483 Works

Data from: Bayesian estimates of male and female African lion mortality for future use in population management

Julia A. Barthold, Andrew J. Loveridge, David W. Macdonald, Craig Packer & Fernando Colchero
The global population size of African lions is plummeting, and many small fragmented populations face local extinction. Extinction risks are amplified through the common practice of trophy hunting for males, which makes setting sustainable hunting quotas a vital task. Various demographic models evaluate consequences of hunting on lion population growth. However, none of the models use unbiased estimates of male age-specific mortality because such estimates do not exist. Until now, estimating mortality from resighting records...

Data from: Individual variation in winter supplementary food consumption and its consequences for reproduction in wild birds.

Ross A. Crates, Josh A. Firth, Damien R. Farine, Colin J. Garroway, Lindall R. Kidd, Lucy M. Aplin, Reinder Radersma, Nicole D. Milligan, Bernhard Voelkl, Antica Culina, Brecht L. Verhelst, Camilla A. HInde & Ben C. Sheldon
The provision of wild birds with supplementary food has increased substantially over recent decades. While it is assumed that provisioning birds is beneficial, supplementary feeding can have detrimental ‘carry-over’ effects on reproductive traits. Due to difficulties in monitoring individual feeding behaviour, assessing how individuals within a population vary in their exploitation of supplementary food resources has been limited. Quantifying individual consumption of supplementary food is necessary to understand the operation of carry-over effects at the...

Plaque reduction neutralisation test results for common guillemot (Uria aalge) blood samples tested against twelve strains of a tick-borne virus, Great Island virus

K.M. Wanelik, M.P. Harris, S. Wanless & M.A. Nunn
This dataset contains plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) results for common guillemot (Uria aalge) blood samples tested against twelve strains of a tick-borne virus, Great Island virus. 144 individual pre-breeding and breeding guillemots were captured between 1993 and 1995 on the Isle of May, Scotland and blood samples collected on filter paper. Plaque reduction neutralisation tests (PRNT) were then performed on these blood samples to detect virus strain-specific neutralising antibodies. Part of this dataset is...

Data from: The oldest actinopterygian highlights the cryptic early history of the hyperdiverse ray-finned fishes

Jing Lu, Sam Giles, Matt Friedman, Jan L. Den Blaauwen & Min Zhu
Osteichthyans comprise two divisions, each containing over 32,000 living species: Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods) and Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes). Recent discoveries from China highlight the morphological disparity of early sarcopterygians and extend their origin into the late Silurian. By contrast, the oldest unambiguous actinopterygians are roughly 30 million years younger, leaving a long temporal gap populated by fragments and rare body fossils of controversial phylogenetic placement. Here we reinvestigate the enigmatic osteichthyan Meemannia from the...

Data from: Multigenerational exposure to silver ions and silver nanoparticles reveals heightened sensitivity and epigenetic memory in Caenorhabditis elegans

Carolin L. Schultz, Anye Wamucho, Olga V. Tsyusko, Jason M. Unrine, Alison Crossley, Claus Svendsen & David J. Spurgeon
The effects from multigenerational exposures to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in their pristine and transformed states are currently unknown despite such exposures being an increasingly common scenario in natural environments. Here, we examine how exposure over 10 generations affects the sensitivity of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to pristine and sulfidized Ag ENPs and AgNO3. We also include populations that were initially exposed over six generations but kept unexposed for subsequent four generations to allow recovery from...

Data from: Telomere length reveals cumulative individual and transgenerational inbreeding effects in a passerine bird

Kat Bebbington, Lewis G. Spurgin, Eleanor A. Fairfield, Hannah L. Dugdale, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke & David S. Richardson
Inbreeding results in more homozygous offspring that should suffer reduced fitness, but it can be difficult to quantify these costs for several reasons. First, inbreeding depression may vary with ecological or physiological stress and only be detectable over long time periods. Second, parental homozygosity may indirectly affect offspring fitness, thus confounding analyses that consider offspring homozygosity alone. Finally, measurement of inbreeding coefficients, survival and reproductive success may often be too crude to detect inbreeding costs...

Data from: Dynamics and biases of online attention: the case of aircraft crashes

Ruth García-Gavilanes, Milena Tsvetkova & Taha Yasseri
The Internet not only has changed the dynamics of our collective attention but also through the transactional log of online activities, provides us with the opportunity to study attention dynamics at scale. In this paper, we particularly study attention to aircraft incidents and accidents using Wikipedia transactional data in two different language editions, English and Spanish. We study both the editorial activities on and the viewership of the articles about airline crashes. We analyse how...

Data from: Misinformed leaders lose influence over pigeon flocks

Isobel Watts, Máté Nagy, Theresa Burt De Perera & Dora Biro
In animal groups where certain individuals have disproportionate influence over collective decisions, the whole group's performance may suffer if these individuals possess inaccurate information. Whether in such situations leaders can be replaced in their roles by better-informed group mates represents an important question in understanding the adaptive consequences of collective decision-making. Here, we use a clock-shifting procedure to predictably manipulate the directional error in navigational information possessed by established leaders within hierarchically structured flocks of...

Data from: The tale of the shrinking weapon: seasonal changes in nutrition affect weapon size and sexual dimorphism, but not contemporary evolution

Christine W. Miller, Grant C. McDonald, Allen J. Moore, A. J. Moore, C. W. Miller & G. C. McDonald
Sexually selected traits are often highly variable in size within populations due to their close link with the physical condition of individuals. Nutrition has a large impact on physical condition, and thus, any seasonal changes in nutritional quality are predicted to alter the average size of sexually selected traits as well as the degree of sexual dimorphism in populations. However, although traits affected by mate choice are well studied, we have a surprising lack of...

Data from: Co-infections and environmental conditions drive the distributions of blood parasites in wild birds

Nicholas J. Clark, Konstans Wells, Dimitar Dimitrov & Sonya M. Clegg
Experimental work increasingly suggests that non-random pathogen associations can affect the spread or severity of disease. Yet due to difficulties distinguishing and interpreting co-infections, evidence for the presence and directionality of pathogen co-occurrences in wildlife is rudimentary. We provide empirical evidence for pathogen co-occurrences by analysing infection matrices for avian malaria (Haemoproteus and Plasmodium spp.) and parasitic filarial nematodes (microfilariae) in wild birds (New Caledonian Zosterops spp.). Using visual and genus-specific molecular parasite screening, we...

Data from: Resistance to genetic insect control: modelling the effects of space

Benjamin Watkinson-Powell & Nina Alphey
Genetic insect control, such as self-limiting RIDL2 (Release of Insects Carrying a Dominant Lethal) technology, is a development of the sterile insect technique which is proposed to suppress wild populations of a number of major agricultural and public health insect pests. This is achieved by mass rearing and releasing male insects that are homozygous for a repressible dominant lethal genetic construct, which causes death in progeny when inherited. The released genetically engineered ('GE') insects compete...

Data from: Head movements quadruple the range of speeds encoded by the insect motion vision system in hawkmoths

Shane P. Windsor & Graham K. Taylor
Flying insects use compensatory head movements to stabilize gaze. Like other optokinetic responses, these movements can reduce image displacement, motion, and misalignment, and simplify the optic flow field. Because gaze is imperfectly stabilized in insects, we hypothesised that compensatory head movements serve to extend the range of velocities of self-motion that the visual system encodes. We tested this by measuring head movements in hawkmoths Hyles lineata responding to full-field visual stimuli of differing oscillation amplitudes,...

Data from: An edrioasteroid from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte of England reveals the nature of the water vascular system in an extinct echinoderm

Derek E. G. Briggs, Derek J. Siveter, David J. Siveter, Mark D. Sutton & Imran A. Rahman
Echinoderms are unique in having a water vascular system with tube feet, which perform a variety of functions in living forms. Here, we report the first example of preserved tube feet in an extinct group of echinoderms. The material, from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte, UK, is assigned to a new genus and species of rhenopyrgid edrioasteroid, Heropyrgus disterminus. The tube feet attach to the inner surface of compound interradial plates and form two sets, an...

Data from: Novel and divergent genes in the evolution of placental mammals

Thomas L. Dunwell, Jordi Paps, Peter W.H. Holland & Peter W. H. Holland
Analysis of genome sequences within a phylogenetic context can give insight into the mode and tempo of gene and protein evolution, including inference of gene ages. This can reveal whether new genes arose on particular evolutionary lineages and were recruited for new functional roles. Here, we apply MCL clustering with all-vs-all reciprocal BLASTP to identify and phylogenetically date ‘Homology Groups’ amongst vertebrate proteins. Homology Groups include new genes and highly divergent duplicate genes. Focussing on...

Data from: A new crustacean from the Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte, UK, and its significance in malacostracan evolution

David J. Siveter, Derek E. G. Briggs, Derek J. Siveter, Mark D. Sutton & David Legg
Cascolus ravitis gen. et sp. nov. is a three-dimensionally preserved fossil crustacean with soft parts from the Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte, UK. It is characterized by a head with a head shield and five limb pairs, and a thorax (pereon) with nine appendage-bearing segments followed by an apodous abdomen (pleon). All the appendages except the first are biramous and have a gnathobase. The post-mandibular appendages are similar one to another, and bear petal-shaped epipods that probably...

Data from: Consequences of symbiont co-infections for insect host phenotypes

Ailsa H. C. McLean, Benjamin James Parker, Jan Hrček, James Kavanagh, Peter A. D. Wellham, H. Charles J. Godfray, Benjamin J. Parker & James C. Kavanagh
1. Most animals host communities of symbiotic bacteria. In insects, these symbionts may have particularly intimate interactions with their hosts: many are intracellular and can play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including protection against natural enemies. 2. We investigated how interactions between different species or strains of endosymbiotic bacteria within an aphid host influence the outcome of symbiosis for both symbiont and host. 3. We first asked whether different combinations of facultative symbiont...

Data from: Effects of age and reproductive status on individual foraging site fidelity in a long-lived marine predator

Stephen C. Votier, Annette L. Fayet, Stuart Bearhop, Thomas W. Bodey, Bethany L. Clark, James Grecian, Tim Guilford, Keith C. Hamer, Jana W.E. Jeglinski, Greg Morgan, Ewan Wakefield, Samantha C. Patrick & Jana W. E. Jeglinski
Individual foraging specializations, where individuals use a small component of the population niche width, are widespread in nature with important ecological and evolutionary implications. In long-lived animals, foraging ability develops with age, but we know little about the ontogeny of individuality in foraging. Here we use precision global positioning system (GPS) loggers to examine how individual foraging site fidelity (IFSF), a common component of foraging specialization, varies between breeders, failed breeders and immatures in a...

Data from: An active-radio-frequency-identification system capable of identifying co-locations and social-structure: validation with a wild free-ranging animal

Stephen A. Ellwood, Chris Newman, Robert A. Montgomery, Vincenzo Nicosia, Christina D. Buesching, Andrew Markham, Cecilia Mascolo, Niki Trigoni, Bence Pasztor, Vladimir Dyo, Vito Latora, Sandra E. Baker & David W. Macdonald
Behavioural events that are important for understanding sociobiology and movement ecology are often rare, transient and localised, but can occur at spatially distant sites e.g. territorial incursions and co-locating individuals. Existing animal tracking technologies, capable of detecting such events, are limited by one or more of: battery life; data resolution; location accuracy; data security; ability to co-locate individuals both spatially and temporally. Technology that at least partly resolves these limitations would be advantageous. European badgers...

Data from: Midbrain adaptation may set the stage for the perception of musical beat

Vani Gurusamy Rajendran, Nicol S. Harper, Jose Alberto Garcia-Lazaro, Nicholas A. Lesica, Jan W.H. Schnupp, Jose A. Garcia-Lazaro, Vani G. Rajendran & Jan W. H. Schnupp
The ability to spontaneously feel a beat in music is a phenomenon widely believed to be unique to humans. Though beat perception involves the coordinated engagement of sensory, motor, and cognitive processes in humans, the contribution of low-level auditory processing to the activation of these networks in a beat-specific manner is poorly understood. Here, we present evidence from a rodent model that midbrain pre-processing of sounds may already be shaping where the beat is ultimately...

Data from: Life-history strategy determines constraints on immune function

Benjamin James Parker, Seth M. Barribeau, Alice M. Laughton, Lynn H. Griffin, Nicole M. Gerardo & Benjamin J. Parker
1) Determining the factors governing investment in immunity is critical for understanding host-pathogen ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Studies often consider disease resistance in the context of life-history theory, with the expectation that investment in immunity will be optimized in anticipation of disease risk. Immunity, however, is constrained by context-dependent fitness costs. How the costs of immunity vary across life-history strategies has yet to be considered. 2) Pea aphids are typically unwinged but produce winged offspring...

Data from: The outcome of competition between two parasitoid species is influenced by a facultative symbiont of their aphid host

Ailsa H. C. McLean & H. Charles J. Godfray
Symbiotic bacteria can act to protect their host against natural enemies. Where this protection is asymmetric against different natural enemies, protection conferred by symbionts has the potential to mediate interactions between natural enemies, as well as between enemies and the host. In pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), resistance against parasitoid wasps can be conferred by facultative symbiotic bacteria. We investigated whether the outcome of competition between two parasitoid species can be influenced by the presence of...

Data from: Co-evolutionary dynamics between a defensive microbe and a pathogen driven by fluctuating selection

Suzanne A. Ford, David Williams, Steve Paterson & Kayla C. King
Microbes that protect their hosts from pathogenic infection are widespread components of the microbiota of both plants and animals. It has been found that interactions between ‘defensive’ microbes and pathogens can be genotype-specific and even underlie the variation in host resistance to pathogenic infection. These observations suggest a dynamic co-evolutionary association between pathogens and defensive microbes, but direct evidence of co-evolution is lacking. We tested the hypothesis that defensive microbes and pathogens could co-evolve within...

Data from: The influence of social preferences and reputational concerns on intergroup prosocial behavior in gains and losses contexts

Jim A. C. Everett, Nadira S. Faber & Molly J. Crockett
To what extent do people help ingroup members based on a social preference to improve ingroup members’ outcomes, versus strategic concerns about preserving their reputation within their group? And do these motives manifest differently when a prosocial behaviour occurs in the context of helping another gain a positive outcome (study 1), versus helping another to avoid losing a positive outcome (study 2)? In both contexts, we find that participants are more prosocial towards ingroup (versus...

Data from: The evolution of labile traits in sex- and age-structured populations

Dylan Z. Childs, Ben Sheldon, Mark Rees & Ben C. Sheldon
Many quantitative traits are labile (e.g. somatic growth rate, reproductive timing and investment), varying over the life cycle as a result of behavioural adaptation, developmental processes and plastic responses to the environment. At the population level, selection can alter the distribution of such traits across age classes and among generations. Despite a growing body of theoretical research exploring the evolutionary dynamics of labile traits, a data-driven framework for incorporating such traits into demographic models has...

Data from: Connectivity in the cold: the comparative population genetics of vent-endemic fauna in the Scotia Sea, Southern Ocean.

Christopher N. Roterman, Jon T. Copley, Katrin T. Linse, Paul A. Tyler, Alex D. Rogers, J. T. Copley, P. A. Tyler, C. N. Roterman, A. D. Rogers & K. T. Linse
We report the first comparative population genetics study for vent fauna in the Southern Ocean using cytochrome C oxidase I and microsatellite markers. Three species are examined: the kiwaid squat lobster, Kiwa tyleri, the peltospirid gastropod Gigantopelta chessoia and a lepetodrilid limpet, Lepetodrilus sp. collected from vent fields 440 km apart on the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) and from the Kemp Caldera on the South Sandwich Island Arc, ~95 km eastwards. We report no differentiation...

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