19 Works

DNA sequences for six chloroplast loci concatenated, representing haplotypes found in Colocasia esculenta, and closely related Araceae

Peter J. Matthews, Ibrar Ahmed, Peter J. Lockhart, Esperanza Maribel G. Agoo, Kyaw W. Naing, Dzu V. Nguyen & Dilip K. Medhi
As an ancient clonal root and leaf crop, taro (Colocasia esculenta) is highly polymorphic with uncertain genetic and geographic origins. We explored chloroplast DNA variation in wild and cultivated taros and other Colocasia species, and found cultivated taro to be polyphyletic, with tropical and temperate clades originating in Southeast Asia. A third clade was found exclusively in wild populations from Southeast Asia to Australia and Papua New Guinea. Our findings do not support the hypothesis...

Data from: Phylogenetic measures reveal eco-evolutionary drivers of biodiversity along a depth gradient

David Eme, Marti Anderson, Elisabeth Myers, Clive Roberts & Libby Liggins
Energy and environmental stability are positively correlated with species richness along broad-scale spatial gradients in terrestrial ecosystems, so their relative importance in generating and preserving diversity cannot be readily disentangled. This study seeks to exploit the negative correlation between energy and stability along the oceanic depth gradient to better understand their relative contribution in shaping broadscale biodiversity patterns. We develop a conceptual framework by simulating speciation and extinction along energy and stability gradients to generate...

Spatial and temporal variation in prey colour patterns for background-matching across a continuous heterogeneous environment

Marleen Baling, Devi Stuart-Fox, Dianne H. Brunton & James Dale
In heterogeneous habitats, camouflage via background-matching can be challenging because visual characteristics can vary dramatically across small spatial scales. Additionally, temporal variation in signalling functions of colouration can affect crypsis, especially when animals use colouration seasonally for intraspecific signalling (e.g. mate selection). We currently have a poor understanding of how wild prey optimise background-matching within continuously heterogeneous habitats, and whether this is affected by requirements of intraspecific signalling across biological seasons. Here, we quantified colour...

Environment dependent costs and benefits of recombination in independently evolved populations of Escherichia coli

Tim Cooper & Yinhua Wang
Understanding of the causes by which reproductive isolation arises remains limited. We examine the role of adaptation in driving reproductive isolation among 12 Escherichia coli populations evolved in two different environments. We found that, regardless of whether parents were selected in the same or different environments, the average fitness of recombinants was lower than the expected, consistent with a prevailing influence of incompatibility between independently accumulated mutations. Exceptions to this pattern occurred among recombinants of...

Data from: Comparing biocontrol and herbicide for managing an invasive non-native plant species: efficacy, non-target effects and secondary invasion

Paul Peterson, Merilyn Merrett, Simon Fowler, Paul Barrett & Quentin Paynter
1. Globally, invasive non-native plants are an increasing threat to indigenous biodiversity and ecosystems, but management can be compromised by poor efficacy of control methods, harmful non-target effects or secondary invasions by other non-native plant species. 2. A 5-year field trial compared two stakeholder-selected control methods for heather, a European plant invading native ecosystems in and adjoining Tongariro National Park in New Zealand. The control methods were a selective herbicide (Pasture Kleen®; 2,4-D ester) and...

Analytic dataset informing prediction of subterranean cave and mine ambient temperatures

Meredith McClure, Daniel Crowley, Catherine Haase, Liam McGuire, Nathan Fuller, David Hayman, Cori Lausen, Raina Plowright, Brett Dickson & Sarah Olson
Caves and other subterranean features provide unique environments for many species. The importance of cave microclimate is particularly relevant at temperate latitudes where bats make seasonal use of caves for hibernation. White-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease that has devastated populations of hibernating bats across eastern and central North America, has brought renewed interest in bat hibernation and hibernaculum conditions. A recent review synthesized current understanding of cave climatology, exploring the qualitative relationship between cave...

Navigating Security in the Pacific

B. K. Greener & Ashalyna Noa
Pacific Dynamics: Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (ISSN: 2463-641X ), Volume 4, Number 1, March 2020.

Polygenic basis for adaptive morphological variation in a threatened Aotearoa | New Zealand bird, the hihi (Notiomystis cincta)

Laura Duntsch, Barbara Tomotani, Pierre De Villemereuil, Patricia Brekke, Kate Lee, John Ewen & Anna Santure
To predict if a threatened species can adapt to changing selective pressures, it is crucial to understand the genetic basis of adaptive traits, especially in species historically affected by severe bottlenecks. We estimated the heritability of three hihi (Notiomystis cincta) morphological traits known to be under selection: nestling tarsus length, body mass and head-bill length, using 523 individuals and 39,699 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a 50K Affymetrix SNP chip. We then examined the genetic...

Lineage identification affects estimates of evolutionary mode in marine snails

Felix Vaux, Michael R Gemmell, Simon F K Hills, Bruce A Marshall, Alan G Beu, James S Crampton, Steve A Trewick & Mary Morgan-Richards
In order to study evolutionary pattern and process we need to be able to accurately identify species and the evolutionary lineages from which they are derived. Determining the concordance between genetic and morphological variation of living populations, and then directly comparing extant and fossil morphological data, provides a robust approach for improving our identification of lineages through time. We investigate genetic and shell morphological variation in extant species of Penion marine snails from New Zealand,...

Data from: Convergent morphological responses to loss of flight in rails (Aves: Rallidae)

Julien Gaspar, Gillian C. Gibb & Steven A. Trewick
The physiological demands of flight exert strong selection pressure on avian morphology and so it is to be expected that the evolutionary loss of flight capacity would involve profound changes in traits. Here we investigate morphological consequences of flightlessness in a bird family where the condition has evolved repeatedly. The Rallidae include more than 130 recognised species of which over 30 are flightless. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic data were used here to compare species with...

Combined cues of male competition influence spermatozoal investment in a moth

Junyan Liu, Yujing Zhang, Xia-Lin Zheng, Xiong Zhao He & Qiao Wang
Male animals usually raise their sperm allocation after detecting sperm competition risk. To date, only a few studies have investigated the cues used by males to sense and respond to rivals. Yet, it is still largely unknown whether males respond to single or combined cues and whether they can increase their lifetime spermatozoal investment after a perception of rival cue(s). Here we postulate that males increase ejaculation and production of sperm after detecting combined cues...

Body mass and hibernation microclimate may predict bat susceptibility to white-nose syndrome

Catherine Haase, Nathan Fuller, Yvonne Dzal, C. Reed Hranac, David Hayman, Cori Lausen, Kirk Silas, Sarah Olson & Raina Plowright
In multi-host disease systems, differences in mortality between species may reflect variation in host physiology, morphology, and behavior. In systems where the pathogen can persist in the environment, microclimate conditions, and the adaptation of the host to these conditions, may also impact mortality. White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease of hibernating bats caused by an environmentally persistent fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. We assessed the effects of body mass, torpid metabolic rate, evaporative water loss, and hibernaculum...

Loss of ecologically important genetic variation in late generation hybrids reveals links between adaptation and speciation

Greg Walter, Thomas Richards, Melanie Wilkinson, Mark Blows, J. Aguirre & Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos
Adaptation to contrasting environments occurs when advantageous alleles accumulate in each population, but it remains largely unknown whether these same advantageous alleles create genetic incompatibilities that can cause intrinsic reproductive isolation leading to speciation. Identifying alleles that underlie both adaptation and reproductive isolation is further complicated by factors such as dominance and genetic interactions among loci, which can affect both processes differently and obscure potential links between adaptation and speciation. Here, we use a combination...

Data from: Are replication rates the same across academic fields? community forecasts from the DARPA SCORE program

Michael Gordon, Thomas Pfeiffer, Domenico Viganola, Michael Bishop, Yiling Chen, Anna Dreber, Brandon Goldfedder, Felix Holzmeister, Magnus Johannesson, Yang Liu, Charles Twardy & Juntao Wang
The DARPA program “Systematizing Confidence in Open Research and Evidence” (SCORE) aims to generate confidence scores for a large number of research claims from empirical studies in the social and behavioral sciences. The confidence scores will provide a quantitative assessment of how likely a claim will hold up in an independent replication. To create the scores we follow earlier approaches and use prediction markets and surveys to forecast replication outcomes. Based on an initial set...

Ancient crested penguin constrains timing of recruitment into seabird hotspot

Daniel Thomas, Alan Tennyson, R. Paul Scofield, Tracy Heath, Walker Pett & Daniel Ksepka
New Zealand is a globally significant hotspot for seabird diversity, but the sparse fossil record for most seabird lineages has impeded our understanding of how and when this hotspot developed. Here, we describe multiple exceptionally well-preserved specimens of a new species of penguin from tightly dated (3.36–3.06 Ma) Pliocene deposits in New Zealand. Bayesian and parsimony analyses place Eudyptes atatu sp. nov. as the sister species to all extant and recently extinct members of the...

Suitability of quantitative volcanic hazard and risk assessment methods and tools for crisis management in Auckland, New Zealand

A. J. Wild, Jan M. Lindsay, M. S. Bebbington, M.A. Clive & T. M. Wilson
In the lead up to the next Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) eruption, it is likely decision-makers will need to determine when and where to call an evacuation. Over the past two decades there has been a growing body of research aimed at exploring the use of quantitative hazard and risk models to support decision-makers. There is a wide range of existing quantitative approaches for assessing risk and its components: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. A detailed...

Recent extinctions among Little Spotted Kiwi (Apteryx owenii) and the origin of extant populations

Kristina Ramstad, Gillian Gibb, Hugh Robertson, Rogan Colbourne, Erin Doran & Lara Shepherd
Little Spotted Kiwi (LSK; Apteryx owenii) have the lowest genetic diversity of five currently recognised kiwi species apparently due to a bottleneck when at most five individuals were translocated to Kapiti Island in 1912. Ancient DNA analyses show that LSK also had the lowest genetic diversity of kiwi species historically, possibly due to population bottlenecks during Pleistocene glaciation. We compare genetic diversity between LSK from Kapiti Island (extant), D’Urville Island (extinct) and the South Island...

Data from: Koe: Web-based software to classify acoustic units and analyse sequence structure in animal vocalisations

Yukio Fukuzawa, Wesley H. Webb, Michelle M. Roper, Stephen Marsland, Dianne H. Brunton, Andrew Gilman & Matthew D. M. Pawley
1. Classifying acoustic units is often a key step in studying repertoires and sequence structure in animal communication. Manual classification by eye and ear remains the primary method, but new tools and techniques are urgently needed to expedite the process for large, diverse datasets. 2. Here we introduce Koe, an application for classifying and analysing animal vocalisations. Koe offers bulk-labelling of units via interactive ordination plots and unit tables, as well as visualisation and playback,...

Wavelet filters for automated recognition of birdsong in long-time field recordings

Nirosha Priyadarshani, Stephen Marsland, Julius Juodakis, Isabel Castro & Virginia Listanti
1. Ecoacoustics has the potential to provide a large amount of information about the abundance of many animal species at a relatively low cost. Acoustic recording units are widely used in field data collection, but the facilities to reliably process the data recorded -- recognising calls that are relatively infrequent, and often significantly degraded by noise and distance to the microphone -- are not well developed yet. 2. We propose a call detection method for...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text


  • Massey University
  • Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
  • Victoria University of Wellington
  • Wildlife Conservation Society Canada
  • Montana State University
  • University of Auckland
  • GNS Science
  • University of Canterbury
  • Austin Peay State University
  • University of Queensland