11 Works

Changes in key traits versus depth and latitude suggest energy-efficient locomotion, opportunistic feeding and light lead to adaptive morphologies of marine fishes.

Elisabeth Myers, Marti Anderson, David Eme, Libby Liggins & Clive Roberts
1. Understanding patterns and processes governing biodiversity along broad-scale environmental gradients, such as depth or latitude, requires an assessment of not just taxonomic richness, but also morphological and functional traits of organisms. Studies of traits can help to identify major selective forces acting on morphology. Currently, little is known regarding patterns of variation in the traits of fishes at broad spatial scales. 2. The aims of this study were: (i) to identify a suite of...

Data from: Genetic admixture predicts parasite intensity: evidence for increased hybrid performance in Darwin’s tree finches

Katharina J. Peters, Christine Evans, J. David Aguirre & Sonia Kleindorfer
Hybridisation can increase adaptive potential when enhanced genetic diversity or novel genetic combinations confer a fitness advantage, such as in the evolution of anti-parasitic mechanisms. Island systems are especially susceptible to invasive parasites due to the lack of defence mechanisms that usually coevolve in long-standing host-parasite relationships. We test if host genetic admixture affects parasite numbers in a novel host-parasite association on the Galápagos Islands. Specifically, we compare the number of Philornis downsi in nests...

Incorporating evaporative water loss into bioenergetic models of hibernation to test for relative influence of host and pathogen traits on white-nose syndrome

Catherine Haase, Nathan Fuller, C. Reed Hranac, David Hayman, Liam McGuire, Kaleigh Norquay, Kirk Silas, Craig Willis, Raina Plowright & Sarah Olson
Hibernation consists of extended durations of torpor interrupted by periodic arousals. The ‘dehydration hypothesis’ proposes that hibernating mammals arouse to replenish water lost through evaporation during torpor. Arousals are energetically expensive, and increased arousal frequency can alter survival throughout hibernation. Yet we lack a means to assess the effect of evaporative water loss (EWL), determined by animal physiology and hibernation microclimate, on torpor bout duration and subsequent survival. White-nose syndrome (WNS), a devastating disease impacting...

Pteridium nuclear gene phylogeny

Paul G. Wolf, Carol A. Rowe, Sylvia P. Kinosian, Joshua P. Der, Peter J. Lockhart, Lara D. Shepherd, Patricia A. McLenachan & John A. Thomson

Data from: The chemical basis of a signal of individual identity: Shell pigment concentrations track the unique appearance of Common Murre eggs

Mark E Hauber, Alexander L Bond, Amy-Lee Kouwenberg, Gregory J Robertson, Erpur S Hansen, Mande Holford, Miri Dainson, Alec Luro & James Dale
In group-living species with parental care, the accurate recognition of one’s own young is critical to fitness. Because discriminating offspring within a large colonial group may be challenging, progeny of colonial breeders often display familial or individual identity signals to elicit and receive costly parental provisions from their own parents. For instance, the Common Murre (or Common Guillemot: Uria aalge) is a colonially breeding seabird that does not build a nest and lays and incubates...

New Zealand ShakeOut 2018 Observation Evaluation Report: a summary of high-level findings

Emily Lambie, Julia S Becker & Maureen A Coomer
The New Zealand ShakeOut 2018, organised by the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management (MCDEM), was the latest national earthquake drill to be held in New Zealand. Over 870,000 participants registered to participate in the drill via the ShakeOut website. The drill was held on 18 October 2018 at 9:30 a.m., and participants were encouraged to practice ‘Drop, Cover and Hold’ in response to a potential earthquake. In addition to the drill, other activities...

Genome-wide association analysis reveals QTL and candidate mutations involved in white spotting in cattle

Swati Jivanji, Gemma Worth, Thomas J. Lopdell, Anna Yeates, Christine Couldrey, Edwardo Reynolds, Kathryn Tiplady, Lorna McNaughton, Thomas J.J. Johnson, Stephen R Davis, Bevin Harris, Richard Spelman, Russell G Snell, Dorian Garrick & Mathew D. Littlejohn
Background White spotting of the coat is a characteristic trait of various domestic species including cattle and other mammals. It is a hallmark of Holstein-Friesian cattle, and several previous studies have detected genetic loci with major effects for white spotting in animals with Holstein-Friesian ancestry. Here, our aim was to better understand the underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms of white spotting, by conducting the largest mapping study for this trait in cattle, to date. Results...

Data from: The molecular biogeography of the Indo-Pacific: testing hypotheses with multispecies genetic patterns

Eric D. Crandall, Cynthia Riginos, Chris E. Bird, Libby Liggins, Eric Treml, Maria Beger, Paul H. Barber, Sean R. Connolly, Peter F. Cowman, Joseph D. Dibattista, Jeff A. Eble, Sharon F. Magnuson, John B. Horne, Marc Kochzius, Harilaos A. Lessios, Shang Yin Vanson Liu, William B. Ludt, Hawis Madduppa, John M. Pandolfi, Robert R. Toonen, Contributing Members Of Diversity Of The Indo-Pacific Network & Michelle R. Gaither
Aim: To test hypothesized biogeographic partitions of the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean with phylogeographic data from 56 taxa, and to evaluate the strength and nature of barriers emerging from this test. Location: The Indo-Pacific Ocean. Time Period: Pliocene through the Holocene. Major Taxa Studied: 56 marine species. Methods: We tested eight biogeographic hypotheses for partitioning of the Indo-Pacific using a novel modification to analysis of molecular variance. Putative barriers to gene flow emerging from this analysis...

Quicker and safer tsunami evacuations through agent-based modelling

William L Power, K Boersen, Kristie-Lee Thomas, L Tilley, Emma E Hudson-Doyle, Lucy C Kaiser, Biljana Lukovic, David W Heron, T M Wilson, Graham S Leonard & David M Johnston
All of Aotearoa New Zealand’s coastline is at risk of tsunami from local sources, those that reach the coast in less than one hour. Some areas in New Zealand are particularly vulnerable to tsunami, given the long distances to safety, and if a tsunami were to occur there may be large numbers of casualties. The primary means for saving lives is to educate the public to immediately self-evacuate tsunami-prone areas if they feel a long...

Data from: Diet and macronutrient niche of Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) in two regions of Nepal during summer and autumn

Saroj Panthi, Achyut Aryal & Sean C. P. Coogan
Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of omnivorous Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) in Nepal. We characterized the diet of black bears in two seasons (June–July, “summer”; and October–November “autumn”) and two study areas (Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve [DHR]; and Kailash Sacred Landscape [KSL]). We then conducted nutritional analysis of species consumed by black bears in each study area, in combination with nutritional estimates from the literature, to estimate the proportions of macronutrients (i.e.,...

Diversity in lac Operon Regulation among Diverse Escherichia coli Isolates Depends on the Broader Genetic Background but Is Not Explained by Genetic Relatedness

Tim Cooper, Kelly Phillips, Scott Widmann, Jennifer Nguyen, Christian Ray, Gabor Balazsi & Huei-Yi Lai
Transcription of bacterial genes is controlled by the coordinated action of cis- and trans-acting regulators. The activity and mode of action of these regulators can reflect different requirements for gene products in different environments. A well-studied example is the regulatory function that integrates the environmental availability of glucose and lactose to control the Escherichia coli lac operon. Most studies of lac operon regulation have focused on a few closely related strains. To determine the range...

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