging, progeny of colonial breeders often display familial or individual identity signals to elicit and receive costly parental provisions from their own parents. For instance, the Common Murre (or Common Guillemot: Uria aalge) is a colonially breeding seabird that does not build a nest and lays and incubates...

Data from: The evolutionary root of flowering plants

Vadim V. Goremykin, Svetlana V. Nikiforova, Patrick J. Biggs, Bojian Zhong, Peter DeLange, William Martin, Stefan Woetzel, Robin A. Atherton, Patricia McLenachan, Peter James Lockhart & Patricia A. Mclenachan
Correct rooting of the angiosperm radiation is both challenging and necessary for understanding the origins and evolution of physiological and phenotypic traits in flowering plants. The problem is known to be difficult due to the large genetic distance separating flowering plants from other seed plants and the sparse taxon sampling among basal angiosperms. Here we provide further evidence for concern over substitution model misspecification in analyses of chloroplast DNA sequences. We show that support for...

Data from: The role of a dominant predator in shaping biodiversity over space and time in a marine ecosystem

Kari Elsa Ellingsen, Marti J. Anderson, Nancy L. Shackell, Torkild Tveraa, Nigel G. Yoccoz & Kenneth T. Frank
1. Exploitation of living marine resources has resulted in major changes to populations of targeted species and functional groups of large-bodied species in the ocean. However, the effects of overfishing and collapse of large top predators on the broad-scale biodiversity of oceanic ecosystems remain largely unexplored. 2. Populations of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were overfished and several collapsed in the early 1990s across Atlantic Canada, providing a unique opportunity to study potential ecosystem-level effects...

Data from: Correlation of shell phenotype and local environment suggests a role for natural selection in the evolution of Placostylus snails

Eddy J. Dowle, Mary Morgan-Richards, Fabrice Brescia & Steve A. Trewick
The giant edible Placostylus snails of New Caledonia occur across a wide range of environmental conditions, from the dry southwest to the wetter central and northeastern regions. In large, slow-moving animals such as Placostylus, speciation could be assumed to be largely driven by allopatry and genetic drift as opposed to natural selection. We examined variation in shell morphology using geometric morphometrics and genetic structure within two species of Placostylus (P. fibratus, P. porphyrostomus), to determine...

Data from: The genetic covariance between life-cycle stages separated by metamorphosis.

J. David Aguirre, Mark W. Blows & Dustin J. Marshall
Metamorphosis is common in animals, yet the genetic associations between life cycle stages are poorly understood. Given the radical changes that occur at metamorphosis, selection may differ before and after metamorphosis, and the extent that genetic associations between pre- and post-metamorphic traits constrain evolutionary change is a subject of considerable interest. In some instances, metamorphosis may allow the genetic decoupling of life cycle stages, whereas in others, metamorphosis could allow complementary responses to selection across...

Data from: Combining data‐derived priors with postrelease monitoring data to predict persistence of reintroduced populations

Faline M. Drummond, Tim G. Lovegrove & Doug P. Armstrong
Monitoring is an essential part of reintroduction programs, but many years of data may be needed to obtain reliable population projections. This duration can potentially be reduced by incorporating prior information on expected vital rates (survival and fecundity) when making inferences from monitoring data. The prior distributions for these parameters can be derived from data for previous reintroductions, but it is important to account for site‐to‐site variation. We evaluated whether such informative priors improved our...

Forecasting the publication and citation outcomes of Covid-19 preprints

Thomas Pfeiffer, Michael Gordon, Michael Bishop, Yiling Chen, Brandon Goldfedder, Anna Dreber, Felix Holzmeister, Magnus Johannesson, Yang Liu, Charles Twardy, Juntao Wang & Luisa Tran
The scientific community reacted quickly to the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020, generating an unprecedented increase in publications. Many of these publications were released on preprint servers such as medRxiv and bioRxiv. It is unknown however how reliable these preprints are, and if they will eventually be published in scientific journals. In this study, we use crowdsourced human forecasts to predict publication outcomes and future citation counts for a sample of 400 preprints with high Altmetric...

Data from: Limited scope for latitudinal extension of reef corals

Paul R. Muir, Carden C. Wallace, Terence Done & J. David Aguirre
An analysis of present-day global depth distributions of reef-building corals and underlying environmental drivers contradicts a commonly held belief that ocean warming will promote tropical coral expansion into temperate latitudes. Using a global data set of a major group of reef corals, we found that corals were confined to shallower depths at higher latitudes (up to 0.6 meters of predicted shallowing per additional degree of latitude). Latitudinal attenuation of the most important driver of this...

Data from: Subtle individual variation in indeterminate growth leads to major variation in survival and lifetime reproductive output in a long-lived reptile

Doug P. Armstrong, Matthew G. Keevil, Njal Rollinson & Ronald J. Brooks
1. The consequences of individual variation in life-history traits have been well studied due to their importance in evolutionary ecology. However, a trait that has received little empirical attention is the rate of indeterminate growth. In long-lived ectotherms, subtle variation in growth after maturity could have major effects over the animals’ lifetimes. 2. These effects are difficult to measure due to the challenges involved in reliably estimating individual variation in the face of environmental stochasticity,...

Data from: Identification of chloroplast genome loci suitable for high-resolution phylogeographic studies of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae) and closely related taxa

Ibrar Ahmed, Peter J. Matthews, Patrick J. Biggs, Muhammad Naeem, Patricia A. McLenachan & Peter J. Lockhart
Recently, we reported the chloroplast genome-wide association of oligonucleotide repeats, indels and nucleotide substitutions in aroid chloroplast genomes. We hypothesized that the distribution of oligonucleotide repeat sequences in a single representative genome can be used to identify mutational hotspots and loci suitable for population genetic, phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. Using information on the location of oligonucleotide repeats in the chloroplast genome of taro (Colocasia esculenta), we designed 30 primer pairs to amplify and sequence polymorphic...

Spatial and temporal variation in prey colour patterns for background-matching across a continuous heterogeneous environment

Marleen Baling, Devi Stuart-Fox, Dianne H. Brunton & James Dale
In heterogeneous habitats, camouflage via background-matching can be challenging because visual characteristics can vary dramatically across small spatial scales. Additionally, temporal variation in signalling functions of colouration can affect crypsis, especially when animals use colouration seasonally for intraspecific signalling (e.g. mate selection). We currently have a poor understanding of how wild prey optimise background-matching within continuously heterogeneous habitats, and whether this is affected by requirements of intraspecific signalling across biological seasons. Here, we quantified colour...

Data from: Phylogenetic measures reveal eco-evolutionary drivers of biodiversity along a depth gradient

David Eme, Marti Anderson, Elisabeth Myers, Clive Roberts & Libby Liggins
Energy and environmental stability are positively correlated with species richness along broad-scale spatial gradients in terrestrial ecosystems, so their relative importance in generating and preserving diversity cannot be readily disentangled. This study seeks to exploit the negative correlation between energy and stability along the oceanic depth gradient to better understand their relative contribution in shaping broadscale biodiversity patterns. We develop a conceptual framework by simulating speciation and extinction along energy and stability gradients to generate...

Changes in key traits versus depth and latitude suggest energy-efficient locomotion, opportunistic feeding and light lead to adaptive morphologies of marine fishes.

Elisabeth Myers, Marti Anderson, David Eme, Libby Liggins & Clive Roberts
1. Understanding patterns and processes governing biodiversity along broad-scale environmental gradients, such as depth or latitude, requires an assessment of not just taxonomic richness, but also morphological and functional traits of organisms. Studies of traits can help to identify major selective forces acting on morphology. Currently, little is known regarding patterns of variation in the traits of fishes at broad spatial scales. 2. The aims of this study were: (i) to identify a suite of...

Environment dependent costs and benefits of recombination in independently evolved populations of Escherichia coli

Tim Cooper & Yinhua Wang
Understanding of the causes by which reproductive isolation arises remains limited. We examine the role of adaptation in driving reproductive isolation among 12 Escherichia coli populations evolved in two different environments. We found that, regardless of whether parents were selected in the same or different environments, the average fitness of recombinants was lower than the expected, consistent with a prevailing influence of incompatibility between independently accumulated mutations. Exceptions to this pattern occurred among recombinants of...

Data from: Comparing biocontrol and herbicide for managing an invasive non-native plant species: efficacy, non-target effects and secondary invasion

Paul Peterson, Merilyn Merrett, Simon Fowler, Paul Barrett & Quentin Paynter
1. Globally, invasive non-native plants are an increasing threat to indigenous biodiversity and ecosystems, but management can be compromised by poor efficacy of control methods, harmful non-target effects or secondary invasions by other non-native plant species. 2. A 5-year field trial compared two stakeholder-selected control methods for heather, a European plant invading native ecosystems in and adjoining Tongariro National Park in New Zealand. The control methods were a selective herbicide (Pasture Kleen®; 2,4-D ester) and...

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